Publications by authors named "Diana Aguiar de Sousa"

47 Publications

Are Video Games Effective to Promote Cognition and Everyday Functional Capacity in Mild Cognitive Impairment/Dementia Patients? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Sep 16. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

LASIGE, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia are associated with increased age. MCI is a clinical entity described as a transitional state between normal cognition and dementia. Video games (VGs) can potentially promote cognition and functional capacity since multiple cognitive domains are recruited during gameplay. However, there is still a lack of consensus regarding the efficacy of VGs as therapeutic tools, particularly in neurodegenerative diseases.

Objective: We aimed to analyze the impact of VGs on cognition and functional capacity outcomes in MCI/dementia patients.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis study (PROSPERO [CRD42021229445]). PubMed, Web of Science, Epistemonikos, CENTRAL, and EBSCO electronic databases were searched for RCT (2000-2021) that analyzed the impact of VGs on cognitive and functional capacity outcomes in MCI/dementia patients.

Results: Nine studies were included (n = 409 participants), and Risk of Bias (RoB2) and quality of evidence (GRADE) were assessed. Data regarding attention, memory/learning, visual working memory, executive functions, general cognition, functional capacity, quality of life were identified, and pooled analyses were conducted. An effect favoring VGs interventions was observed on Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score (MD = 1.64, 95%CI 0.60 to 2.69).

Conclusion: Although promising, the effects observed should be interpreted with caution since serious methodological shortcomings were identified in the studies included. Nonetheless, the effect observed is higher than the minimum clinically important difference (1.4 points) established to MMSE. Future studies on the current topic urge. Recommendations for the design and conduction of cognitive RCT studies are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210545DOI Listing
September 2021

Declining mortality of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopenia after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Neurology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: High mortality rates have been reported in patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) due to vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after vaccination with adenoviral vector SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether mortality of patients with CVST-VITT has decreased over time.

Methods: We used the EudraVigilance database of the European Medicines Agency to identify cases of CVST with concomitant thrombocytopenia occurring within 28 days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Vaccines were grouped based on vaccine type (adenoviral or mRNA). Cases with CVST onset until 28 March were compared to cases after 28 March 2021, which was the day when the first scientific paper on VITT was published.

Results: We identified 270 cases of CVST with thrombocytopenia, of which 266 (99%) occurred after adenoviral vector SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 n=243, Ad26.COV2.S n=23). Reported mortality among adenoviral cases with onset up to 28 March 2021 was 47/99 (47%, 95%CI 37-58%) compared to 36/167 (22%, 95%CI 16-29%) in cases with onset after 28 March (p=<0.001). None of the 4 cases of CVST with thrombocytopenia occurring after mRNA vaccination died.

Conclusion: Reported mortality of CVST with thrombocytopenia after vaccination with adenoviral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has significantly decreased over time, which may indicate a beneficial effect of earlier recognition and/or improved treatment on outcome after VITT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.15113DOI Listing
September 2021

Genome-wide association study identifies first locus associated with susceptibility to cerebral venous thrombosis.

Ann Neurol 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Division of Biology and Genetics, University of Brescia, Italy.

Objective: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon form of stroke affecting mostly young individuals. Although genetic factors are thought to play a role in this cerebrovascular condition, its genetic etiology is not well understood.

Methods: Genome-wide association study performed to identify genetic variants influencing susceptibility to CVT. A two-stage genome-wide study was undertaken in 882 Europeans diagnosed with CVT and 1205 ethnicity-matched control subjects divided into discovery and independent replication datasets.

Results: In the overall case-control cohort, we identified highly significant associations with 37 SNPs within 9q34.2 region. The strongest association was with rs8176645 (combined P = 9.15 × 10 ; OR = 2.01, 95%CI: 1.76-2.31). The discovery set findings were validated across an independent European cohort. Genetic risk score for this 9q34.2 region increases CVT risk by a pooled estimate OR = 2.65 (95%CI: 2.21-3.20, P = 2.00 × 10 ). SNPs within this region were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with coding regions of the ABO gene. ABO blood group was determined using allele combination of SNPs rs8176746 and rs8176645. Blood groups A, B or AB, were at 2.85 times (95%CI: 2.32-3.52, P = 2.00 × 10 ) increased risk of CVT compared with individuals with blood group-O.

Interpretation: We present the first chromosomal region to robustly associate with a genetic susceptibility to CVT. This region more than doubles the likelihood of CVT, a risk greater than any previously identified thrombophilia genetic risk marker. That the identified variant is in strong LD with the coding region of the ABO gene with differences in blood group prevalence provides important new insights into the pathophysiology of CVT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.26205DOI Listing
August 2021

Post-SARS-CoV-2-vaccination cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: an analysis of cases notified to the European Medicines Agency.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Neurology Service, Hospital de Santa Maria/CHULN, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.

Background And Purpose: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has been described after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The clinical characteristics of 213 post-vaccination CVST cases notified to the European Medicines Agency are reported.

Methods: Data on adverse drug reactions after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination notified until 8 April 2021 under the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Term 'Central nervous system vascular disorders' were obtained from the EudraVigilance database. Post-vaccination CVST was compared with 100 European patients with CVST from before the COVID-19 pandemic derived from the International CVST Consortium.

Results: In all, 213 CVST cases were identified: 187 after AstraZeneca/Oxford (ChAdOx1 nCov-19) vaccination and 26 after a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination (25 with Pfizer/BioNTech, BNT162b2, and one with Moderna, mRNA-1273). Thrombocytopenia was reported in 107/187 CVST cases (57%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 50%-64%) in the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 group, in none in the mRNA vaccine group (0%, 95% CI 0%-13%) and in 7/100 (7%, 95% CI 3%-14%) in the pre-COVID-19 group. In the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 group, 39 (21%) reported COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction tests were performed within 30 days of CVST symptom onset, and all were negative. Of the 117 patients with a reported outcome in the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 group, 44 (38%, 95% CI 29%-47%) had died, compared to 2/10 (20%, 95% CI 6%-51%) in the mRNA vaccine group and 3/100 (3%, 95% CI 1%-8%) in the pre-COVID-19 group. Mortality amongst patients with thrombocytopenia in the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 group was 49% (95% CI 39%-60%).

Conclusions: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis occurring after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination has a clinical profile distinct from CVST unrelated to vaccination. Only CVST after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination was associated with thrombocytopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.15029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8444640PMC
July 2021

Frequency of Thrombocytopenia and Platelet Factor 4/Heparin Antibodies in Patients With Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Prior to the COVID-19 Pandemic.

JAMA 2021 07;326(4):332-338

Department of Neurology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Importance: Cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in combination with thrombocytopenia have recently been reported within 4 to 28 days of vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca/Oxford) and Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccines. An immune-mediated response associated with platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies has been proposed as the underlying pathomechanism.

Objective: To determine the frequencies of admission thrombocytopenia, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and presence of platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies in patients diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis prior to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a descriptive analysis of a retrospective sample of consecutive patients diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis between January 1987 and March 2018 from 7 hospitals participating in the International Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Consortium from Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, Mexico, Iran, and Costa Rica. Of 952 patients, 865 with available baseline platelet count were included. In a subset of 93 patients, frozen plasma samples collected during a previous study between September 2009 and February 2016 were analyzed for the presence of platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies.

Exposures: Diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Frequencies of admission thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150 ×103/μL), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (as diagnosed by the treating physician), and platelet factor 4/heparin IgG antibodies (optical density >0.4, in a subset of patients with previously collected plasma samples).

Results: Of 865 patients (median age, 40 years [interquartile range, 29-53 years], 70% women), 73 (8.4%; 95% CI, 6.8%-10.5%) had thrombocytopenia, which was mild (100-149 ×103/μL) in 52 (6.0%), moderate (50-99 ×103/μL) in 17 (2.0%), and severe (<50 ×103/μL) in 4 (0.5%). Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies was diagnosed in a single patient (0.1%; 95% CI, <0.1%-0.7%). Of the convenience sample of 93 patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis included in the laboratory analysis, 8 (9%) had thrombocytopenia, and none (95% CI, 0%-4%) had platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies.

Conclusions And Relevance: In patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, baseline thrombocytopenia was uncommon, and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies were rare. These findings may inform investigations of the possible association between the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccines and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.9889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317004PMC
July 2021

Knowing how to do it or doing it? A double dissociation between tool-gesture production and tool-gesture knowledge.

Cortex 2021 08 28;141:449-464. Epub 2021 May 28.

Proaction Laboratory, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra, Portugal; CINEICC, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address:

Deciding how to manipulate an object to fulfill a goal requires accessing different types of object-related information. How these different types of information are integrated and represented in the brain is still an open question. Here, we focus on examining two types of object-related information-tool-gesture knowledge (i.e., how to manipulate an object), and tool-gesture production (i.e., the actual manipulation of an object). We show a double dissociation between tool-gesture knowledge and tool-gesture production: Patient FP presents problems in pantomiming tool use in the context of a spared ability to perform judgments about an object's manipulation, whereas Patient LS can pantomime tool use, but is impaired at performing manipulation judgments. Moreover, we compared the location of the lesions in FP and LS with those sustained by two classic ideomotor apraxic patients (IMA), using a cortical thickness approach. Patient FP presented lesions in common with our classic IMA that included the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL), and specifically the supramarginal gyrus, the left parietal operculum, the left premotor cortex and the left inferior frontal gyrus, whereas Patient LS and our classic IMA patients presented common lesions in regions of the superior parietal lobule (SPL), motor areas (as primary somatosensory cortex, premotor cortex and primary motor cortex), and frontal areas. Our results show that tool-gesture production and tool-gesture knowledge can be behaviorally and neurally doubly dissociated and put strong constraints on extant theories of action and object recognition and use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2021.05.008DOI Listing
August 2021

Neurologic Manifestations of the Antiphospholipid Syndrome - an Update.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2021 Jun 14;21(8):41. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Neurology, Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Norte, Av. Prof. Egas Moniz, 1649-028, Lisbon, Portugal.

Purpose Of Review: In recent years, the spectrum of neurological manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been growing. We provide a critical review of the literature with special emphasis on presentation, proposed mechanisms of disease, and treatment of neurological involvement in APS.

Recent Findings: Although stroke is the most common cause of neurological manifestations in patients with APS, other neurological disorders have been increasingly associated with the disease, including cognitive dysfunction, headache, and epilepsy. Direct oral anticoagulants have failed to show non-inferiority compared to vitamin K antagonists for the prevention of major thrombotic events. Antiphospholipid antibodies are often found in patients with acute COVID-19 but clear evidence supporting an association between these antibodies and the risk of thrombotic events, including stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis, is still lacking. APS patients may present with several distinct neurological manifestations. New criteria will facilitate the classification of patients presenting with increasingly recognized non-criteria neurological manifestations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-021-01124-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200381PMC
June 2021

Mean Platelet Volume is a Prognostic Marker in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated with Intravenous Thrombolysis.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jun 7;30(6):105718. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Stroke Unit, Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health (Neurology), Hospital Santa Maria; Faculty of Medicine, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal; Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Lisbon, Portugal.

Background And Objectives: There is conflicting data regarding the association between platelet parameters and prognosis of stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis. We aimed to analyze this association in a cohort of patients treated with rtPA.

Material And Methods: Retrospective, observational study in adult ischemic stroke patients treated with rtPA between January 2015 and February 2017. Demographic and clinical characteristics, stroke severity (NIHSS), etiology (TOAST), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet count (PC), platelet distribution width (PDW) and functional outcome (mRS) at discharge and 90 days were recorded. The association between platelet parameters and unfavorable prognosis (mRS 3-6) was tested using non-parametric tests and logistic regression analysis.

Results: 267 patients were included, 134 (50.2%) females, with a median (IQR) age of 74 years (64-82). The median admission NIHSS was 14 (8-19) and the most frequent etiology was cardioembolism (n = 115, 43.1%). At discharge, 170 (63.7%) patients had mRS 3-6. MPV values were higher in patients with mRS 3-6 (median 8.2fL versus 7.8fL, p = 0.013). This association remained significant (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.003-1.832, p = 0.048) after adjustment for variables associated with prognosis. There were no significant associations between other platelet parameters and prognosis. There was a trend to unfavorable prognosis at 90 days in patients with higher MPV. Regarding the association between platelet parameters and hemorrhagic transformation, higher PDW was associated with more severe hemorrhagic transformation (PH1/PH2).

Conclusions: Higher MPV values were associated with unfavorable prognosis at discharge in patients treated with intravenous thrombolysis. Future studies should address its added value in stroke prediction models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105718DOI Listing
June 2021

Global Impact of COVID-19 on Stroke Care and IV Thrombolysis.

Neurology 2021 06 25;96(23):e2824-e2838. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology (R.G.N., M.H.M., M.Frankel, D.C.H.), Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Department of Radiology (M.M.Q., M.A., T.N.N., A.K.) and Radiation Oncology (M.M.Q.), Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (S.O.M.), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (S.O.M.), Brazil; Department of Stroke Neurology (H. Yamagami), National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Japan; Department of Neurology (Z.Q.), Xinqiao Hospital of the Army Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Neurology (O.Y.M.), Stroke and Neurointervention Division, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria University, Egypt; Boston University School of Medicine (A.S.), Massachusetts; 2nd Department of Neurology (A.C.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Neurology (G.T., L.P.), National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece; Faculdade de Medicina (D.A.d.S.), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurology (J.D., R.L.), Leuven University Hospital, Belgium; International Clinical Research Center and Department of Neurology (R.M.), St. Anne´s University Hospital in Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology (P.V.), Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk; Department of Neurology (P.V.), University Hospitals Antwerp; Department of Translational Neuroscience (P.V.), University of Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Neurology (J.E.S., T.G.J.), Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (J. Kõrv), University of Tartu, Estonia; Department of Neurology (J.B., R.V.,S.R.), Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Illinois; Department of Neurosurgery (C.W.L.), Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center; Department of Neurology (N.S.S.), Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center; Department of Neurology (A.M.Z., S.A.S.), UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas; Department of Neurology (A.L.Z.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine (G.N.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Department of Neurology (K.M., A.T.), Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (A.L.), Ohio Health Riverside Methodist Hospital Columbus; Department of Medicine and Neurology (A.R.), University of Otago and Wellington Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (E.A.M.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Department of Neurology (A.W.A., D. Alsbrook), University of Tennessee Health Center, Memphis; Department of Neurology (D.Y.H.), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Departments of Neurology (S.Y.) and Radiology (E.R.), New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (E.G.B.L.), University of Douala, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science, Cameroon; Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital (H.M.A., H.M.S., A.E., T.R.); Cairo University Affiliated MOH Network (F.H.); Department of Neurology (TM.), Nasser Institute for Research and Treatment, Cairo; Mansoura University Affiliated Private Hospitals Network (W.M.), Egypt; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S.), Kumasi, Ghana; Stroke Unit (T.O.A., K.W.), University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital; Neurology Unit (B.A.), Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital; Department of Medicine (E.O.N.), Federal Medical Centre Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Neurology Unit (T.A.S.), Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria; University College Hospital (J.Y.), Ibadan, Nigeria; The National Ribat University Affiliated Hospitals (H.H.M.), Khartoum, Sudan; Neurology Section (P.B.A.), Department of Internal Medicine, Aga-Khan University, Medical College East Africa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tunis El Manar University (A.D.R.), Military Hospital of Tunis; Department of Neurology (S.B.S.), Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunisia; Department of Physiology (L.G.), Parirenyatwa Hospital, and Departments of Physiology and Medicine (G.W.N.), University of Zimbabwe, Harare; Department of Cerebrovascular/Endovascular Neurosurgery Division (D.S.), Erebouni Medical Center, Yerevan, Armenia; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Sir Salimulah College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Neurology (Z.A.), Taihe Hospital of Shiyan City, Hubei; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Nanyang Central Hospital, Henan; Department of Neurology (Z.D.), Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Hubei, China; Department of Neurology (Y. Hao.), Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (W.H.), Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Maoming, Guangdong; Department of Neurology (G.Li.), Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (W.L), The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College; Department of Neurology (G.Liu.), Wuhan Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (J.L.), Mianyang 404th Hospital, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (X.S.), Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Anhui; Department of Neurology and Neuroscience (Y.S.), Shenyang Brain Institute, Shenyang First People's Hospital, Shenyang Medical College Affiliated Brain Hospital; Department of Neurology (L.T.), Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (H.W.), Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (B.W., Y.Yan), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; Department of Neurology (Z.Y.), Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (H.Z.), Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (J.Z.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University; Department of Neurology (W.Z.), First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, China; Acute Stroke Unit (T.W.L.), The Prince of Wales Hospital, Kwok Tak Seng Centre for Stroke Research and Intervention, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Interventional Neurology (C.C.), MAX Superspecialty Hospital, Saket, New Delhi; NH Institute of Neurosciences (V.H.), NH Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bangalore; Department of Neurology (B.M.), Apollo Speciality Hospitals Nellore; Department of Neurology (J.D.P.), Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab; Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (P.N.S.), Kerala, India; Stroke Unit (F.S.U.), Pelni Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Neurosciences Research Center (M. Farhoudi, E.S.H.), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Beer Sheva Hospital (A.H.); Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Rambam Healthcare Campus, Haifa, Israel (A.R., R.S.H.); Departments of Neurology (N.O.) and Neurosurgery (N.S.), Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe; Department of Stroke and Neurovascular Surgery (D.W.), IMS Tokyo-Katsushika General Hospital; Yokohama Brain and Spine Center (R.Y.); Iwate Prefectural Central (R.D.); Department of Neurology and Stroke Treatment (N.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital; Department of Stroke Neurology (Y. Yazawa), Kohnan Hospital, Sendai; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.U.), Saga-Ken Medical Centre; Department of Neurology (T.D.), Saitama Medical Center, Kawagoe; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Nara City Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka; Department of Neurology (F. Miyashita), Kagoshima City Hospital; Department of Neurology (H.F.), Japanese Red Cross Matsue Hospital, Shimane; Department of Neurology (K.M.), Shiroyama Hospital, Osaka; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (J.E.S.), Niigata City General Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Sugimura Hospital, Kumamoto; Stroke Medicine (Y. Yagita), Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama; Department of Neurology (Y.T.), Osaka Red Cross Hospital; Department of Stroke Prevention and Treatment (Y.M.), Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki; Department of Neurology (S.Y.), Stroke Center and Neuroendovascular Therapy, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo; Department of Neurology (R.K.), Kin-ikyo Chuo Hospital, Hokkaido; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.K.), NTT Medical Center Tokyo; Department of Neurology and Neuroendovascular Treatment (H. Yamazaki), Yokohama Shintoshi Neurosurgical Hospital; Department of Neurology (M.S.), Osaka General Medical Center; Department of Neurology (K.T.), Osaka University Hospital; Department of Advanced Brain Research (N.Y.), Tokushima University Hospital Tokushima; Department of Neurology (K.S.), Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Tane General Hospital, Osaka; Division of Stroke (H.H.), Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Rosai Hospital; Department of Comprehensive Stroke (I.N.), Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; Department of Neurology (A.K.), Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University; Republican Center for eHealth (K.F.), Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Department of Medicine (S.K.), Al-Farabi Kazakh National University; Kazakh-Russian Medical University (M.Z.), Kazakhstan; Department of Neurology (J.-H.B.), Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul; Department of Neurology (Y. Hwang), Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University; Ajou University Hospital (J.S.L.); Department of Neurology (S.B.L.), Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea; Department of Neurology (J.M.), National Medical Center, Seoul; Department of Neurology (H.P., S.I.S.), Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu; Department of Neurology (J.H.S.), Busan Paik Hospital, School of Medicine, Inje University, Busan; Department of Neurology (K.-D.S.), National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang; Asan Medical Center (C.J.Y.), Seoul, South Korea; Department of Neurology (R.A.), LAU Medical Center-Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Medicine (W.A.W.Z., N.W.Y.), Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur; Sultanah Nur Zahirah (Z.A.A., K.A.I.), Kuala Terengganu; University Putra Malaysia (H.b.B.); Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching (L.W.C.); Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (A.B.I.), Sungai Petani Kedah; Hospital Seberang Jaya (I.L.), Pulau Pinang; Thomson Hospital Kota Damansara (W.Y.T.), Malaysia; "Nicolae Testemitanu" State University of Medicine and Pharmacy (S.G., P.L.), and Department of Neurology, Emergency Medicine Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova; Department of Stroke Unit (A.M.A.H.), Royal Hospital Muscat, Oman; Neuroscience Institute (Y.Z.I., N.A.), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; St. Luke's Medical Center-Institute of Neurosciences (M.C.P.-F., C.O.C.), Quezon City, Philippines; Endovascular Neurosurgery (D.K.), Saint-Petersburg Dzhanelidze Research Institute of Emergency Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia; Department of Neurology (A.A.), Stroke Unit, King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh; Department of Neurosurgery (H.A.-J.), Interventional Radiology, and Critical Care Medicine, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia; Singapore National Neuroscience Institute (C.H.T.); Changi General Hospital (M.J.M.), Singapore; Neuroscience Center, Raffles Hospital (N.V.), Singapore; Department of Neurology (C.-H.C., S.-C.T.), National Taiwan University Hospital; Department of Radiology (A.C.), Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Dicle University Medical School and Hospital (E.A.), Diyarbakir; Stroke and Neurointervention Unit (O.A., A.O.O.), Eskisehir Osmangazi University; Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine (S.G.), Turkey; Department of Neurology (S.I.H., S.J.), Neurological Institute at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Stroke Center (H.L.V., A.D.C.), Hue Central Hospital, Hue, Vietnam; Stroke Department (H.H.N., T.N.P.), Da Nang Hospital, Da Nang City; 115 People's Hospital (T.H.N., T.Q.N.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Department of Neurology (T.G., C.E.), Medical University of Graz; Department of Neurology (M. K.-O.), Research Institute of Neurointervention, University Hospital Salzburg/Paracelsus Medical University, Austria; Department of Neurology (F.B., A.D.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Charleroi, Belgium; Department of Neurology (S.D.B., G.V.), Sint Jan Hospital, Bruges; Department of Neurology (S.D.R.), Brussels University Hospital (UZ Brussel); Department of Neurology (N.L.), ULB Erasme Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (M.P.R.), Europe Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (L.Y.), Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium; Neurology Clinic (F.A., T.S.), St. Anna University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Neurology (M.R.B.), Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (H.B.), Sveti Duh University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (I.C.), General Hospital Virovitica; Department of Neurology (Z.H.), General Hospital Zabok; Department of Radiology (F. Pfeifer), University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia; Regional Hospital Karlovy Vary (I.K.); Masaryk Hospital Usti nad Labem (D.C.); Military University Hospital Praha (M. Sramek); Oblastní Nemocnice Náchod (M. Skoda); Regional Hospital Pribram (H.H.); Municipal Hospital Ostrava (L.K.); Hospital Mlada Boleslav (M. Koutny); Hospital Vitkovice (D.V.); Hospital Jihlava (O.S.); General University Hospital Praha (J.F.); Hospital Litomysl (K.H.); Hospital České Budejovice (M.N.); Hospital Pisek (R.R.); Hospital Uherske Hradiste (P.P.); Hospital Prostejov (G.K.); Regional Hospital Chomutov (J.N.); Hospital Teplice (M.V.); Mining Hospital Karvina (H.B.); Thomayer Hospital Praha (D.H.); Hospital Blansko (D.T.); University Hospital Brno (R.J.); Regional Hospital Liberec (L.J.); Hospital Ceska Lipa (J.N.); Hospital Sokolov (A.N.); Regional Hospital Kolin (Z.T.); Hospital Trutnov (P. Fibrich); Hospital Trinec (H.S.); Department of Neurology (O.V.), University Hospital Ostrava, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Bispebjerg Hospital (H.K.C.), University of Copenhagen; Stroke Center (H.K.I., T.C.T.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen; Aarhus University Hospital (C.Z.S.), Aarhus; Neurovascular Center, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen (T.W.), Roskilde, Denmark; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (R.V.), University of Tartu, Estonia; Neurology Clinic (K.G.-P.), West Tallinn Central Hospital; Center of Neurology (T.T.), East Tallinn Central Hospital, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University; Internal Medicine Clinic (K.A.), Pärnu Hospital, Estonia; Université Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille Neuroscience & Cognition (C.C., F.C.); Centre Hospitalier d'Arcachon (M.D.), Gujan-Mestras; Centre Hospitalier d'Agen (J.-M.F.); Neurologie Vasculaire (L.M.) and Neuroradiologie (O.E.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Pierre Wertheimer, Bron; Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Bordeaux (E.L., F.R.); Centre Hospitalier de Mont de Marsan (B.O.); Neurologie (R.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (F. Pico); Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (M.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (R.P.), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France; K. Eristavi National Center of Experimental and Clinical Surgery (T.G.), Tbilisi; Department of Neurosurgery (M. Khinikadze), New Vision University Hospital, Tbilisi; Vivamedi Medical Center (M. Khinikadze), Tbilisi; Pineo Medical Ecosystem (N.L.), Tbilisi; Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (A.T.), Tbilisi, Georgia; Department of Neurology (S.N., P.A.R.), University Hospital Heidelberg; Department of Neurology (M. Rosenkranz), Albertinen Krankenhaus, Hamburg; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Elbe Klinken Stade, University Medical Center Göttingen; Department of Neurology (T.S.), University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden; Kristina Szabo (K.S.), Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim; Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie (G.T.), Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine (D.S.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa; Second Department of Neurology (O.K.), Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece; University of Szeged (P.K.), Szeged; University of Pecs (L.S., G.T.), Hungary; Stroke Center (A.A.), IRCCS Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Negrar, Verona; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Ospedale San Paolo, Savona,; Institute of Neurology (P.C., G.F.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Rome; Interventional Neurovascular Unit (L.R.), Careggi University Hospital, Florence; Stroke Unit (D.S.), Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) di Lecco, Italy; Maastricht University Medical Center; Department of Neurology (M.U.), Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen; Department of Neurology (I.v.d.W.), Haaglanden Medical Center, the Hague, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (E.S.K.), Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, General Practice, HELSAM, University of Oslo, Norway; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (W.B.), Specialist Hospital in Konskie, Gimnazjalna, Poland and Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (M.F.), District Hospital in Skarzysko-Kamienna; Department of Neurology (E.H.L.), Szpitala im T. Marciniaka in Wroclaw; 2nd Department of Neurology (M. Karlinski), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders (R.K., P.K.), Poznan University of Medical Sciences; 107th Military Hospital with Polyclinic (M.R.), Walcz; Department of Neurology (R.K.), St. Queen Jadwiga, Clinical Regional Hospital No. 2, Rzeszow; Department of Neurology (P.L.), Medical University of Lublin; 1st Department of Neurology (H.S.-J.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit (P.S.), Holy Spirit Specialist Hospital in Sandomierz, Collegium Medicum Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce; Copernicus PL (W.F.), Neurology and Stroke Department, Hospital M. Kopernik, Gdansk; Stroke Unit (M.W.), Neurological Department, Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences, Pila, Poland; Hospital São José (Patricia Ferreira), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Stroke Unit (Paulo Ferreira, V.T.C.), Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos; Stroke Unit, Internal Medicine Department (L.F.), Neuroradiology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto; Department of Neurology (J.P.M.), Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences (T.P.e.M.), Hospital de Santa Maria-CHLN, North Lisbon University Hospital; Hospital São José (A.P.N.), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Department of Neurology (M. Rodrigues), Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal; Department of Neurology (C.F.-P.), Transilvania University, Brasov, Romania; Department of Neurology (G.K., M. Mako), Faculty Hospital Trnava, Slovakia; Department of Neurology and Stroke Center (M.A.d.L., E.D.T.), Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid; Department of Neurology (J.F.A.), Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad de Valladolid; Department of Neurology (O.A.-M.), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete; Department of Neurology (A.C.C.), Unidad de Ictus, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid; Department of Neurology (S.P.-S), Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena & Neurovascular Research Laboratory (J.M.), Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla-IbiS; Rio Hortega University Hospital (M.A.T.A.), University of Valladolid; Cerebrovascular Diseases (A.R.V.), Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (M. Mazya), Karolinska University Hospital and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (G.B.), University Hospitals of Geneva; Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology (A.B., M.-N.P.), Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel; Department of Neurology (U.F.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroradiology (J.G.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroscience (P.L.M., D.S.), Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland; Department of Stroke Medicine (S.B., J. Kwan), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London; Department of Neurology (K.K.), Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology (A.B., A. Shuaib), University of Alberta, Edmonton; Department of Neurology (L.C., A. Shoamanesh), McMaster University, Hamilton; Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute (A.M.D., M.D.H.), University of Calgary; Department of Neurology (T.F., S.Y.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mackenzie Health (J.H., C.A.S.) Richmond Hill, Ontario; Department of Neurology (H.K.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto; Department of Neurology (A. Mackey), Hopital Enfant Jesus, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite Laval, Quebec City; Department of Neurology (A.P.), University of Toronto; Medicine (G.S.), St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurosciences (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. Rafael A. Calderon Guardia, CCSS. San Jose, Costa Rica; Neurovascular Service (J.D.B.), Hospital General San Juan de Dios, Guatemala City; Department of Neurología (L.I.P.R.), Hospital General de Enfermedades, Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Department of Neurology (F.G.-R.), University Hospital Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Mexico; Pacífica Salud-Hospital Punta Pacífica (N.N.-E., A.B., R.K.), Panama; Department of Neurology, Radiology (M.A.), University of Kansas Medical Center; Department of Neurointerventional Neurosurgery (D. Altschul), The Valley Baptist Hospital, Ridgewood, New Jersey; Palmetto General Hospital (A.J.A.-O.), Tenet, Florida; Neurology (I.B., P.K.), University Hospital Newark, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey; Community Healthcare System (A.B.), Munster, Indiana; Department of Neurology (N.B., C.B.N.), California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco; Department of Neurology (C.B.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; University of Toledo (A.C.), Ohio; Department of Neurology (S.C.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Neuroscience (S.A.C.), Inova Fairfax Hospital, Virginia; Department of Neurology (H.C.), Abington Jefferson Hospital, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (J.H.C.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; Baptist Health Medical Center (S.D.), Little Rock, Arkansas; Department of Neurology (K.D.), HCA Houston Healthcare Clearlake, Texas; Department of Neurology (T.G.D., R.S.), Erlanger, Tennessee; Wilmington North Carolina (V.T.D.); Department of Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (R.E.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Department of Neurology (M.E.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology (M.F., S.O.-G., N.R.), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City; Department of Radiology (D.F.), Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, Colorado; Department of Radiology (D.G.), Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Adventist Health Glendale Comprehensive Stroke Center (M.G.), Los Angeles, California; Wellstar Neuroscience Institute (R.G.), Marietta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (A.E.H.), University of Texas Rio Grande Valley-Valley Baptist Medical Center, Texas; Department of Neurology (J.H., B.V.), Lahey Hospital & Medical Center, Beth Israel Lahey Health, Burlington, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (A.M.K.), Wayne State, Detroit, Michigan; HSHS St. John's Hospital (N.N.K.), Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield; Virginia Hospital Center (B.S.K.), Arlington; Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Weill-Cornell Medical College (D.O.K.), New York-Presbyterian Queens; Department of Neurology (V.H.L.), Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Neurology (L.Y.L.), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (G.L.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (I.L., A.K.S.), Florida; Department of Neurology (H.L.L.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Department of Emergency Medicine (L.M., M.S.), Steward Holy Family Hospital, Methuen, MA; Vidant Medical Center (S.M.), Greenville, North Carolina; Department of Neurology (A.M.M., D.R.Y.) and Neurosurgery (D.R.Y.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida; Department of Neurology (H.M.), SUNY Upstate New York, Syracuse; Memorial Neuroscience Institute (B.P.M.), Pembroke Pines, Florida; Neurosciences (J.M., J.P.T.), Spectrum Health, Michigan State University College of Medicine, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Sutter Health (M.M.), Sacramento, California; Department of Neurology (J.G.M.), Maine Medical Center, Portland; Department of Neurology (S.S.M.), Bayhealth, Dover, Delaware; Department of Neurology and Pediatrics (F.N.), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (K.N.), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock; Department of Radiology and Neurology (R.N.-W.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Ascension St. John Medical Center (R.H.R.), Tulsa, Oklahoma; Riverside Regional Medical Center (P.R.), Newport, Virginia; Department of Neurology (J.R.R., T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (M.S.), University of Washington School Medicine, Seattle; Department of Neurology (B.S.), University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester; Department of Neurology (A.S.), CHI-Immanuel Neurological Institute, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska; Holy Cross Hospital (S.L.S.), Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Department of Neurology (V.S.), Interventional Neuroradiology, University of California in Los Angeles; Banner Desert Medical Center (M.T.), Mesa, Arizona; Hospital de Agudos Dr. Ignacio Privano (O.B., A.L.), Argentina; Institute for Neurological Research, FLENI (V.A.P.L.), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Hospital das Clinicas/São Paulo University (M.S.A., A.C.); Sumare State Hospital (F.B.C., L.V.), São Paulo; Hospital Vera Cruz (L.D.D.S.), Deus Campinas; Irmanandade Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (L.V.G.); Stroke Unit (F.O.L., F. Mont'alverne), Hospital Geral de Fortaleza; Stroke Unit (A.L.L., P.S.C.M.), Hospital Sao Jose, Joinville, Santa Catarina; Stroke Unit (R.T.M.), Neurology, Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (D.L.M.C.), Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (L.C.R.), Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal; Hospital Ana (V.F.C.), Hospital Juliane, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Vascular Neurology Unit (P.M.L., V.V.O.), Neurology Service, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago; Hospital Padre Hurtado (V.N., J.M.A.T.) Santiago, Chile; Fundación Valle del Lili (P.F.R.A.), Cali; Stroke Center (H.B.), Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá; Department of Neurology (A.B.C.-Q.), Hospital Departamental Universitario del Quindio San Juan de Dios, Armenia; Clinica Universitaria Colombia (C.E.R.O.), Bogotá; University Hospital of San Vicente Foundation (D.K.M.B.), Medellin; Barranquilla, Colombia (O.L.); Hospital Infantil Universitario de San Jose (M.R.P.), Bogota; Stroke Unit (L.F.D.-E.), Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción; Neurology Service (D.E.D.M.F., A.C.V.), Hospital Central del Instituto de Prevision Social, Paraguay; Internal Medicine Service (A.J.Z.Z.), Hospital Central de Policia "Rigoberto Caballero", Paraguay; National Institute of Neurological Sciences of Lima Peru (D.M.B.I.); Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Lima-Peru (L.R.K.); Department of Neurology (B.C.), Royal Melbourne Hospital; Department of Neurology (G.J.H.), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth; University of Melbourne (C.H., R.S.), Ballarat Health Service, Australia University of Melbourne; Department of Neurology (T.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospital; Department of Neurosurgery (A. Ma), Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney; Department of Neurology (R.T.M.), Mater Hospital, Brisbane; Department of Neurology (R.S.), Austin Health, Victoria; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health (R.S.), Parkville, Melbourne, Australia; Greymouth Base Hospital (D.S.), New Zealand; Department of Neurology (T.Y.-H.W.), Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (D.L.), University of California in Los Angeles; and Department of Neurology (O.O.Z.), Mercy Health Neurosciences, Toledo, Ohio.

Objective: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases.

Results: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205458PMC
June 2021

Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Levels are Associated with Brain Lesion and Persistent Venous Occlusion in Patients with Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Mar 23. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health (Neurology), Hospital de Santa Maria/CHULN, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

Background:  Elucidating mechanisms of brain damage in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) would be instrumental to develop targeted therapies and improve prognosis prediction. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a gelatinase that degrades major components of the basal lamina, has been associated to blood-brain barrier disruption. We aimed to assess, in patients with CVT, the temporal change in serum concentrations of MMP-9 and its association with key imaging and clinical outcomes.

Methods:  Pathophysiology of Venous Infarction-PRediction of InfarctiOn and RecanalIzaTion in CVT (PRIORITy-CVT) was a multicenter prospective cohort study of patients with newly diagnosed CVT. Serial collection of peripheral blood samples performed on day 1, 3, and 8, and standardized magnetic resonance imaging on day 1, 8, and 90. MMP-9 was quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 59 patients and 22 healthy controls. Primary outcomes were parenchymal brain lesion, early evolution of brain lesion, early recanalization, and functional outcome on day 90.

Results:  CVT patients with parenchymal brain lesion had higher baseline concentrations of MMP-9 compared with controls (adjusted  = 0.001). The area under receiver operating characteristic curve value for MMP-9 for predicting brain lesion was 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-0.85,  = 0.009). Patients with venous recanalization showed early decline of circulating MMP-9 and significantly lower levels on day 8 ( = 0.021). Higher MMP-9 on day 8 was associated with persistent venous occlusion (odds ratio: 1.20 [per 20 ng/mL], 95% CI: 1.02-1.43,  = 0.030).

Conclusion:  We report a novel relationship among MMP-9, parenchymal brain damage, and early venous recanalization, suggesting that circulating MMP-9 is a dynamic marker of brain tissue damage in patients with CVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1726094DOI Listing
March 2021

Off-label use of intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke: a critical appraisal of randomized and real-world evidence.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2021 26;14:1756286421997368. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Neurology, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) represents the only systemic reperfusion therapy able to reverse neurological deficit in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Despite its effectiveness in patients with or without large vessel occlusion, it can be offered only to a minority of them, because of the short therapeutic window and additional contraindications derived from stringent but arbitrary inclusion and exclusion criteria used in landmark randomized controlled clinical trials. Many absolute or relative contraindications lead to disparities between the official drug label and guidelines or expert recommendations. Based on recent advances in neuroimaging and evidence from cohort studies, off-label use of IVT is increasingly incorporated into the daily practice of many stroke centers. They relate to extension of therapeutic time windows, and expansion of indications in co-existing conditions originally listed in exclusion criteria, such as use of alternative thrombolytic agents, pre-treatment with antiplatelets, anticoagulants or low molecular weight heparins. In this narrative review, we summarize recent randomized and real-world data on the safety and efficacy of off-label use of IVT for AIS. We also make some practical recommendations to stroke physicians regarding the off-label use of thrombolytic agents in complex and uncommon presentations of AIS or other conditions mimicking acute cerebral ischemia. Finally, we provide guidance on the risks and benefits of IVT in numerous AIS subgroups, where equipoise exists and guidelines and treatment practices vary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756286421997368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7934037PMC
February 2021

Recanalization after cerebral venous thrombosis. A randomized controlled trial of the safety and efficacy of dabigatran etexilate versus dose-adjusted warfarin in patients with cerebral venous and dural sinus thrombosis.

Int J Stroke 2021 Apr 4:17474930211006303. Epub 2021 Apr 4.

Faculty of Medicine, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: The effect of different anticoagulants on recanalization after cerebral venous thrombosis has not been studied in a randomized controlled trial.

Methods: RE-SPECT CVT (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02913326) was a Phase III, prospective, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, multicenter, exploratory trial with blinded endpoint adjudication. Acute cerebral venous thrombosis patients were allocated to dabigatran 150 mg twice daily, or dose-adjusted warfarin, for 24 weeks, after 5-15 days' treatment with unfractionated or low-molecular-weight heparin. A standardized magnetic resonance protocol including arterial spin labeling, three-dimensional time-of-flight venography, and three-dimensional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography was obtained at the end of the treatment period. Cerebral venous recanalization at six months was assessed by two blinded adjudicators, using the difference in a score of occluded sinuses and veins (predefined secondary efficacy endpoint) and in the modified Qureshi scale (additional endpoint), between baseline and the end of the treatment.

Results: Of 120 cerebral venous thrombosis patients randomized, venous recanalization could be evaluated in 108 (55 allocated to dabigatran and 53 to warfarin, 1 patient had a missing occlusion score at baseline). No patient worsened in the score of occluded cerebral veins and sinuses, while 33 (60%) on dabigatran and 35 (67%) on warfarin improved. The mean score change from baseline in the occlusion score was similar in the two treatment groups (dabigatran -0.8, SD 0.78; warfarin -1.0, SD 0.92). In the modified Qureshi score, full recanalization was adjudicated in 24 (44%) and 19 (36%), and partial recanalization in 23 (42%) and 26 (49%) patients in the dabigatran and warfarin arms, respectively. No statistically significant treatment difference in the modified Qureshi score could be detected ( = 0.44).

Conclusion: The majority of patients with cerebral venous thrombosis, anticoagulated with either dabigatran or warfarin for six months, showed partial or complete recanalization of occluded sinuses and veins at the end of the treatment. Trial registry name: ClinicalTrials.gov URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov Registration number: NCT02913326.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17474930211006303DOI Listing
April 2021

Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: What's New?

Hamostaseologie 2021 Feb 15;41(1):25-30. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health (Neurology), Hospital Santa Maria - CHULN, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.

Thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses (CVT) is a distinct cerebrovascular disorder that, unlike arterial stroke, most often affects children and young adults, especially women. In this review, we will summarize recent advances on the knowledge of patients with CVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1332-3042DOI Listing
February 2021

Global impact of COVID-19 on stroke care.

Int J Stroke 2021 07 29;16(5):573-584. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Neurology, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic led to profound changes in the organization of health care systems worldwide.

Aims: We sought to measure the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes for mechanical thrombectomy, stroke, and intracranial hemorrhage hospitalizations over a three-month period at the height of the pandemic (1 March-31 May 2020) compared with two control three-month periods (immediately preceding and one year prior).

Methods: Retrospective, observational, international study, across 6 continents, 40 countries, and 187 comprehensive stroke centers. The diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases at participating centers.

Results: The hospitalization volumes for any stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and mechanical thrombectomy were 26,699, 4002, and 5191 in the three months immediately before versus 21,576, 3540, and 4533 during the first three pandemic months, representing declines of 19.2% (95%CI, -19.7 to -18.7), 11.5% (95%CI, -12.6 to -10.6), and 12.7% (95%CI, -13.6 to -11.8), respectively. The decreases were noted across centers with high, mid, and low COVID-19 hospitalization burden, and also across high, mid, and low volume stroke/mechanical thrombectomy centers. High-volume COVID-19 centers (-20.5%) had greater declines in mechanical thrombectomy volumes than mid- (-10.1%) and low-volume (-8.7%) centers (p < 0.0001). There was a 1.5% stroke rate across 54,366 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted in 3.9% (784/20,250) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of overall stroke hospitalizations, mechanical thrombectomy procedures, and intracranial hemorrhage admission volumes. Despite geographic variations, these volume reductions were observed regardless of COVID-19 hospitalization burden and pre-pandemic stroke/mechanical thrombectomy volumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493021991652DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010375PMC
July 2021

Cerebral venous thrombosis and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Oct 2;28(10):3478-3490. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Neurology and Metropolitan Stroke Center, "C.A. Pizzardi" Maggiore Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

Background And Purpose: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection predisposes patients to arterial and venous thrombosis. This study aimed to systematically review the available evidence in the literature for cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in association with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19).

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases to identify cases of COVID-19-associated CVT. The search period spanned 1 January 2020 to 1 December 2020, and the review protocol (PROSPERO-CRD42020214327) followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. Identified studies were evaluated for bias using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. A proportion meta-analysis was performed to estimate the frequency of CVT among hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Results: We identified 57 cases from 28 reports. Study quality was mostly classified as low. CVT symptoms developed after respiratory disease in 90%, and the mean interval was 13 days. CVT involved multiple sites in 67% of individuals, the deep venous system was affected in 37%, and parenchymal hemorrhage was found in 42%. Predisposing factors for CVT beyond SARS-CoV-2 infection were present in 31%. In-hospital mortality was 40%. Using data from 34,331 patients, the estimated frequency of CVT among patients hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0.08% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.01-0.5). In an inpatient setting, CVT accounted for 4.2% of cerebrovascular disorders in individuals with COVID-19 (cohort of 406 patients, 95% CI: 1.47-11.39).

Conclusions: Cerebral venous thrombosis in the context of SARS-CoV-2 infection is a rare, although there seems to be an increased relative risk. High suspicion is necessary, because the diagnosis of this potentially life-threatening condition in COVID-19 patients can be challenging. Evidence is still scarce on the pathophysiology and potential prevention of COVID-19-associated CVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.14727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014715PMC
October 2021

Promising Use of Automated Electronic Phenotyping: Turning Big Data Into Big Value in Stroke Research.

Stroke 2021 01 10;52(1):190-192. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland (M.K.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033061DOI Listing
January 2021

Maintaining stroke care in Europe during the COVID-19 pandemic: Results from an international survey of stroke professionals and practice recommendations from the European Stroke Organisation.

Eur Stroke J 2020 Sep 10;5(3):230-236. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Stroke Unit, Department of Neurology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been placing an overwhelming burden on health systems, thus threatening their ability to operate effectively for acute conditions in which treatments are highly time sensitive, such as cerebrovascular disorders and myocardial infarction. As part of an effort to reduce the consequences of this outbreak on health service delivery to stroke patients, the European Stroke Organisation has undertaken a survey aimed at collecting information on the provision of stroke care during the pandemic.

Methods: Cross-sectional, web-based survey, conducted from 26 March through 1 April 2020 among stroke care providers, focused on reorganisation of health services, the delivery of acute and post-acute stroke care and the availability of personal protective equipment.

Results: A total of 426 stroke care providers from 55 countries completed the survey, most of whom worked in Europe (n = 375, 88%) and were stroke physicians/neurologists (n = 334, 78%). Among European respondents, 289 (77%) reported that not all stroke patients were receiving the usual care in their centres and 266 (71%) estimated that functional outcomes and recurrence rates of stroke patients would be negatively affected by the organisational changes caused by the pandemic. The areas considered as being most affected were acute care and rehabilitation. Most professionals had to adapt their activities and schedules and more than half reported shortage of protective equipment.

Discussion: Strategies to maintain availability of stroke care during the COVID-19 outbreak are crucial to prevent indirect mortality and disability due to suboptimal care.

Conclusion: European Stroke Organisation proposes a set of targeted actions for decision makers facing this exceptional situation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2396987320933746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538757PMC
September 2020

Herpes simplex virus 2 vasculitis as cause of ischemic stroke in a young immunocompromised patient.

J Neurovirol 2020 10 24;26(5):805-807. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Neurology, Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital de Santa Maria, Centro Hospitalar Universitário Lisboa Norte, Avenida Prof. Egas Moniz, 1649-035, Lisbon, Portugal.

Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a very rare cause of central nervous system (CNS) infections. We report a case of a young woman with a left middle cerebral artery (MCA) ischemic stroke. The patient had history of HIV-1 infection, with periods of therapeutic non-compliance. Initial computed tomography (CT) imaging studies showed stenosis of the M1 segment of the left MCA, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed infarction of the MCA territory. Serial transcranial Doppler ultrasound revealed progressive occlusion of the MCA and stenosis of the left anterior cerebral artery. Systemic investigation for other causes of stroke was normal. Lumbar puncture revealed a mildly inflammatory cerebrospinal fluid, and HSV-2 DNA was identified by PCR, with a positive viral load in favor of active replication. No other viral or microbiological infections were identified. MRI angiography confirmed a vasculitic process involving the left carotid artery, and a HSV-2 vasculitis diagnosis was assumed. The patient started acyclovir with improvement of clinical features and imaging abnormalities. In the HIV-infected patient, stroke is a multifactorial common cause of morbidity. The physician should take into account a broad differential diagnosis including rare causes and atypical presentations of common etiologies, including HSV-1 and HSV-2 CNS infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13365-020-00894-5DOI Listing
October 2020

Late seizures in cerebral venous thrombosis.

Neurology 2020 09 5;95(12):e1716-e1723. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

From the Department of Neurology (M.S.v.K., S.M.S., S.M.Z., J.M.C.), Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Clinical Neuroscience (E.L., J.Z., P.R., T.T., K.J.), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg; Department of Neurology (E.L., J.Z., P.R., T.T., K.J.), Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Neurology (S.H., T.T., J.P.), Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Finland; Department of Neurology (M.R.H., M.A.), Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Switzerland; National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery Manuel Velasco Suarez (F.S., A.A.), Mexico City, Mexico; Sina Hospital (M.M., M.G.), Hamadan University of Medical Science, Iran; Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health (Neurology) (D.A.d.S., P.C., J.M.F.), Hospital de Santa Maria/CHULN; University of Lisbon (D.A.d.S., P.C., J.M.F.), Portugal; Manchester Centre for Clinical Neurosciences (S.A.-A., M.N.M.P.), Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, UK; Department of Neurology (E.E., N.Y.), Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Turkey; Neurosciences Department (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. R.A. Calderón Guardia, CCSS, San José, Costa Rica; and Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (V.A., P.A.), University of Palermo, Italy.

Objective: To examine the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and predictors of late seizures (LS) after cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), we described these features in a registry of 1,127 patients with CVT.

Methods: We included consecutive adult patients from an international consortium of 12 hospital-based CVT registries. We excluded patients with a history of epilepsy or with <8 days of follow-up. We defined LS as seizures occurring >7 days after diagnosis of CVT. We used multivariable Cox regression to identify predictors of LS.

Results: We included 1,127 patients with CVT. During a median follow-up of 2.0 years (interquartile range [IQR] 1.0-6.3), 123 patients (11%) experienced ≥1 LS (incidence rate for first LS 30 per 1,000 person-years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 25-35). Median time to first LS was 5 months (IQR 1-16 months). Baseline predictors of LS included status epilepticus in the acute phase (hazard ratio [HR] 7.0, 95% CI 3.9-12.6), decompressive hemicraniectomy (HR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.3), acute seizure(s) without status epilepticus (HR 4.1, 95% CI 2.5-6.5), subdural hematoma (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9), and intracerebral hemorrhage (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.1). Eighty-five patients (70% of patients with LS) experienced a recurrent seizure during follow-up, despite the fact that 94% received antiepileptic drug treatment after the first LS.

Conclusion: During a median follow-up of 2 years, ≈1 in 10 patients with CVT had LS. Patients with baseline intracranial bleeding, patients with acute symptomatic seizures, and those who underwent decompressive hemicraniectomy were at increased risk of developing LS. The high recurrence risk of LS justifies epilepsy diagnosis after a first LS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010576DOI Listing
September 2020

Acute symptomatic seizures in cerebral venous thrombosis.

Neurology 2020 09 5;95(12):e1706-e1715. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

From the Department of Clinical Neuroscience (E.L., J.Z., P.R., A. Ahmed, T.T., K.J.), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg; Department of Neurology (E.L., J.Z., P.R., A. Ahmed, T.T., K.J.), Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Neurology (S.M.S., S.M.Z., M.S.v.K., J.M.C.), Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (S.H., T.T., J.P.), Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Finland; Department of Neurology (M.R.H., M.A.), Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Switzerland; National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery Manuel Velasco Suarez (F.S., A. Arauz), Mexico City, Mexico; Department of Neurology (M.d.S., T.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospitals and Department of Medicine, University of Adelaide, SA, Australia; Sina Hospital (M.M., M.G.), Hamadan University of Medical Science, Iran; Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health (Neurology) (D.A.d.S., J.M.F.), Hospital de Santa Maria/CHULN; University of Lisbon (D.A.d.S., J.M.F.); Faculdade de Medicina (S.P.), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Manchester Centre for Clinical Neurosciences (S.A.-A., M.N.M.P.), Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, UK; Department of Neurology (E.E., N.Y.), Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Turkey; Neurosciences Department (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. R.A. Calderón Guardia, CCSS, San José, Costa Rica; and Department of Biomedicine (V.A., P.A.), Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics, University of Palermo, Italy.

Objective: To identify characteristics, predictors, and outcomes of acute symptomatic seizures (ASS) in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), we investigated 1,281 consecutive adult patients with CVT included from 12 hospitals within the International CVT Consortium.

Methods: We defined ASS as any seizure between symptom onset and 7 days after diagnosis of CVT. We stratified ASS into prediagnosis and solely postdiagnosis ASS. Status epilepticus (SE) was also analyzed separately. We analyzed predictors for ASS and the association between ASS and clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale) with multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Of 1,281 eligible patients, 441 (34%) had ASS. Baseline predictors for ASS were intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0-5.5), cerebral edema/infarction without ICH (aOR 2.8, 95% CI 2.0-4.0), cortical vein thrombosis (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9), superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.6), focal neurologic deficit (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.6), sulcal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.5), and female-specific risk factors (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1). Ninety-three (7%) patients had solely postdiagnosis ASS, best predicted by cortical vein thrombosis (positive/negative predictive value 22%/92%). Eighty (6%) patients had SE, independently predicted by ICH, focal neurologic deficits, and cerebral edema/infarction. Neither ASS nor SE was independently associated with outcome.

Conclusion: ASS occurred in one-third of patients with CVT and was associated with brain parenchymal lesions and thrombosis of the superficial system. In the absence of prediagnosis ASS, no subgroup was identified with sufficient risk of postdiagnosis ASS to justify prophylactic antiepileptic drug treatment. We found no association between ASS and outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010577DOI Listing
September 2020

The Curious Case of the Missing Strokes During the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Stroke 2020 07 29;51(7):1921-1923. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Neurology and Sergievsky Center, Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons, and Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY (M.S.V.E.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282410PMC
July 2020

Early Recanalization in Patients With Cerebral Venous Thrombosis Treated With Anticoagulation.

Stroke 2020 04 2;51(4):1174-1181. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

From the Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health (Neurology), Hospital Santa Maria/CHULN, University of Lisbon, Portugal (D.A.d.S., M.C.D., P.C., J.M.F.).

Background and Purpose- The hypothesis that venous recanalization prevents progression of venous infarction is not established in patients with cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). Evidence is also scarce on the association between residual symptoms, particularly headache, and the recanalization grade. We aimed to assess, in patients with CVT treated with standard anticoagulation, (1) the rate of early venous recanalization, (2) whether lack of early recanalization was predictor of parenchymal brain lesion progression, and (3) the prevalence and features of persistent headache according to the recanalization grade achieved. Methods- PRIORITy-CVT (Pathophysiology of Venous Infarction - Prediction of Infarction and Recanalization in CVT) was a multicenter, prospective, cohort study including patients with newly diagnosed CVT. Standardized magnetic resonance imaging was performed at inclusion (≤24 hours of therapeutic anticoagulation), days 8 and 90. Potential imaging predictors of recanalization were predefined and analyzed at each anatomical segment. Primary outcomes were rate of early recanalization and brain lesion progression at day 8. Secondary outcomes were headache (days 8 and 90) and functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale at days 8 and 90). Results- Sixty eight patients with CVT were included, of whom 30 (44%) had parenchymal lesions. At the early follow-up (n=63; 8±2 days), 68% (n=43) of patients had partial recanalization and 6% (n=4) full recanalization. Early recanalization was associated both with early regression (=0.03) and lower risk of enlargement of nonhemorrhagic lesions (=0.02). Lesions showing diffusion restriction (n=12) were fully reversible in 66% of cases, particularly in patients showing early venous recanalization. Evidence of new or enlarged hemorrhagic lesions, headache at days 8 and 90, and unfavorable functional outcome at days 8 and 90 were not significantly different in patients achieving recanalization. Conclusions- Venous recanalization started within the first 8 days of therapeutic anticoagulation in most patients with CVT and was associated with early regression of nonhemorrhagic lesions, including venous infarction. There was an association between persistent venous occlusion at day 8 and enlargement of nonhemorrhagic lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.028532DOI Listing
April 2020

Women in the European Stroke Organisation: One, two, many… - A and approach.

Eur Stroke J 2019 Sep 9;4(3):247-253. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Stroke Unit, Santa Maria della Misericordia, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Background: An increasing proportion of physicians are women, yet they still face challenges with career advancement. In 2014, the European Stroke Organisation established the goal of increasing the number and participation of women within the society using a and approach. The 'Women's Initiative for Stroke in Europe' was created the same year by a group of women active within the organisation. We aimed to assess the current status of women in European Stroke Organisation, and to explore the change in sex differences after the introduction of focused approaches to address disparities in 2014.

Methods: Using organisational records, we collected data on sex differences in core activities from 2008 up to 2017 including membership, participation in conferences, courses and in the official journal of the society, and positions of seniority and leadership. We estimated sex distribution differences in each of the activities from 2014 to date.

Results: In 2017, the proportion of female members was 40%, while 24% of fellows, 22% of the executive board and 19% of the editorial board in the official journal of the society were women. From 2014 to 2017, there was a significant increase in the proportion of female members (p = 0.0002) and in women participating in the annual conference as faculty (p = 0.001). There was no significant change in the sex distribution among the faculty members in junior educational activities (≤27%) or fellows.

Interpretation: In 2017, the proportion of women holding positions of seniority and leadership is still significantly lower to the proportion of women attending educational activities. Transparent data on sex distribution will assist implementing tailored programmes to achieve progress against sex-based barriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2396987319841979DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960690PMC
September 2019

Planning of stroke care and urgent prehospital care across Europe: Results of the ESO/ESMINT/EAN/SAFE Survey.

Eur Stroke J 2019 Dec 19;4(4):329-336. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital Bern and University of Bern, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland.

Introduction: Adequate planning and implementation of stroke systems of care is key to guarantee a rapid healthcare response and delivery of specific reperfusion therapies among candidates. We assessed the availability of stroke care plans in Europe, and evaluated their impact on rates of reperfusion therapies for stroke.

Patients: Based on the European Stroke Organisation (ESO), the European Society of Minimally Invasive Neurological Therapy (ESMINT), the European Academy of Neurology (EAN), and the Stroke Alliance for Europe (SAFE) survey, we analysed specific prespecified items in the questionnaire regarding availability and adequacy of stroke care plans, organised prehospital care and their potential impact on rates of delivery of reperfusion therapies for stroke at the country level.

Results: Of 44 participating European countries, 37 have stroke care plans that operate at national and/or regional levels. Most stroke care plans take responsibility for the organisation/implementation of stroke systems of care (86%), quality of care assessment (77%), and act as a liaison between emergency medical systems and stroke physicians (79%). As for stroke systems of care, the focus is mainly on prehospital and in-hospital acute stroke care (Code Stroke systems available in 37/44 countries). Preferred urgent transport is via non-medicalised ambulances (70%). Presence of stroke care plans, stroke registry data, transport of urgent stroke patients via non-medicalised ambulances, and drip-and-ship routing of acute patients showed higher reperfusion treatment rates.

Discussion: Availability of stroke care plans, still absent in some European countries, as well as some features of the stroke systems of care are associated with higher reperfusion treatment rates.

Conclusion: Stroke is not yet a priority everywhere in Europe, which is a barrier to the spread of reperfusion therapies for stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2396987319837106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6921941PMC
December 2019

Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: an Update.

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 2019 08 23;19(10):74. Epub 2019 Aug 23.

Serviço de Neurologia, Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Lisbon, Portugal.

Purpose Of Review: The purpose of this update is to summarize the recent advances on the management of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT).

Recent Findings: There is a trend in declining frequency of CVT patients presenting with focal deficits or coma and a decrease in mortality over time. Anemia and obesity were identified as risk factors for CVT. During pregnancy and puerperium, the higher risk of CVT occurs in the first months post-delivery. With appropriate management, 1/3 of comatose CVT patients can have a full recovery. The management of CVT patients includes treatment of associated conditions, anticoagulation with parenteral heparin, prevention of recurrent seizures, and decompressive neurosurgery in patients with large venous infarcts/hemorrhages with impending herniation. After the acute phase, patients should be anticoagulated for 3-12 months. Results of recently completed randomized controlled trials on endovascular treatment and comparing dabigatran with warfarin will improve the treatment of CVT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11910-019-0988-xDOI Listing
August 2019

Access to and delivery of acute ischaemic stroke treatments: A survey of national scientific societies and stroke experts in 44 European countries.

Eur Stroke J 2019 Mar 20;4(1):13-28. Epub 2018 Jul 20.

Department of Neurology, University of Bern, Inselspital, Bern, Switzerland.

Introduction: Acute stroke unit care, intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment significantly improve the outcome for patients with ischaemic stroke, but data on access and delivery throughout Europe are lacking. We assessed best available data on access and delivery of acute stroke unit care, intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment throughout Europe.

Methods: A survey, drafted by stroke professionals (ESO, ESMINT, EAN) and a patient organisation (SAFE), was sent to national stroke societies and experts in 51 European countries (World Health Organization definition) requesting experts to provide national data on stroke unit, intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular treatment rates. We compared both pooled and individual national data per one million inhabitants and per 1000 annual incident ischaemic strokes with highest country rates. Population estimates were based on United Nations data, stroke incidences on the Global Burden of Disease Report.

Results: We obtained data from 44 European countries. The estimated mean number of stroke units was 2.9 per million inhabitants (95% CI 2.3-3.6) and 1.5 per 1000 annual incident strokes (95% CI 1.1-1.9), highest country rates were 9.2 and 5.8. Intravenous thrombolysis was provided in 42/44 countries. The estimated mean annual number of intravenous thrombolysis was 142.0 per million inhabitants (95% CI 107.4-176.7) and 72.7 per 1000 annual incident strokes (95% CI 54.2-91.2), highest country rates were 412.2 and 205.5. Endovascular treatment was provided in 40/44 countries. The estimated mean annual number of endovascular treatments was 37.1 per million inhabitants (95% CI 26.7-47.5) and 19.3 per 1000 annual incident strokes (95% CI 13.5-25.1), highest country rates were 111.5 and 55.9. Overall, 7.3% of incident ischaemic stroke patients received intravenous thrombolysis (95% CI 5.4-9.1) and 1.9% received endovascular treatment (95% CI 1.3-2.5), highest country rates were 20.6% and 5.6%.

Conclusion: We observed major inequalities in acute stroke treatment between and within 44 European countries. Our data will assist decision makers implementing tailored stroke care programmes for reducing stroke-related morbidity and mortality in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2396987318786023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6533860PMC
March 2019

Trends in recruitment of women and reporting of sex differences in large-scale published randomized controlled trials in stroke.

Int J Stroke 2019 12 27;14(9):931-938. Epub 2019 May 27.

Department of Neurology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Background: Understanding of sex differences, especially in terms of the influence of sex on therapeutic interventions, can lead to improved treatment and management for all.

Aim: We examined temporal and regional trends in female participation and the reporting of sex differences in stroke randomized controlled trials.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials from 1990 to 2018 were identified from ClinicalTrials.gov, using keywords "stroke" and "cerebrovascular accidents." Studies were selected if they enrolled ≥100 participants, included both sexes and were published trials (identified using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus).

Results: Of 1700 stroke randomized controlled trials identified, 277 were published and eligible for analysis. Overall, these randomized controlled trials enrolled only 40% females, and in the past 10 years, this percentage barely changed, peaking at 41% in 2008-2009 and 2012-2013. North American randomized controlled trials recruited the most women, at 43%, and Asia the lowest, at 40%. Among the 277 randomized controlled trials, 101 (36%) reported results according to sex, of which 91 (33%) were pre-specified analyses. The increasing trend in the number of studies reporting sex-differentiated results from 2008 to 2018 merely paralleled the increase in the number of papers published during the same time period. North American randomized controlled trials most often reported sex-specific results (42%), and Australia and Europe least often (31%).

Conclusion: Little progress has been made in the inclusion of females and the reporting of sex in stroke randomized controlled trials. This highlights the need for key stakeholders, such as funders and journal editors, to provide clear guidance and effective implementation strategies to researchers in the scientific reporting of sex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1747493019851292DOI Listing
December 2019

Brush Sign Is Associated With Increased Severity in Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

Stroke 2019 06 30;50(6):1574-1577. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

University Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology (M.E-.K., A.H.), Inselspital University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland.

Background and Purpose- The brush sign (BS) is an abnormally accentuated signal drop of the subependymal and deep medullary veins in paramagnetic-sensitive magnetic resonance sequences, previously described in acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to describe the BS in patients with thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses and explore its association with clinical severity, thrombosis extent, parenchymal brain lesion, and clinical prognosis. Methods- We assessed consecutive adult patients admitted to 2 university hospitals with diagnosis of acute thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses and imaging assessment with magnetic resonance imaging, including paramagnetic-sensitive sequences. Demographics, imaging findings, clinical presentation, and functional outcome at 3 months were analyzed according to the presence of BS. Results- In 118 patients included, BS was observed in gradient-echo T2*weighted (T2*WI) in 16% and susceptibility-weighted imaging in 13% of cases. All patients with BS had thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus, straight sinus, or deep venous system. BS was associated with ipsilateral parenchymal lesion (odds ratio, 6.4; 95% CI, 1.9-21.1; P=0.002) and higher thrombus load (median [interquartile range] 5 [4-6] versus 2 [2-4]); P<0.0001). BS was also associated with focal neurological deficits (OR 4.2; 95%CI, 1.4-12.7, P=0.01). The functional outcome at 3 months was not significantly different in patients with BS. Conclusions- BS in T2*WI and susceptibility-weighted imaging was observed in approximately one in 7 patients with acute thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses. BS was significantly associated with ipsilateral parenchymal brain lesion, extent of thrombosis, and manifestation with focal neurological deficits. This suggests that BS can represent a marker of severity in thrombosis of the cerebral veins and sinuses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.025342DOI Listing
June 2019

Direct Gaze Partially Overcomes Hemispatial Neglect and Captures Spatial Attention.

Front Psychol 2018 15;9:2702. Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Neurology, Hospital de Santa Maria, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.

Direct gaze has been shown to be a particularly important social cue, being preferentially processed even when unconsciously perceived. Results from several visual search tasks further suggest that direct gaze modulates attention, showing a faster orientation to faces perceived as looking toward us. The present study aimed to analyze putative modulation of spatial attention by eye gaze direction in patients with unilateral neglect. Eight right hemisphere stroke patients with neglect performed a target cancelation paradigm. Patients were instructed to cross all open-eyed pictures amidst closed eyed distractors. Target images were either in direct or averted gaze. Participants performed significantly better when observing targets with direct gaze supporting the hypothesis that this gaze direction captures attention. These findings further suggest that perception of direct gaze is able to diminish the visuospatial impairment seen in neglect patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6340963PMC
January 2019
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