Publications by authors named "Dian Zhang"

62 Publications

A Systematic and Critical Review of Discrete Choice Experiments in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Patient 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Evidera, The Ark, 201 Talgarth Rd, London, W6 8BJ, UK.

Background: Regulators have called for greater emphasis on the role of the patient voice to inform medical product development and decision making, and expert guidelines and reports for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) both explicitly recommend the consideration of patient preferences in the management of these diseases. Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) are commonly used to quantify stakeholders' treatment preferences and estimate the trade-offs they are willing to make between outcomes such as treatment benefits and risks.

Objective: The aim of this systematic literature review is to provide an up-to-date and critical review of DCEs published in asthma and COPD; specifically, we aim to evaluate the subject of preference studies conducted in asthma and COPD, what attributes have been included, stakeholders' preferences, and the consistency in reporting of instrument development, testing and reporting of results.

Methods: A systematic review of published DCEs on asthma and COPD treatments was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Studies were included if they included a DCE conducted in a relevant population (e.g. patients with asthma or COPD or their caregivers, asthma or COPD-treating clinicians, or the general population), and reported quantitative outcomes on participants' preferences. Study characteristics were summarised descriptively, and descriptive analyses of attribute categories, consistency in reporting on key criteria, and stakeholder preferences were undertaken.

Results: A total of 33 eligible studies were identified, including 28 unique DCEs. The majority (n = 20; 71%) of studies were conducted in a patient sample. Studies focused on inhaler treatments, and included attributes in five key categories: symptoms and treatment benefits (n = 23; 82%), treatment convenience (n = 19; 68%), treatment cost (n = 17; 61%), treatment risks (n = 13; 46%), and other (n = 10; 36%). Symptoms and treatment benefits were the attributes most frequently ranked as important to patients (n = 26, 72%), followed by treatment risks (n = 7, 39%). Several studies (n = 9, 32%) did not qualitatively pre-test their DCE, and a majority did not report the uncertainty in estimated outcomes (n = 18; 64%).

Conclusions: DCEs in asthma and COPD have focused on treatment benefits and convenience, with less evidence generated on participants' risk tolerance. Quality criteria and reporting standards are needed to promote study quality and ensure consistency in reporting between studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40271-021-00536-wDOI Listing
July 2021

Simulating spatial change of mangrove habitat under the impact of coastal land use: Coupling MaxEnt and Dyna-CLUE models.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Sep 21;788:147914. Epub 2021 May 21.

Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen 361005, PR China; Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecological Conservation and Restoration, Xiamen 361005, PR China. Electronic address:

Global mangrove forests have exhibited distinct changes in the past decades owing to anthropogenic activities, with land-use pressure being among the main causes of mangrove loss. Thus, understanding the inherent conflicts between conservation/restoration and land-use demands is fundamental for mangrove management. To predict how land-use changes will drive the spatiotemporal patterns of mangrove habitats, a novel integrated framework coupling MaxEnt and Dyna-CLUE modeling was proposed. The coupled model can identify suitable mangrove afforestation habitats and predict the impact of land-use change on potential mangrove habitats. In this study, the model was used to predict the mangrove habitat change in 2030 in the province with the most mangrove forests in China. The potential suitable habitat of 14 mangrove species under three coastal land-use scenarios were mapped using the coupled model. Under the current trend scenario, only 41.2% of the existing wetland would be retained, whereas the potential distribution area of all the mangrove species will decrease by an average of 30%. Under the sustainable development and ecological protection scenarios, the mangrove habitat could be increased by 11% to 61%, depending on the species. Different mangrove species showed varied sensitivity to the improved land-use policies, with several species being harder to restore than others, even under aggressive protection and restoration policies. The combined use of both MaxEnt and Dyna-CLUE models proved complementary and offered insights into the impacts of different land-use policies on the spatiotemporal change of mangrove habitats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147914DOI Listing
September 2021

Phylogenetic identification of symbiotic protists of five Chinese Reticulitermes species indicates a cospeciation of gut microfauna with host termites.

J Eukaryot Microbiol 2021 Jun 13:e12862. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Hubei Key Laboratory of Genetic Regulation and Integrative Biology, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Entomology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, China.

Symbiotic protists play important roles in the wood digestion of lower termites. Previous studies showed that termites generally possess host-specific flagellate communities. The genus Reticulitermes is particularly interesting because its unique assemblage of gut flagellates bears evidence for transfaunation. The gut fauna of Reticulitermes species in Japan, Europe, and North America had been investigated, but data on species in China are scarce. For the first time, we analyzed the phylogeny of protists in the hindgut of five Reticulitermes species in China. A total of 22 protist phylotypes were affiliated with the family Trichonymphidae, Teranymphidae, Trichomonadidae, and Holomastigotoididae (Phylum Parabasalia), and 45 protist phylotypes were affiliated with the family Pyrsonymphidae (Phylum Preaxostyla). The protist fauna of these five Reticulitermes species is similar to those of Reticulitermes species in other geographical regions. The topology of Trichonymphidae subtree was similar to that of Reticulitermes tree. All Preaxostyla clones were affiliated with the genera Pyrsonympha and Dinenympha (Order Oxymonadida) as in the other Reticulitermes species. The results of this study not only add to the existing information on the flagellates present in other Reticulitermes species but also offer the opportunity to test the hypotheses for the coevolution of symbiotic protists with their host termites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jeu.12862DOI Listing
June 2021

Aeration in sludge holding tanks as an economical means for biosolids odor control-A case study.

Water Environ Res 2021 May 15. Epub 2021 May 15.

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Center for Applied Water Research and Innovation, Ashburn, VA, USA.

Abnormally high-odor detection threshold (DT) values were detected for biosolids produced at one of the water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) of Washington Suburban Sanitary Commission. As an inexpensive countermeasure, aeration of thickened sludge holding tanks (SHTs) was tested as a solution for mitigating the subsequent biosolids odor emission. Experimental results indicated that the extremely low-oxidation reduction potential (ORP) in the SHTs and the fermentation of high-rate-activated sludge were primarily contributors to the odor emission from the dewatered cake. Two rounds of bench-scale experiments on different days confirmed that aerating the sludge in holding tanks reduced peak emission concentrations of sulfurous odorous compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H S), methanethiol (MT), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from 203, 110, and 20 mg m  g dry to 119, 70, and 14 mg m  g dry, respectively. Further preliminary full-scale validation study showed that even a slight ORP improvement from -180 mV to -162 mV reduced the peak H S concentration from 87 to 48 mg m  g dry and decreased the biosolids DT value from 4266 to 1862. It was concluded that lifting ORP in SHTs through aeration can be used by utilities as a simple means for biosolids odor control. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Anaerobic storage of high-rate active sludge was the main reason for the excessive biosolids odor. Aeration of sludge holding tanks can effectively reduce biosolids odor. A slight oxidation reduction potential improvement substantially reduced biosolids odor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wer.1582DOI Listing
May 2021

A Critical Role of Peptidylprolyl Isomerase A Pseudogene 22/microRNA-197-3p/Peptidylprolyl Isomerase A Axis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Front Genet 2021 15;12:604461. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Infectious Diseases, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China.

The burden of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide is increasing over time, while the underlying molecular mechanism of HCC development is still under exploration. Pseudogenes are classified as a special type of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and they played a vital role in regulating tumor-associated gene expression. Here, we report that a pseudogene peptidylprolyl isomerase A pseudogene 22 (PPIAP22) and its parental gene peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA) were upregulated in HCC and were associated with the clinical outcomes of HCC. Further investigation revealed that PPIAP22 might upregulate the expression of PPIA through sponging microRNA (miR)-197-3p, behaving as competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA). PPIA could participate in the development of HCC by regulating mRNA metabolic process and tumor immunity based on the functional enrichment analysis. We also found a strong correlation between the expression levels of PPIA and the immune cell infiltration or the expression of chemokines, especially macrophage, C-C motif chemokine ligand 15 (CCL15), and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12). Our findings demonstrate that the PPIAP22/miR-197-3p/PPIA axis plays a vital role in the progression of HCC by increasing the malignancy of tumor cells and regulating the immune cell infiltration, especially macrophage, through CCL15-CCR1 or CXCL12-CXCR4/CXCR7 pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.604461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006304PMC
March 2021

Association of coagulation dysfunction with cardiac injury among hospitalized patients with COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 02 24;11(1):4432. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, 130 Dong'an Road, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Cardiac injury is a common complication of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and is associated with adverse clinical outcomes. In this study, we aimed to reveal the association of cardiac injury with coagulation dysfunction. We enrolled 181 consecutive patients who were hospitalized with COVID-19, and studied the clinical characteristics and outcome of these patients. Cardiac biomarkers high-sensitivity troponin I (hs-cTnI), myohemoglobin and creatine kinase-myocardial band (CK-MB) were assessed in all patients. The clinical outcomes were defined as hospital discharge or death. The median age of the study cohort was 55 (IQR, 46-65) years, and 102 (56.4%) were males. Forty-two of the 181 patients (23.2%) had cardiac injury. Old age, high leukocyte count, and high levels of aspartate transaminase (AST), D-dimer and serum ferritin were significantly associated with cardiac injury. Multivariate regression analysis revealed old age and elevated D-dimer levels as being strong risk predictors of in-hospital mortality. Interleukin 6 (IL6) levels were comparable in patients with or without cardiac injury. Serial observations of coagulation parameters demonstrated highly synchronous alterations of D-dimer along with progression to cardiac injury. Cardiac injury is a common complication of COVID-19 and is an independent risk factor for in-hospital mortality. Old age, high leukocyte count, and high levels of AST, D-dimer and serum ferritin are significantly associated with cardiac injury, whereas IL6 are not. Therefore, the pathogenesis of cardiac injury in COVID-19 may be primarily due to coagulation dysfunction along with microvascular injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83822-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904824PMC
February 2021

[Progranulin (PGRN) promotes invasion and migration of mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells by promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition of cancer cells and activating ERK1/2 pathway].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2021 Feb;37(2):125-131

Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To investigate the effect of progranulin (PGRN) on the invasion and migration of mouse breast cancer 4T1 cells and its mechanism. Methods After treated with PGRN (1 μg/mL) for 24 hours, the invasion ability of breast cancer 4T1 cells was detected by Transwell invasion assay, the migration ability was detected by scratch test, and the epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin), vimentin mRNA expression was detected by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR. Western blot assay was used to detect the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2). After treated with 1 μg/mL PGRN and ERK1/2 signaling pathway inhibitor U0126 (10 μmol/L) simultaneously, the migration and invasion ability of 4T1 cells and the changes in the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and p-ERK proteins were detected again. Results After treated with PGRN, the migration and invasion capabilities of breast cancer 4T1 cells were significantly enhanced; E-cadherin expression decreased; vimentin and p-ERK1/2 expression increased. After treated with ERK1/2 signaling pathway inhibitor, the ability of PGRN to promote breast cancer 4T1 cell migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was significantly inhibited. Conclusion PGRN can promote the migration and invasion of breast cancer 4T1 cells by promoting EMT and activating the ERK1/2 pathway.
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February 2021

Progranulin induces immune escape in breast cancer via up-regulating PD-L1 expression on tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and promoting CD8 T cell exclusion.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jan 4;40(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, People's Republic of China.

Background: Progranulin (PGRN), as a multifunctional growth factor, is overexpressed in multiple tumors, but the role of PGRN on tumor immunity is still unclear. Here, we studied the effect of PGRN on breast cancer tumor immunity and its possible molecular mechanism.

Methods: The changes of macrophage phenotypes after PGRN treatment were detected by western blot, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and flow cytometry. Western blot was used to study the signal molecular mechanism of PGRN regulating this process. The number and localization of immune cells in Wild-type (WT) and PGRN breast cancer tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence techniques. The activation and proliferation of CD8 T cells were measured by flow cytometry.

Results: After being treated with PGRN, the expressions of M2 markers and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) on macrophages increased significantly. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway inhibitor Stattic significantly inhibited the expression of PD-L1 and M2 related markers induced by PGRN. In WT group, CD8 were co-localized with macrophages and PD-L1, but not tumor cells. The number of immune cells in PGRN breast cancer tissue increased, and their infiltration into tumor parenchyma was also enhanced. Moreover, in the co-culture system, WT peritoneal macrophages not only reduced the ratio of activated CD8 T cells but also reduced the proportion of proliferating CD8 T cells. The addition of programmed death receptor 1 (PD-1) and PD-L1 neutralizing antibodies effectively reversed this effect and restored the immune function of CD8 T cells.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate that PGRN promotes M2 polarization and PD-L1 expression by activating the STAT3 signaling pathway. Furthermore, through PD-1/PD-L1 interaction, PGRN can promote the breast tumor immune escape. Our research may provide new ideas and targets for clinical breast cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-020-01786-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780622PMC
January 2021

A deviation correction strategy based on particle filtering and improved model predictive control for vertical drilling.

ISA Trans 2021 May 7;111:265-274. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

School of Automation, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074, China; Hubei Key Laboratory of Advanced Control and Intelligent Automation for Complex Systems, Wuhan 430074, China; Engineering Research Center of Intelligent Technology for Geo-Exploration, Ministry of Education, Wuhan 430074, China. Electronic address:

This paper is concerned with the correction of trajectory deviation in vertical drilling. Note that the accuracy of correction control will be reduced significantly by measurement and process noises, which finally leads to that the inclination angle exceeds beyond a tolerable limit. To deal with such noises and take into account practical constraints, a deviation correction strategy is developed for vertical drilling based on particle filtering and improved model predictive control in this paper. Firstly, the distributions and characters of the measurement and process noises in vertical drilling process are analyzed, and their approximate prior probability distributions are obtained. Based on the analysis, the structure of the deviation correction strategy is provided, including a particle filter and an improved model predictive controller which introduces a flexible constraint and an adjustable weight. The particle filter is effective to reject the measurement noises, and the improved model predictive controller plays an important role in achieving a small inclination of the drilling trajectory. Finally, two groups of simulations are carried out to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed correction strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2020.11.023DOI Listing
May 2021

PGRN TAMs-derived exosomes inhibit breast cancer cell invasion and migration and its mechanism exploration.

Life Sci 2021 Jan 9;264:118687. Epub 2020 Nov 9.

Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, PR China. Electronic address:

Breast cancer is one of the most malignant diseases world-wide and ranks the first among female cancers. Progranulin (PGRN) plays a carcinogenic role in breast cancer, but its mechanisms are not clear. In addition, there are few reports on the relationship between PGRN and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs).

Aims: To investigate the effects of exosomes derived from PGRN TAMs on invasion and migration of breast cancer cells.

Main Methods: Mouse breast cancer xenograft model was constructed to explore the effect of PGRN tumor environment (TME) on breast cancer. Flow cytometry was used to compare TAMs of wild type (WT) and PGRN tumor tissue. Transwell assay, wound healing assay and western blot were used to explore the effect of WT and PGRN TAMs and their exosomes on invasion, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of breast cancer cells. MicroRNA (miRNA) assay was used to find out the differentially expressed miRNA of negative control (NC) and siPGRN-TAMs exosomes. Quantitative PCR and luciferase report assay were used to explore the target gene.

Key Findings: The lung metastasis of breast cancer of PGRN mice was inhibited. PGRN TAMs inhibited invasion, migration and EMT of breast cancer cells through their exosomes. MiR-5100 of PGRN TAMs-derived exosomes was up-regulated, which might regulate expression of CXCL12, thereby inhibiting the CXCL12/CXCR4 axis, and ultimately inhibiting the invasion, migration and EMT of breast cancer cells.

Significance: Our study elucidates a new molecular mechanism of lung metastasis of breast cancer, so it may contribute to efficient prevention and therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118687DOI Listing
January 2021

Mapping the potential of mangrove forest restoration based on species distribution models: A case study in China.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Dec 12;748:142321. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Third Institute of Oceanography, Ministry of Natural Resources, Xiamen 361005, PR China; Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Marine Ecological Conservation and Restoration, Xiamen 361005, PR China. Electronic address:

Mangrove forests support numerous ecosystem services and contribute to coastal ecological risk reduction. However, they are one of the most severely threatened ecosystems in the world. China has carried out national mangrove restoration projects, but there is still insufficient scientific information for the strategic planning of this restoration. In this study, we carried out mangrove suitability assessments using the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP) and maximum entropy (MaxEnt) models, and we mapped the restoration potential of mangrove forests in China for the first time. The restoration potential index (RPI), which combines suitability and land use data, is proposed as a rapid estimator method for locating theoretically available areas for restoration. The results showed that the MaxEnt model performed better than GARP in predicting potential mangrove distributions. Temperature was the most important environmental factor for determining large scale distribution of mangroves. The predicted northern limit of mangrove distribution was around 28°27' N-28°35' N. Using the RPI approach, 16,800 ha with the potential to restore mangrove forests was identified. According to both models, the largest area with restoration potential occurs along the Guangdong and Guangxi coast. Nationwide, about 75% of the potential area suitable for mangrove forests has been lost as a consequence of land use and is no longer available for restoration. Around 6400 ha of ponds is currently used for aquaculture, accounting for 38% of theoretically restorable areas. These areas can be a priority for mangrove forest restoration. In conclusion, our findings provide a better scientific understanding of mangrove distribution in China and can underpin strategic design and planning of mangrove restoration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142321DOI Listing
December 2020

A comprehensive review of catchment water quality monitoring using a tiered framework of integrated sensing technologies.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Apr 5;765:142766. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

School of Chemical Sciences, Dublin City University, Ireland; DCU Water Institute, Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland. Electronic address:

Due to the growing threat of climate change, new advances in water quality monitoring strategies are needed now more than ever. Reliable and robust monitoring practices can be used to improve and better understand catchment processes affecting the water quality. In recent years the deployment of long term in-situ sensors has increased the temporal and spatial data being obtained. Furthermore, the development and research into remote sensing using satellite and aerial imagery has been incrementally integrated into catchments for monitoring areas that previously might have been impossible to monitor, producing high-resolution data that has become imperative to catchment monitoring. The use of modelling in catchments has become relevant as it enables the prediction of events before they occur so that strategic plans can be put in place to deal with or prevent certain threats. This review highlights the monitoring approaches employed in catchments currently and examines the potential for integration of these methods. A framework might incorporate all monitoring strategies to obtain more information about a catchment and its water quality. The future of monitoring will involve satellite, in-situ and air borne devices with data analytics playing a key role in providing decision support tools. The review provides examples of successful use of individual technologies, some combined approaches and identifies gaps that should be filled to achieve an ideal catchment observation system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142766DOI Listing
April 2021

Neuroprotective effects of the aerial parts of Willd extract on scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in mice.

Biomed Rep 2020 Nov 19;13(5):37. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710069, P.R. China.

Alzheimer's disease is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive cognitive dysfunction and behavioral impairment. Aerial parts of Willd (APT) is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of amnesia. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effects of APT on scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairments in mice. Scopolamine-induced mice were used to determine the effects of APT on learning and memory impairment. Mice were orally administered with APT (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) and piracetam (750 mg/kg) for 14 days, and intraperitoneally injected with scopolamine (2 mg/kg) from days 8 to 14. Morris water maze and step-down tests were performed to evaluate learning and memory. Levels of acetylcholine (ACh), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-10 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus and frontal cortex were measured by ELISA. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were measured via biochemical detection. The results demonstrated that APT ameliorated learning and memory impairment in scopolamine-induced mice. Correspondingly, APT significantly increased ACh and ChAT levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of scopolamine-induced mice. Additionally, treatment with APT significantly increased BDNF and IL-10 levels, and decreased IL-1β and AChE levels in the same mice. Furthermore, APT significantly increased SOD activity and GSH content, and decreased MDA levels in brain tissue. These results indicated that APT may ameliorate learning and memory impairment by regulating cholinergic activity, promoting BDNF and inhibiting neuroinflammation and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/br.2020.1344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7453304PMC
November 2020

Extract of the Aerial Part of Polygala tenuifolia Attenuates d-Galactose/NaNO2-induced Learning and Memory Impairment in Mice.

Planta Med 2020 Dec 14;86(18):1389-1399. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University, Xi'an, China.

Alzheimer's disease, one of the most common types of age-related dementia, is characterized by memory deterioration and behavior disorder. The aboveground part of is a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of amnesia. This study was conducted to investigate the ameliorating effect of the aerial part of on d-galactose/NaNO-induced learning and memory impairment in mice. d-galactose (120 mg/kg) and NaNO (90 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally for 60 days to induce learning and memory impairment in mice. The aerial part of (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) and piracetam (200 mg/kg) were simultaneously administered orally on days 15 - 60. Results of this study showed that aerial part of significantly decreased the latency time and increased the number of platform crossings in the Morris water maze compared with the Model group. Moreover, the aerial part of significantly increased the latency time and decreased the error frequency in the step-down and step-through tests compared with the Model group. Meanwhile, the aerial part of was able to regulate the cholinergic system by increasing the levels of ACh and ChAT and decreasing the level of AChe. The aerial part of also significantly attenuated the levels of interleukin-1 beta and malonaldehyde and enhanced the interleukin-10 and glutathione levels and superoxide dismutase activity. Furthermore, treatment with aerial part of increased the protein and mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin receptor kinase B in the hippocampus. These results suggest that the aerial part of can ameliorate learning and memory impairments by modulating cholinergic activity, inhibiting neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, and regulating the brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin receptor kinase B signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1212-3212DOI Listing
December 2020

Nucleus-located PDK1 regulates growth, invasion and migration of breast cancer cells.

Life Sci 2020 Jul 26;253:117722. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Key Laboratory of Clinical Laboratory Diagnostics (Ministry of Education), College of Laboratory Medicine, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, PR China. Electronic address:

Aims: It is well known that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) is highly expressed in breast cancer (BC) tissues and promotes tumor growth, but the underlying mechanisms of this process are unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of nuclear PDK1 on growth, migration and invasion in human BC cells.

Main Methods: The sub-cellular localization of PDK1 in BC cells was performed with subcellular fractionation followed by Western blot and immunofluorescence. The localization of PDK1 in breast normal tissue and breast duct carcinoma was detected by Immunohistochemistry. Then the protein-protein interaction between PDK1 and Importin β was verified by co-immunoprecipitation assay. Finally, the effects of nuclear PDK1 on cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion of BC cells were assessed.

Key Findings: In addition to its well-known sub-cellular localization, PDK1 was present in the nucleus of BC cells, and EGF treatment increased nucleus distribution of PDK1. Moreover, the level of nuclear PDK1 accumulation facilitated the growth of BC cells. We also found that the entry of PDK1 into nucleus mainly relied on the nuclear localization signal (NLS), and NLS mutation inhibited the entry of PDK1 into nucleus; as a result, the migration and invasion abilities of BC cells were impaired, and the number of apoptotic cells was significantly increased.

Significance: Our findings provided a new supplement to the sub-cellular localization of PDK1 in BC cells and uncovered the function of nuclear PDK1 in facilitating BC cells growth, migration and invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117722DOI Listing
July 2020

CD41-deficient exosomes from non-traumatic femoral head necrosis tissues impair osteogenic differentiation and migration of mesenchymal stem cells.

Cell Death Dis 2020 04 27;11(4):293. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Orthopedics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 400016, China.

Non-traumatic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) is clinically a devastating and progressive disease without an effective treatment. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation has been used to treat ONFH in early stage, but the failure rate of this therapy is high due to the reduced osteogenic differentiation and migration of the transplanted MSCs related with pathological bone tissues. However, the mechanism responsible for this decrease is still unclear. Therefore, we assume that the implanted MSCs might be influenced by signals delivered from pathological bone tissue, where the exosomes might play a critical role in this delivery. This study showed that exosomes from ONFH bone tissues (ONFH-exos) were able to induce GC-induced ONFH-like damage, in vivo and impair osteogenic differentiation and migration of MSCs, in vitro. Then, we analyzed the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in ONFH-exos using proteomic technology and identified 842 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). On the basis of gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of DEPs, fold-changes and previous report, cell adhesion-related CD41 (integrin α2b) was selected for further investigation. Our study showed that the CD41 (integrin α2b) was distinctly decreased in ONFH-exos, compared to NOR-exos, and downregulation of CD41 could impair osteogenic differentiation and migration of the MSCs, where CD41-integrin β3-FAK-Akt-Runx2 pathway was involved. Finally, our study further suggested that CD41-affluent NOR-exos could restore the glucocorticoid-induced decline of osteogenic differentiation and migration in MSCs, and prevent GC-induced ONFH-like damage in rat models. Taken together, our study results revealed that in the progress of ONFH, exosomes from the pathological bone brought about the failure of MSCs repairing the necrotic bone for lack of some critical proteins, like integrin CD41, and prompted the progression of experimentally induced ONFH-like status in the rat. CD41 could be considered as the target of early diagnosis and therapy in ONFH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2496-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184624PMC
April 2020

Recalcitrant dissolved organic nitrogen formation in thermal hydrolysis pretreatment of municipal sludge.

Environ Int 2020 05 13;138:105629. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Occoquan Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, 9408 Prince William Street, Manassas, VA 20110, USA. Electronic address:

Thermal hydrolysis pretreatment (THP) has been considered as an advanced approach to enhance the performance of anaerobic digestion treating municipal sludge. However, several drawbacks were also identified with THP including the formation of brown and ultraviolet-quenching compounds that contain recalcitrant dissolved organic nitrogen (rDON). Melanoidins produced from the Maillard reaction between reducing sugar and amino group have been regarded as a representative of such compounds. This review presented the state-of-the-art understanding of the mechanism of melanoidin formation derived from the research of sludge THP, food processing, and model Maillard reaction systems. Special attentions were paid to factors affecting melanoidin formation and their implications to the control of rDON in the sludge THP process. These factors include reactant availability, heating temperature and time, pH, and the presence of metallic ions. It was concluded that efforts need to be focused on elucidating the extent of the Maillard reaction in sludge THP. This paper aims to provide a mechanistic recommendation on the research and control of the THP-resulted rDON in municipal wastewater treatment plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.105629DOI Listing
May 2020

The mechanism of propofol in cancer development: An updated review.

Asia Pac J Clin Oncol 2020 Apr 22;16(2):e3-e11. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Brain Disorders, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Ischemic Cardiovascular Disease, Xi'an Medical University, Xi'an, China.

Cancer is a key cause of death worldwide. Despite the development of radiotherapy, chemotherapy and even immunotherapy, surgery remains the standard treatment for cancer patients. Recently, many studies have shown that propofol, a commonly used anesthetic drug, can affect the prognosis of cancer. In this review, we provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms of propofol in the development of cancer. Propofol not only affects epigenetic pathways, such as those involving miRNA, lncRNA and histone acetylation, but also modulates genetic signaling pathways, including the hypoxia, NF-κB, MAPK, SLUG and Nrf2 pathways. In addition, propofol influences the immune function of patients and impacts the degree of immunosuppression. Furthermore, we briefly summarize the clinical trials on the effect of propofol in cancer development. Ultimately, further studies distinguishing the types of tumors in clinical trials are needed to clarify the correlation between propofol and cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajco.13301DOI Listing
April 2020

Site-specific incorporation of sodium tripolyphosphate into myofibrillar protein from mantis shrimp (Oratosquilla oratoria) promotes protein crosslinking and gel network formation.

Food Chem 2020 May 26;312:126113. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

College of Biotechnology and Food Science, Tianjin University of Commerce, Tianjin 300134, China.

Formation of protein gels in processed muscle foods is one of the most important functionalities. To explore the mechanisms responsible for affecting gel properties of muscle proteins by phosphates, myofibrillar protein (MP) from mantis shrimp (Oratosquilla oratoria) was treated with sodium tripolyphosphate at three pH values (7.0, 8.0, and 9.0). FTIR and UPLC-MS/MS firstly confirmed that phosphate groups were introduced to MP through COP bonds via serine and threonine residues. The incorporation of STP caused increased electronegativity and solubility, more stable α-helix secondary conformation, and reduced tryptophan fluorescence intensity of MP, especially at pH 8.0 and 9.0. These changes led to a finer, ordered and denser three-dimensional gel network microstructure with higher gel strength and elasticity, and water-holding capacity. This study demonstrated that the introduction of phosphate groups could increase negatively charged residues in MP, enhance the crosslinks of proteins through ionic interaction, and promote gel network formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.126113DOI Listing
May 2020

[Molecular mechanism of macrophages derived from PGRN gene knockout mice inhibit invasion and migration of breast cancer cells].

Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi 2019 Sep;35(9):769-775

Ministry-of-Education Key Laboratory of Laboratory Medical Diagnostics, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400016, China. *Corresponding author, E-mail:

Objective To explore the functions and mechanisms of macrophages derived from PGRN gene knockout (PGRN ) C57BL/6 mice in the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Methods Breast cancer cells were cultured in conditioned medium of macrophages derived from WT and PGRN mice. Transwell assay and scratch assay were used to detect the invasion and migration ability of cancer cells. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in cancer cells. Cytokine array, real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA were performed to investigate the differences of cytokines secreted by macrophages derived from WT and PGRN mice. Breast cancer cells were treated by the differentially expressed cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and then the above methods were used to investigate its effect on cancer cells. Western blot analysis was used to verify the roles of NF-κB and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways. Results The macrophages derived from PGRN mice blocked NF-κB signaling pathway, reduced IL-6 secretion, and inhibited the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. IL-6 activated JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway to promote the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells. Conclusion The macrophages derived from PGRN mice can block the NF-κB and JAK/STAT3 signaling pathways, down-regulate IL-6 expression, and inhibit the invasion and migration of breast cancer cells.
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September 2019

The effectiveness of exercise on cervical radiculopathy: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Aug;98(35):e16975

Wangjing Hospital of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences.

Background: Significant functional limitations and disabilities are common presenting complaints for people suffering from cervical radiculopathy. Exercise is a common conservative treatment for this disease. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the efficacy of exercise in the treatment of cervical radiculopathy.

Methods: A systematic literature search for studies will be performed in 7 databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, the Cochrane Library, the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database (CNKI), Wanfang database, and VIP database. The methodological quality of the included studies using the risk bias assessment tool of Cochrane and the level of evidence for results are assessed by the GRADE method. Statistical analysis is conducted with Revman 5.3.

Results: This systematic review and meta-analysis will provide a synthesis of existed evidences for exercise on cervical radiculopathy.

Conclusion: The conclusion of this study will provide evidence to assess effectiveness of exercise on cervical radiculopathy, which can further guide clinical decision-making.

Prospero Registration Number: CRD42019121886.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000016975DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736459PMC
August 2019

Simultaneous Quantification of Seven Constituents from Zaoren Anshen Prescription and Four Endogenic Components in Rat Plasma by UHPLC-TSQ-MS/MS and the Application of the Correlation Study.

Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2019 Aug 5;67(8):855-863. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Key Laboratory of Resource Biology and Biotechnology in Western China, Ministry of Education, Northwest University.

A highly rapid and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TSQ-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 7 constituents from Zaoren Anshen prescription (ZAP) and 4 endogenic components in rat plasma. The proteins in the plasma samples were removed using acetonitrile. The separation of the 11 components was performed on an Alltima C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid water as the mobile phase. Quantification of the 11 components was performed by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), and the electrospray ion source polarity was switched between positive and negative modes. The method exhibited good linearity for the 11 components (R > 0.9942). The lower quantitative limit for the 11 components was in the range from 0.90-9.95 ng/mL. The precision was evaluated by intraday and interday assays, with all relative standard deviation (RSD)% values within 14.92%. The relative error of the accuracy ranged from -9.90 to 14.93%. The recovery ranged from 73.94 to 101.06%, and the matrix effects of the 7 components ranged from 80.06 to 105.70%. The developed method was successfully applied for correlation analysis for the simultaneous quantification of the 7 constituents from ZAP and 4 endogenic components in rat plasma after ZAP treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/cpb.c19-00299DOI Listing
August 2019

Using cerium chloride to control soluble orthophosphate concentration and improve the dewaterability of sludge: Part II. A case study.

Water Environ Res 2020 Mar 13;92(3):331-337. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Occoquan Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Manassas, Virginia.

High concentration of orthophosphate ion (OP) in anaerobically digested sludge can lead to struvite crystallization, deterioration of sludge dewaterability, and elevated mainstream OP loading through centrate recirculation. The Upper Occoquan Service Authority (UOSA) has observed seasonally high OP levels in its dewatering blend tank, which was found in this study to be a consequence of unwanted biological phosphorus accumulation during the intensified winter denitrification operation and the subsequent OP release in the course of anaerobic digestion. In order to control the nuisance struvite scaling issues, a bench study was conducted and cerium chloride (CeCl ) was dosed as an effective OP precipitant. The results of this study demonstrated that CeCl dosing showed higher OP removal efficiency than other commonly used OP precipitants. In addition, bench-scale simulations indicated sludge dewaterability improvements which were used to predict lower polymer and dewatering energy demands at the full scale. The economic analysis conducted in this case study showed that the seasonal dosing of CeCl at UOSA has the potential to provide a net annual saving of US $47,000. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Biological phosphorus accumulation during the intensified denitrification operation caused seasonally high sludge OP and struvite scaling issues at UOSA. CeCl was evaluated as an effective OP precipitant for struvite control and dewaterability improvement when aluminum and iron were determined to be unfavorable. Seasonal dosing of CeCl at UOSA projected a net annual saving of US $47,000.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wer.1150DOI Listing
March 2020

A Low-Cost Smart Sensor Network for Catchment Monitoring.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 May 17;19(10). Epub 2019 May 17.

Water Institute, Dublin City University, Dublin D9, Ireland.

Understanding hydrological processes in large, open areas, such as catchments, and further modelling these processes are still open research questions. The system proposed in this work provides an automatic end-to-end pipeline from data collection to information extraction that can potentially assist hydrologists to better understand the hydrological processes using a data-driven approach. In this work, the performance of a low-cost off-the-shelf self contained sensor unit, which was originally designed and used to monitor liquid levels, such as AdBlue, fuel, lubricants etc., in a sealed tank environment, is first examined. This process validates that the sensor does provide accurate water level information for open water level monitoring tasks. Utilising the dataset collected from eight sensor units, an end-to-end pipeline of automating the data collection, data processing and information extraction processes is proposed. Within the pipeline, a data-driven anomaly detection method that automatically extracts rapid changes in measurement trends at a catchment scale. The lag-time of the test site (Dodder catchment Dublin, Ireland) is also analyzed. Subsequently, the water level response in the catchment due to storm events during the 27 month deployment period is illustrated. To support reproducible and collaborative research, the collected dataset and the source code of this work will be publicly available for research purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19102278DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6567359PMC
May 2019

Using cerium chloride to control soluble orthophosphate concentration and improve the dewaterability of sludge: Part I. Mechanistic understanding.

Water Environ Res 2020 Mar 5;92(3):320-330. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

Occoquan Laboratory, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Virginia Tech, Manassas, Virginia.

Cerium chloride (CeCl ), being a superior orthophosphate (OP) precipitant, was found to be able to significantly improve sludge dewaterability in terms of sludge cake dryness and capillary suction time. In order to offer insights into the mechanism behind OP removal associated dewaterability improvement, the change in sludge specific resistance to filtration (SRF), compressibility (K), and bound water contents (U ) in response to CeCl and CePO addition at the two cationic polymer doses was mathematically simulated. Results showed that 29.8 g/kg dry solid CePO addition was able to decrease the SRF by 52%, decrease the U by 42%, and reduce the K by 18%. Importantly, CeCl addition of equal cerium molarity showed even higher SRF and U reductions by 67% and 54%, respectively, but the same K reduction. A new theory depicting how the OP has outcompeted negatively charged sludge particles for cationic polymers is put forward in this study to interpret the effect of OP removal on sludge dewaterability improvement. PRACTITIONER POINTS: Efficient orthophosphate (OP) removal and sludge dewaterability improvement were achieved with CeCl addition. Both CePO precipitate and OP removal contributed to the improved dewaterability. Competition between OP and sludge particles for cationic polymers was explained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wer.1142DOI Listing
March 2020

Structure-Function Analysis Indicates that an Active-Site Water Molecule Participates in Dimethylsulfoniopropionate Cleavage by DddK.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2019 04 4;85(8). Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Marine Biotechnology Research Center, State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University, Qingdao, China

The osmolyte dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is produced in petagram quantities in marine environments and has important roles in global sulfur and carbon cycling. Many marine microorganisms catabolize DMSP via DMSP lyases, generating the climate-active gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS). DMS oxidation products participate in forming cloud condensation nuclei and, thus, may influence weather and climate. SAR11 bacteria are the most abundant marine heterotrophic bacteria; many of them contain the DMSP lyase DddK, and their transcripts are relatively abundant in seawater. In a recently described catalytic mechanism for DddK, Tyr64 is predicted to act as the catalytic base initiating the β-elimination reaction of DMSP. Tyr64 was proposed to be deprotonated by coordination to the metal cofactor or its neighboring His96. To further probe this mechanism, we purified and characterized the DddK protein from strain HTCC1062 and determined the crystal structures of wild-type DddK and its Y64A and Y122A mutants (bearing a change of Y to A at position 64 or 122, respectively), where the Y122A mutant is complexed with DMSP. The structural and mutational analyses largely support the catalytic role of Tyr64, but not the method of its deprotonation. Our data indicate that an active water molecule in the active site of DddK plays an important role in the deprotonation of Tyr64 and that this is far more likely than coordination to the metal or His96. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggest that the proposed catalytic mechanism of DddK has universal significance. Our results provide new mechanistic insights into DddK and enrich our understanding of DMS generation by SAR11 bacteria. The climate-active gas dimethyl sulfide (DMS) plays an important role in global sulfur cycling and atmospheric chemistry. DMS is mainly produced through the bacterial cleavage of marine dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). When released into the atmosphere from the oceans, DMS can be photochemically oxidized into DMSO or sulfate aerosols, which form cloud condensation nuclei that influence the reflectivity of clouds and, thereby, global temperature. SAR11 bacteria are the most abundant marine heterotrophic bacteria, and many of them contain DMSP lyase DddK to cleave DMSP, generating DMS. In this study, based on structural analyses and mutational assays, we revealed the catalytic mechanism of DddK, which has universal significance in SAR11 bacteria. This study provides new insights into the catalytic mechanism of DddK, leading to a better understanding of how SAR11 bacteria generate DMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.03127-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450030PMC
April 2019

Nonfragile H control for periodic stochastic systems with probabilistic measurement.

ISA Trans 2019 Mar 27;86:39-47. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

School of Information Science and Engineering, Chengdu University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610106, PR China.

This paper addresses the problem of nonfragile H control for periodic stochastic systems with probabilistic measurement. A novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional is formulated, which makes full use of both delay and its change rate. In view of the measurement signal, the mode-dependent stochastic variables are employed and new sufficient conditions are achieved. Finally, two numerical examples are worked out to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isatra.2018.10.037DOI Listing
March 2019

Effects of ingested polystyrene microplastics on brine shrimp, Artemia parthenogenetica.

Environ Pollut 2019 Jan 6;244:715-722. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Key Laboratory for Ecological Environment in Coastal Areas, State Oceanic Administration, National Marine Environmental Monitoring Center, No. 42 Linghe Street, Dalian, 116023, China; Marine Debris and Microplastic Research Center, Dalian, 116023, China. Electronic address:

Microplastics are a contaminant of emerging concern which enter the marine environment from a variety of sources. The ingestion and toxic effects of microplastics on marine life, especially for filter feeders, are a cause of concern in view of their ubiquitous nature and their similar size as food sources. To assess the toxic effects of microspheres ingested by brine shrimp larvae, we exposed Artemia parthenogenetica to 10 μm polystyrene microspheres at different concentrations. These concentrations were approximate to the extrapolated marine aquatic environmentally relevant concentrations. The lowest polystyrene concentrations at which ingestion was visualized in A. parthenogenetica were 12 ± 0.57 particles/mL (6.7 ± 0.32 μg/L) and 1.1 ± 0.16 particles/mL (0.61 ± 0.088 μg/L), respectively. There were no significant impacts on the survival, growth or development in A. parthenogenetica occurring over the 14-d exposure across a range of polystyrene nominal concentrations (1-1000 particles/mL or 0.55-550 μg/L). However, abnormal ultrastructures of intestinal epithelial cells were observed upon exposure to polystyrene microspheres, including fewer and disordered microvilli, an increased number of mitochondrion and the appearance of autophagosome. These phenomena could affect nutrition absorption and energy metabolism. Although no major acute or chronic toxicity effects on A. parthenogenetica were observed over 24-h or 14-d exposures, this study provides evidence that the ingestion of polystyrene microplastics at extrapolated environmentally relevant concentrations can be visualized through a microscope to be causing a series of responses in intestinal epithelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.10.024DOI Listing
January 2019

Identification and comprehensive evaluation of a novel biocontrol agent Bacillus atrophaeus JZB120050.

J Environ Sci Health B 2018 10;53(12):777-785. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

a Institute of Plant and Environment Protection, Beijing Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences , Beijing , China.

Bacillus spp. have long been used as biocontrol agents because of their efficient broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity. We identified a novel strain of Bacillus atrophaeus, named JZB120050, from soil. B. atrophaeus JZB120050 had a strong inhibitory effect against Botrytis cinerea and many other phytopathogens. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed that B. atrophaeus JZB120050 produced many secondary metabolites, such as alkanes, alkenes and acids; some of which were related to pathogen inhibition. Enzyme activity analysis showed that B. atrophaeus JZB120050 secreted cell-wall-degrading enzymes, including chitinase, glucanase and protease, which degraded fungal cell walls. Both the novel glucanase gene bglu and chitinase gene chit1 were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the products showed strong enzyme activity. In addition, B. atrophaeus JZB120050 secreted siderophores and formed a significant biofilm. Future studies should focus on these antimicrobial factors to facilitate widespread application in the field of agricultural biocontrol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03601234.2018.1505072DOI Listing
May 2019

Surgical significance and efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients with primary lung adenosquamous carcinoma.

Cancer Manag Res 2018 2;10:2401-2407. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The Affiliated Luoyang Central Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Luoyang, China,

Background: Primary adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) of the lung is a rare and aggressive disease. The accurate diagnosis of ASC based on small biopsies is challenging because of the mixed components within the tumor, and this may lead to suboptimal treatment. Furthermore, information about the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in lung ASC is limited.

Patients And Methods: Data on a cohort of patients with lung ASC who underwent surgery between October 2008 and December 2016 at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed.

Results: This study analyzed 148 patients. Differences between the pre- and post-resection diagnosis were observed. Based on the results of preoperative biopsy, patients were diagnosed as having squamous cell carcinoma (n=26), adenocarcinoma (n=20), poorly differentiated carcinoma (n=20), and large cell carcinoma (n=1), and finally diagnosed as having ASC based on histopathological examination of the surgical specimens. Thirty patients (20.3%) with -sensitizing mutations (TKI group) were treated with EGFR-TKIs after surgery, whereas the remaining patients (79.7%) with unknown -mutation status received chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy alone (non-TKI group). TKI treatment was associated with better median overall survival (OS) (HR=0.619; =0.034). Multivariate analysis identified the presence of EGFR-TKI treatment as an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR=0.471; =0.003).

Conclusion: Discrepancies between the pre- and post-operative diagnosis reflect the inadequacy of non-resection approaches to the diagnosis of ASC. ASC patients harboring -sensitizing mutations who were treated with EGFR-TKIs showed a significantly better prognosis than those receiving chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S165660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6080878PMC
August 2018