Publications by authors named "Di Sun"

412 Publications

Genomic insights into body size evolution in Carnivora support Peto's paradox.

BMC Genomics 2021 Jun 9;22(1):429. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Biodiversity and Biotechnology, College of Life Sciences, Nanjing Normal University, 210023, Nanjing, China.

Background: The range of body sizes in Carnivora is unparalleled in any other mammalian order-the heaviest species is 130,000 times heavier than the lightest and the longest species is 50 times longer than the shortest. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these huge differences in body size have not been explored.

Results: Herein, we performed a comparative genomics analysis of 20 carnivores to explore the evolutionary basis of the order's great variations in body size. Phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) revealed that 337 genes were significantly related to both head body length and body mass; these genes were defined as body size associated genes (BSAGs). Fourteen positively-related BSAGs were found to be associated with obesity, and three of these were under rapid evolution in the extremely large carnivores, suggesting that these obesity-related BSAGs might have driven the body size expansion in carnivores. Interestingly, 100 BSAGs were statistically significantly enriched in cancer control in carnivores, and 15 of which were found to be under rapid evolution in extremely large carnivores. These results suggested that large carnivores might have evolved an effective mechanism to resist cancer, which could be regarded as molecular evidence to support Peto's paradox. For small carnivores, we identified 15 rapidly evolving genes and found six genes with fixed amino acid changes that were reported to reduce body size.

Conclusions: This study brings new insights into the molecular mechanisms that drove the diversifying evolution of body size in carnivores, and provides new target genes for exploring the mysteries of body size evolution in mammals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-021-07732-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Improved submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection with slant tunnel for submucosal tumors in proximal esophagus.

Surg Endosc 2021 Jul 2;35(7):4055-4060. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background: The improved submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER) with slant tunnel was created by our group innovatively for submucosal tumors (SMTs) in the proximal esophagus. This study aimed to provide the preliminary results of the improved STER from our center.

Methods: The key step of the improved STER is establishing a slant tunnel instead of a vertical tunnel. After a longitudinal incision was made proximally in the inclined top to the tumor, a submucosal tunnel was established from the incision to the SMT slantingly. 28 patients undergoing STER with slant tunnel were enrolled in the retrospective study. Clinical results including en bloc resection, curative resection and complication were collected.

Results: All the submucous tumors located at proximal esophagus originated from muscularis propria were successfully resected by the innovative STER. Tumor size ranged from 18-43 mm, with 96.4% (27/28) en bloc resection rate and 92.9% (26/28) curative rate. Three patients suffered complication, 1 patient with mild pleural effusion and another 2 patients with fever for one day. All of the complications were cured by conservative treatment.

Conclusions: STER with slant tunnel seems to provide an optional treatment for tumors in proximal esophagus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08503-0DOI Listing
July 2021

Distribution and association of antimicrobial resistance and virulence traits in Escherichia coli isolates from healthy waterfowls in Hainan, China.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 May 25;220:112317. Epub 2021 May 25.

Avian Disease Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, PR China; Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, PR China; Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu 611130, PR China. Electronic address:

There are rising concerns about microbes harboring antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and virulence-associated genes (VAGs) in humans and food-producing animals. Moreover, ARGs are considered as emerging environmental pollutants, posing probable life-threatening complications in humans and animals. Commensal Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain can carry a large number of VAGs, which may become opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible association of ARGs and VAGs in E. coli isolates from clinically healthy waterfowls in China's tropical island, Hainan. For this purpose, 311 non-repeating E. coli isolates were evaluated for phenotypic drug resistance linked with ARGs. Additionally, strains were examined for subsequent resistance and virulence genes by uniplex or multiplex PCR and sequencing. Overall, 89 types of antibiotic resistance patterns were analysed, while 25 ARGs and 23 VAGs were observed, of which qnrS (99.4%) and iucD (99.7%) were the most commonly found genes, respectively. Significant positive associations were observed among ARGs and VAGs (p<0.05, OR>1). The strongest association between resistance and virulence gene was observed for qnrS and iss (OR, 76.25; 95% CI, 4.02-1445.42). Our results propose that waterfowls serve as a reservoir of E. coli carrying multi ARGs and various ExPEC associated VAGs. Therefore, this study provides necessary information on the occurrence and possible associations of ARGs and VAGs in healthy waterfowls, which may act as a reference for the regulatory use of antibiotics to stop the direct or indirect spread of these resistant and potential virulent microbes to natural environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112317DOI Listing
May 2021

The effect of PBL combined with comparative nursing rounds on the teaching of nursing for traumatology.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(4):3618-3625. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, Affiliated Hospital of Beihua University Jilin, Jilin Province, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of problem-based learning (PBL) combined with comparative nursing rounds on the teaching of nursing for traumatology.

Methods: This prospective study was performed in 186 nursing student interns. According to a random number table, these interns were assigned to the control group (n=93) and the experimental group (n=93). In the control group, the interns received traditional teaching methods. Meanwhile, interns in the experimental group received PBL combined with comparative nursing rounds teaching. The level of teaching approval, excellent and good rate of theoretical knowledge, operational ability, medical record writing, and critical thinking disposition inventory-Chinese version scores were compared between the two groups.

Results: Teaching approval in learning initiative, problem solving ability, critical thinking, clinical work ability, independent information acquisition ability, and teamwork spirit in the experimental group were improved compared with the control group (all P<0.05). The excellent and good rate of theoretical knowledge, operational ability, and medical record writing in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group (all P<0.05). Compared with the control group, critical thinking disposition inventory-Chinese version scores in all aspects in the experimental group after training were improved (all P<0.05).

Conclusion: The application of PBL combined comparative nursing rounds in the teaching of nursing for traumatology is beneficial for a significant improvement in the grasp of theoretical knowledge, operational ability, critical thinking ability, and teaching approval.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129407PMC
April 2021

Altered Functional Connectivity of Hippocampal Subfields in Poststroke Dementia.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Key Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering & Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: The hippocampus (HP) plays a critical role in memory and orientational functions and is functionally heterogeneous along the longitudinal anterior-posterior axis. Although the previous study has reported volumetric atrophy in hippocampal subfields of patients with poststroke dementia (PSD), how the functional connectivity (FC) is altered in these subfields remains unclear.

Purpose: To examine the FC changes of the HP subfields in patients with PSD.

Study Type: Prospective.

Population: Seventeen normal controls, 20 PSD, and 24 nondemented poststroke (PSND) patients.

Field Strength/sequence: A 3.0 T/ T1-weighted imaging, resting-state functional and diffusion tensor imaging.

Assessment: We first segmented the HP using independent component analysis, and then used granger causality analysis to calculate the directed FCs (dFCs) between the subfields and the whole brain, and compared the dFCs among PSD, PSND, and controls.

Statistical Tests: Student's t-test, chi-square test, one-way ANCOVA, multiple regression, support vector machine, multiple comparison correction, and reproducibility analysis. A P value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Our results showed HP was functionally divided into HP , HP , and HP bilaterally along the longitudinal axis. PSD patients showed significant dementia-specific decreases in the inward information flow and increases in the outward information flow associated with the bilateral entire HP/HP and left HP (P < 0.05). Moreover, we observed significant correlations (P < 0.05) between the cognition score and the dFCs related to the bilateral entire HP and left HP in the PSD group. Furthermore, dFCs of the HP and its subfields improved the classification between the PSD and PSND patients (accuracy/sensitivity/specificity: 94%/95%/93%) compared to the clinical and demographic parameters alone.

Data Conclusion: These findings suggest that altered transmission and reception of information in the HP. These alternations were specific to individual subfields in PSD patients and may offer insight into the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying PSD.

Evidence Level: 1 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27691DOI Listing
May 2021

An exposed outer membrane haemin-binding protein facilitates haemin transport by a TonB-dependent receptor in .

Appl Environ Microbiol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, P.R. China

Iron is an essential element for the replication of most bacteria, including (, RA), a gram-negative bacterial pathogen of ducks and other birds. utilizes haemoglobin-derived haemin as an iron source; however, the mechanism by which this bacterium acquires haemin from haemoglobin is largely unknown. Here, disruption was shown to impair iron utilization from duck haemoglobin in CH-1. Moreover, the putative lipoprotein RhuA was identified as a surface-exposed, outer membrane haemin-binding protein, but it could not extract haemin from duck haemoglobin. Mutagenesis studies showed that recombinant RhuA, RhuA and RhuA lost haemin-binding ability, suggesting that amino acid sites tyrosine 144 (Y144), Y177 and histidine 149 (H149) are crucial for haemin binding. Furthermore, , the gene adjacent to , encodes a TonB2-dependent haemin transporter. The function of in duck haemoglobin utilization was abolished in the mutant strain, and recombinant RhuA was able to bind the cell surface of CH-1 rather than CH-1, indicating that RhuA associates with RhuR to function. The sequence of the RhuR-RhuA haemin utilization locus exhibits no similarity with those of characterized haemin transport systems. Thus, this locus is a novel haemin uptake locus with homologues distributed mainly in the phylum.In vertebrates, haemin from haemoglobin is an important iron source for infectious bacteria. Many bacteria can obtain haemin from haemoglobin, but the mechanisms of haemin acquisition from haemoglobin differ among bacteria. Moreover, most studies have focused on the mechanism of haemin acquisition from mammalian haemoglobin. In this study, we found that the RhuR-RhuA locus of CH-1, a duck pathogen, is involved in haemin acquisition from duck haemoglobin via a unique pathway. RhuA was identified as an exposed outer membrane haemin-binding protein, and RhuR was identified as a TonB2-dependent haemin transporter. Moreover, the function of RhuA in haemoglobin utilization is RhuR dependent, not vice versa. The homologues of RhuR and RhuA are widely distributed in bacteria in marine environments, animals, and plants, representing a novel haemin transportation system of gram-negative bacteria. This study not only was important for understanding haemin uptake in but also enriched the knowledge about the haemin transportation pathway in gram-negative bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00367-21DOI Listing
May 2021

MiR-140-3p Impedes Gastric Cancer Progression and Metastasis by Regulating BCL2/BECN1-Mediated Autophagy.

Onco Targets Ther 2021 29;14:2879-2892. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of General Surgery, People's Hospital of Jingjiang, Taizhou, 214500, Jiangsu, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: MiRNAs have been proven to modulate the progression of gastric cancer (GC). In this field, we evaluated the role and mechanism of miR-140-3p in GC.

Methods: Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to detect the levels of miR-140-3p and BCL2. The interaction of miR-140-3p and BCL2 was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter and miRNA pull-down assays. CCK-8, EdU, wound healing, and Transwell invasion assays were performed to evaluate cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Autophagy was analyzed using Western blot analysis of the LC3-II/I ratio and immunofluorescence staining. A xenograft model was established to reveal the role of miR-140-3p in tumorigenesis.

Results: In GC cell lines and tissues, miR-140-3p was highly expressed, and BCL2 was expressed at low levels. MiR-140-3p directly inhibited BCL2 expression and indirectly promoted BECN1 expression, and BCL2 inhibited BECN1 expression. MiR-140-3p overexpression or silencing restrained or facilitated migration, invasion and EMT in GC cells. Moreover, we noticed that overexpression or downregulation of miR-140-3p promoted or suppressed BECN1-dependent autophagy in GC cells. BCL2 introduction or BECN1 silencing in GC cells partially blocked the effects of miR-140-3p. In conclusion, miR-140-3p directly downregulated the expression of BCL2, BCL2 downregulation further activated BECN1-dependent autophagy, and autophagy activation further inhibited EMT.

Conclusion: miR-140-3p may act as a tumor suppressor by targeting BCL2 and regulating downstream BECN1-induced autophagy and metastasis in GC progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OTT.S299234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092858PMC
April 2021

Constrained chromatin accessibility in PU.1-mutated agammaglobulinemia patients.

J Exp Med 2021 Jul 5;218(7). Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Genetics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL.

The pioneer transcription factor (TF) PU.1 controls hematopoietic cell fate by decompacting stem cell heterochromatin and allowing nonpioneer TFs to enter otherwise inaccessible genomic sites. PU.1 deficiency fatally arrests lymphopoiesis and myelopoiesis in mice, but human congenital PU.1 disorders have not previously been described. We studied six unrelated agammaglobulinemic patients, each harboring a heterozygous mutation (four de novo, two unphased) of SPI1, the gene encoding PU.1. Affected patients lacked circulating B cells and possessed few conventional dendritic cells. Introducing disease-similar SPI1 mutations into human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells impaired early in vitro B cell and myeloid cell differentiation. Patient SPI1 mutations encoded destabilized PU.1 proteins unable to nuclear localize or bind target DNA. In PU.1-haploinsufficient pro-B cell lines, euchromatin was less accessible to nonpioneer TFs critical for B cell development, and gene expression patterns associated with the pro- to pre-B cell transition were undermined. Our findings molecularly describe a novel form of agammaglobulinemia and underscore PU.1's critical, dose-dependent role as a hematopoietic euchromatin gatekeeper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20201750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8105723PMC
July 2021

Reconstruction of Cutaneous Nasal Alar Defects Following Melanocytic Nevus Resection.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: The reconstruction of nasal alar defects after resection of a melanocytic nevus becomes one of the most challenging procedures for surgeons. Choosing the most appropriate technique is still difficult sometimes. The authors reviewed our cases and published experience on choosing optimal surgical methods to repair different types of nasal alar defect following melanocytic nevus resection.

Methods: A total of 152 patients who were treated between 2016 and 2019 in Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital were evaluated. The surgical methods included primary closure, full-thickness skin graft, composite auricular graft, interpolated melolabial flap, paramedian forehead flap including hair-bearing paramedian forehead flap.

Results: Among the 152 patients with a melanocytic nevus, 49 underwent primary closure, 38 were treated with a full-thickness skin graft, 16 composite auricular graft, 28 were treated with interpolated melolabial flap, and 21were treated with paramedian forehead flap including 14 with hair-bearing paramedian forehead flap. Most skin graft, composite auricular graft, and flaps were survived. Patients who completed follow-up were satisfied with the contour of the nasal ala.

Conclusions: After resection of the melanocytic nevus, the surgeon should choose the most appropriate surgical method for alar reconstruction according to the characteristics of the defect and personal desire of patient or the guardian.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007703DOI Listing
April 2021

Xanthohumol-Induced Rat Glioma C6 Cells Death by Triggering Mitochondrial Stress.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 26;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Center for Mitochondria and Healthy Aging, College of Life Science, Yantai University, Yantai 264005, China.

Aim: To investigate the underlying mechanisms of xanthohumol (XN) on the proliferation inhibition and death of C6 glioma cells.

Methods: To determine the effects of XN on C6 cells, cell proliferation and mortality after XN treatment were assessed by SRB assay and trypan blue assay respectively. Apoptotic rates were evaluated by flowcytometry after Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining. The influence of XN on the activity of caspase-3 was determined by Western blot (WB); and nuclear transposition of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was tested by immunocytochemistry and WB. By MitoSOX staining, the mitochondrial ROS were detected. Mitochondrial function was also tested by MTT assay (content of succinic dehydrogenase), flow cytometry (mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP)-JC-1 staining; mitochondrial abundance-mito-Tracker green), immunofluorescence (MMP-JC-1 staining; mitochondrial morphology-mito-Tracker green), WB (mitochondrial fusion-fission protein-OPA1, mfn2, and DRP1; mitophagy-related proteins-Pink1, Parkin, LC3B, and P62), and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (energy charge). Finally, mitochondrial protein homeostasis of C6 cells after XN treatment with and without LONP1 inhibitor bortezomib was investigated by trypan blue assay (proliferative activity and mortality) and WB (mitochondrial protease LONP1). All cell morphology images were taken by a Leica Microsystems microscope.

Results: XN could lead to proliferation inhibition and death of C6 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and induce apoptosis of C6 cells through the AIF pathway. After long incubation of XN, mitochondria of C6 cells were seriously impaired, and mitochondria had a diffuse morphology and mitochondrial ROS were increased. The content of succinic dehydrogenase per cell was significantly decreased after XN insults of 24, 48, and 72 h. The energy charge was weakened after XN insult of 24 h. Furthermore, the MMP and mitochondrial abundance were significantly decreased; the protein expression levels of OPA1, mfn2, and DRP1 were down-regulated; and the protein expression levels of Pink1, Parkin, LC3B-II/LC3B-I, and p62 were up-regulated in long XN incubation times (24, 48, and 72 h). XN incubation with bortezomib for 48 h resulted in lower proliferative activity and higher mortality of C6 cells and caused the cell to have visible vacuoles. Moreover, the protein expression levels of LONP1 was up-regulated gradually as XN treatment time increased.

Conclusion: These data supported that XN could induce AIF pathway apoptosis of the rat glioma C6 cells by affecting the mitochondria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123451PMC
April 2021

Precise Implantation of an Archimedean [email protected] Cuboctahedron into a Platonic CuBis(diphenylphosphino)hexane Tetrahedron.

ACS Nano 2021 May 28;15(5):8733-8741. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Ji'nan 250100, People's Republic of China.

Precision loading of nanoclusters in confined spaces, which has been enthusiastically pursued in the scientific realm, is still associated with some mysteries of "how", "when", and "why". Here, we isolated two similar heterometallic cluster-in-cage compounds, [[email protected]@Cu(dpph)]X (X = OH, and X = PF, ; = ), by use of an antigalvanic reaction between organometallic [PhC≡CCu] and PhCSH with elemental silver. Both compounds are formed by fitting an Archimedean [email protected] cuboctahedral cluster into a Platonic Cu(dpph) tetrahedral cage [dpph = bis(diphenylphosphino)hexane]. The [email protected] cluster is a hollow cuboctahedral Cu cage filled with a central Ag atom, and all eight triangular faces of the [email protected] cuboctahedron are triply capped by eight S ions, four of which in a tetrahedral array further internally pillar four Cu vertices of the outer Cu(dpph) tetrahedron, fixing the cluster in the cage. Both compounds can be deemed as molecular fragments excised from porous nanomaterials filled with discrete nanoclusters, thus providing more details for understanding the confined growth of atomically precise nanoclusters. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) reveals that the AgCu cluster is quite stable in CHCl and can stepwise lose dpph ligand in the gas phase under increased collision energy. This work not only presents a precise aggregation of metal atoms in a confined cavity to form a cluster-in-cage compound but also provides deep insights into the binding and geometry matching between clusters and cages in one entity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.1c00942DOI Listing
May 2021

The intracellular domain of duck plague virus glycoprotein E affects UL11 protein incorporation into viral particles.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Jun 20;257:109078. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu City, Sichuan, 611130, PR China; Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu City, Sichuan, 611130, PR China; Avian Disease Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu City, Sichuan, 611130, PR China. Electronic address:

Studies have shown that proteins in the tegument (located between the viral capsid and envelope layer) play critical roles in the assembly and budding of herpesviruses. The UL11 protein of herpesviruses is important in the process of virus particle cell entry, release, assembly and secondary envelopment. Herpesvirus glycoprotein E (gE) is involved in syncytia formation, transmission between cells and nerve invasion. In herpes simplex virus, UL11 has been shown to interact with gE. However, little is known about the relationship of duck plague virus (DPV) pUL11 and gE. In this study, we constructed DPV cytoplasmic domain (CT)-gE, and extracellular domain (ET)-gE deletion mutants, pCMV-gE, CT-gE, and ET-gE and UL11 recombinant plasmids. We found that pUL11 can interact and colocalize with gE, CT-gE and ET-gE. Together, these results highlight an important role for UL11 in the function of gE, and may also have important implications for the role of pUL11 and gE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2021.109078DOI Listing
June 2021

Plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 concentration and recurrent cardiovascular events in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Apr;28(3):272-279

State Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Fu Wai Hospital and National Center for Cardiovascular Diseases, China.

Aims: Familial hypercholesterolemia patients are characterized by early onset of coronary artery calcification and atherosclerosis, and high incidence of cardiovascular events. Plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 was reported to be a predictor for cardiovascular risk in the general population. However, its prognostic value for predicting recurrent cardiovascular events in familial hypercholesterolemia patients remains undetermined.

Methods: A total of 249 patients with molecularly and/or clinically (Dutch Lipid Clinic Network score > 6) defined familial hypercholesterolemia who had experienced a first cardiovascular event were consecutively included and plasma proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Coronary artery calcification was measured using Agatston method and coronary severity was assessed by Gensini score, respectively. All patients received standard lipid-lowering therapy and were followed-up for recurrent cardiovascular events. Univariate and multivariate regression and Cox analyses was used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence interval.

Results: Circulating proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 concentrations were positively associated with coronary artery calcification scores and Gensini score by both univariate and multivariate analyses. During a mean follow-up of 43 ± 19 months, 29 (11.51%) recurrent cardiovascular events occurred. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with the highest proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 levels had the lowest event-free survival time. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 was independently associated with recurrent cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 1.45, 95% confidence interval: 1.11-1.88). The combination of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 to Cox prediction model led to an enhanced predictive value for recurrent cardiovascular events.

Conclusions: Increased level of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 was a significant risk factor of atherosclerosis and independently predicted future recurrent cardiovascular events in familial hypercholesterolemia patients receiving standard lipid-lowering treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487319880985DOI Listing
April 2021

Reconstitution Assays of 20S Proteasome.

Bio Protoc 2021 Apr 5;11(7):e3967. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Texas A&M University, College Station, USA.

The majority of cellular proteins are degraded by the 26S proteasome in eukaryotes. However, intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs), which contain large portions of unstructured regions and are inherently unstable, are degraded via the ubiquitin-independent 20S proteasome. Emerging evidence indicates that plant IDP homeostasis may also be controlled by the 20S proteasome. Relatively little is known about the specific functions of the 20S proteasome and the regulatory mechanisms of IDP degradation in plants compared to other species because there is a lack of systematic protocols for assembly of this complex to perform degradation assays. Here, we present a detailed protocol of reconstitution assay of the 20S proteasome in by modifying previously reported methods. The main strategy to obtain the 20S core proteasome here is to strip away the 19S regulatory subunits from the 26S proteasome. The protocol has two major parts: 1) Affinity purification of 20S proteasomes from stable transgenic lines expressing epitope-tagged PAG1, an essential component of the 20S proteasome (Procedures A-D) and 2) an 20S proteasome degradation assay (Procedure E). We anticipate that these protocols will provide simple and effective approaches to study degradation by the 20S proteasome and advance the study of protein metabolism in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.3967DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054206PMC
April 2021

LASS2 mediates Nrf2-driven progestin resistance in endometrial cancer.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1280-1289. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Jiangxi Medical College, Nanchang University Nanchang 330000, China.

Progestin administration serves as the optimal conservative treatment method for women with endometrial cancer or precancer lesions who want to preserve fertility. However, there are still at least 30% of patients in which progestin resistance occurs. LASS2 (Ceramide Synthase 2) has been reported to be involved in chemotherapy resistance, whether it also plays a role in progestin resistance is not clear. Here, we explored the detailed mechanism by which Nrf2/LASS2 contributes to progestin resistance and disease progression.

Methods: IHC assays were performed to estimate the expression pattern of Nrf2 and LASS2. Moreover, it bears three antioxidant response elements (ARE) in the promoter region of LASS2 gene, therefore, Luciferase assays were performed to determine if Nrf2 regulates LASS2 by binding with these ARE sequence. Western Blot assays were used to determine the expression of Nrf2 and LASS2 protein among various endometrial cell lines. Relative mRNA expression levels were detected by RT-PCR. Cellular growth was monitored with CCK-8 tests. Apoptosis was determined with Annexin V-PI staining and flow cytometry analysis. siRNA knockdown was performed to investigate the effects of Nrf2 on cell proliferation.

Result: Nrf2/LASS2 is highly expressed in endometrial cancer tissue, as compared to expression levels in normal endometrial tissue. Proliferation assays demonstrated that overexpression of Nrf2/LASS2 resulted in progestin resistance. Conversely, knockdown of LASS2 increased apoptosis and decreased cell viability. In addition, metformin overcame progestin resistance by down-regulating Nrf2/LASS2 expression.

Conclusion: Our findings provide new insight into the mechanism of progestin resistance in type I endometrial cancer. Nrf2/LASS2 may not only be a possible marker for predicting the prognosis of endometrial cancer but also serve as a potential therapeutic target.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014362PMC
March 2021

NLRP7 deubiquitination by USP10 promotes tumor progression and tumor-associated macrophage polarization in colorectal cancer.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2021 Apr 10;40(1):126. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Endoscopy Center, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University, 180 Fenglin Road, Shanghai, 20032, People's Republic of China.

Background: NOD-like receptors affect multiple stages of cancer progression in many malignancies. NACHT, LRR, and PYD domain-containing protein 7 (NLRP7) is a member of the NOD-like receptor family, although its role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. By analyzing clinical samples, we found that NLRP7 protein levels were upregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC). We proposed the hypothesis that a high level of NLRP7 in CRC may promote tumor progression. Here, we further investigated the role of NLRP7 in CRC and the underlying mechanism.

Methods: NLRP7 expression in human CRC and adjacent non-tumorous tissues was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The effect of NLRP7 in CRC progression was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Proteins interacting with NLRP7 were identified by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry analysis while immunofluorescence staining revealed the cellular location of the proteins. Cellular ubiquitination and protein stability assays were applied to demonstrate the ubiquitination effect on NLRP7. Cloning and mutagenesis were used to identify a lysine acceptor site that mediates NLRP7 ubiquitination. Cytokines/chemokines affected by NLRP7 were identified by RNA sequencing, qRT-PCR, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Macrophage phenotypes were determined using qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, and immunohistochemistry.

Results: NLRP7 protein levels, but not mRNA levels, were upregulated in CRC, and increased NLRP7 protein expression was associated with poor survival. NLRP7 promoted tumor cell proliferation and metastasis in vivo and in vitro and interacted with ubiquitin-specific protease 10, which catalyzed its deubiquitination in CRC cells. NLRP7 stability and protein levels in CRC cells were modulated by ubiquitination and deubiquitination, and NLRP7 was involved in the ubiquitin-specific protease 10 promotion of tumor progression and metastasis in CRC. K379 was an important lysine acceptor site that mediates NLRP7 ubiquitination in CRC cells. In CRC, NLRP7 promoted the polarization of pro-tumor M2-like macrophages by inducing the secretion of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2. Furthermore, NLRP7 promoted NF-κB nuclear translocation and activation of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 transcription.

Conclusions: We showed that NLRP7 promotes CRC progression and revealed an as-yet-unidentified mechanism by which NLRP7 induces the polarization of pro-tumor M2-like macrophages. These results suggest that NLRP7 could serve as a biomarker and novel therapeutic target for the treatment of CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-021-01920-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8035766PMC
April 2021

ADCK1 activates the β-catenin/TCF signaling pathway to promote the growth and migration of colon cancer cells.

Cell Death Dis 2021 04 6;12(4):354. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Oncology, Jingjiang People's Hospital Affiliated with Yangzhou University, 214500, Jingjiang, China.

As a result of mutations in the upstream components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, this cascade is abnormally activated in colon cancer. Hence, identifying the activation mechanism of this pathway is an urgent need for the treatment of colon cancer. Here, we found an increase in ADCK1 (AarF domain-containing kinase 1) expression in clinical specimens of colon cancer and animal models. Upregulation of ADCK1 expression promoted the colony formation and infiltration of cancer cells. Downregulation of ADCK1 expression inhibited the colony formation and infiltration of cancer cells, in vivo tumorigenesis, migration, and organoid formation. Molecular mechanistic studies demonstrated that ADCK1 interacted with TCF4 (T-cell factor 4) to activate the β-catenin/TCF signaling pathway. In conclusion, our research revealed the functions of ADCK1 in the development of colon cancer and provided potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03624-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024291PMC
April 2021

SC75741 antagonizes vesicular stomatitis virus, duck Tembusu virus, and duck plague virus infection in duck cells through promoting innate immune responses.

Poult Sci 2021 May 2;100(5):101085. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, China; Research Center of Avian Disease, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, China; Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan 611130, China. Electronic address:

Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) and duck plague virus (DPV) are typical DNA and RNA viruses of waterfowl, causing drastic economic losses to the duck farm industry in terms of high mortality and decreased egg production. These 2 viruses reappear from time to time because the available vaccines fail to provide complete immunity and no clinical antiviral drugs are available for them. In the present study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of SC75741 for DTMUV, DPV, and the model virus, vesicular stomatitis virus infection in duck cells. SC75741, a nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)-specific inhibitor in mammal cells, revealed the highest antiviral activity among the inhibitors specific to c-Jun NH-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38), and NF-κB signaling. The antiviral activity of SC75741 was dose-dependent and showed effects in different duck cell types. Time-addition and duration assay demonstrated that SC75741 inhibited virus infection in the middle of and after virus infection at least for 72 h in duck embro fibroblast cells. The DPV viral adsorption and genomic copy number were reduced, indicating that SC75741 blocks the phase of the virus life cycle at viral entry and genomic replication. In addition, SC75741 enhanced the expression of interferon only when stimulator of interferon genes (STING) was overexpressed or pre-activated by the virus infection, suggesting that SC75741 acts as a STING agonist. In conclusion, SC75741 is a candidate antiviral agent for DTMUV and DPV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044693PMC
May 2021

Experience of Two Different Techniques of Medial Epicanthoplasty with Four-Point Homologous Design: A Cohort Study.

Aesthetic Plast Surg 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 639 Zhizaoju Road, Shanghai, 200011, People's Republic of China.

Background: Various methods have been introduced to eliminate the epicanthus; however, there are no clear guidelines to determine the optimal technique for epicanthus. We aimed to investigate the clinical effect of modified Z-plasty and modified Y-V flap on epicanthus and report our experience.

Methods: Medical records, including photographic information and scar score, of 81 eyes of 43 patients with congenital epicanthus were collected. All patients underwent epicanthus correction surgery by the modified Z-plasty or modified Y-V flap methods with a four-point design from January 2018 to December 2019 in Shanghai Ninth People's hospital and completed a follow-up of at least 6 months. The cosmetic outcome was evaluated in terms of by photographic evaluation and scar score, and the structural outcome was assessed by intercanthal distance (ICD) and palpebral fissure length, inner canthal angle, the canthal tilt angle. The results of two surgical techniques were compared and analyzed.

Results: The cosmetic outcome of both group is good in both groups. ICD is smaller and inner canthal angle is larger in modified Z-plasty group, compared to modified Y-V flap group, respectively (P < 0.05). Patients with severe epicanthus in the modified Z-plasty group showed greater improvement in structural outcomes than in the modified Y-V flap group (P < 0.05), while those with mild epicanthus in the modified Y-V flap group showed more improvement in ICD than those in the modified Z-plasty group (P < 0.05). By 6 months, scarring in the modified Z-plasty group was more hypertrophic and obvious compared to the modified Y-V flap group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Modified Y-V flap technique caused less scarring. Conversely, the modified Z-plasty technique was more efficient in shortening the ICD and increasing inner canthal angle. While modified Z-plasty reconstruction is more suitable for patients with severe epicanthus, the modified Y-V flap is more suitable for patients with mild epicanthus.

Level Of Evidence Iv: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies, Cadaver Studies, and Experimental Studies. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00266-021-02242-2DOI Listing
April 2021

Nrf2 alleviates radiation-induced rectal injury by inhibiting of necroptosis.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 May 25;554:49-55. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 201620, China. Electronic address:

Radiation-induced rectal injury is one of the common side effects of pelvic radiation therapy. This study aimed to explore the role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in this process. In vivo, knockout (KO) of Nrf2 led to aggravated radiation-induced histological changes in the rectums. In vitro, interference or overexpression of Nrf2 resulted in enhanced or reduced radiosensitivity in human intestinal epithelial crypts (HIEC) cells, respectively. A potential relationship between Nrf2 and necroptosis was identified using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and western blotting (WB), which showed that necroptosis-related proteins were negatively correlated with Nrf2. Upon treatment with necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), the increased radiosensitivity, decreased cell viability, increased γH2AX foci formation, and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in Nrf2-interfered HIEC cells were alleviated. A significant recovery in morphological alterations was also observed in Nrf2 KO mice administered with Nec-1. Taken together, our results highlight the important protective effect of Nrf2 in radiation-induced rectal injury through the inhibition of necroptosis, and the physiological significance of necroptosis in radiation-induced rectal injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.03.004DOI Listing
May 2021

A Composite Tissue Flap for Double-Eyelid Blepharoplasty in Asian Patients: A Retrospective Study.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Abstract: Double-eyelid blepharoplasty, the procedure to create supratarsal crease, has been one of the most popular cosmetic operations in Asia for many years. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of a surgical procedure using a composite tissue flap for double-eyelid blepharoplasty. A surgical technique was introduced and patients having blepharoplasty with this technique from January 2017 to August 2019 were retrospectively studied. In this technique, a composite tissue flap consisted of the posterior septum and levator aponeurosis was formed and fixed with orbicularis oculi muscle and tarsus. The cosmetic outcomes, patient satisfaction, and complications from the documented medical records were analyzed. Eighty female and 1 male patients had blepharoplasty with the proposed technique and were followed up from 6 months to 42 months. Six patients were found to have mild blepharoptosis. As for cosmetic outcomes, 71patients were graded as good, 7 patients were graded as fair, and only 1 patient was graded as poor. Those patients who were not graded as good had visible scarring, shallow eyelid crease, or asymmetry. The overall patient satisfaction was as high as 95.1%. Mild hematoma formation occurred in 3 patients and no infection or blepharoptosis was observed. One patient complained of asymmetry and 2 patients complained of unilateral crease fading as the complications. The technique is effective to develop durable and natural-looking double eyelids with minimal complications. It could also be an option for mild ptotic patients who ask for double-eyelid blepharoplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007642DOI Listing
March 2021

Combinatorial Synthesis of Novel 3/5(3,5)-(Di)nitro/chloropaeonol Carbonyl Hydrazone Derivatives as Nematicidal Agents.

Comb Chem High Throughput Screen 2021 Mar 24. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Laboratory of Pesticidal Design & Synthesis, Department of Plant Protection, College of Horticultrue and Plant Protection, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang 471023. China.

Background: Developing the high-efficiency and low-risk small-molecule green-nematocide is the key of effective control of the nematodes. Paeonol, is a naturally occurring phenolic compound, isolated from the root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa and the whole plant of Cynanchum paniculatum. Due to its crucial phenolic ketone skeleton, modern biological science research has indicated that paeonol has a wide range of biological activities. The structural modification of paeonol into paeonol carbonyl hydrazone derivatives is a potential approach for the development of novel nematodes, which showed more toxicity than paeonol. However, there are no reports on the nematicidal activity of paeonol carbonyl hydrazone derivatives to control Heterodera glycines.

Results: We always endeavor to discover and develop biorational natural products-based pesticidal agents, 4 significant intermediates and 21 novel 3/5(3,5)-(di)nitro/chloropaeonol carbonyl hydrazone derivatives were prepared, and their structures well characterized by 1H NMR, HRMS, MS, and mp. Due to the steric hindrance, the substituents on the C=N double bond of all hydrazine compounds adopted E configuration. Results of nematicidal activity revealed that, among all compounds, especially 5-nitropaeonol (5) and 3,5-dinitropaeonol (7) displayed the most potent nematicidal activity H. glycines in vivo with LC50 values of 0.0323 and 0.0367 mg/mL, respectively.

Conclusion: It suggested that for the 3/5(3,5)-(di)nitro/chloropaeonol carbonyl hydrazone derivatives, a nitro group introduced at C5 position of 1 was necessary for obtaining the potent compound as nematicidal agents. These preliminary results will pave the way for further modification of paeonol in the development of potential new nematicides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1386207324666210324145627DOI Listing
March 2021

Natural Transformation of and Its Determinants.

Front Microbiol 2021 3;12:634895. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

In a previous study, it was shown that , a member of , is naturally competent. However, whether natural competence is universal in remains unknown. In this study, it was shown for the first time that was naturally competent in the laboratory condition; however, was not naturally competent under the same conditions. The competence of was maintained throughout the growth phases, and the transformation frequency was highest during the logarithmic phase. A competition assay revealed that preferentially took up its own genomic DNA over heterologous DNA. The natural transformation frequency of was significantly increased in GCB medium without peptone or phosphate. Furthermore, natural transformation of was inhibited by 0.5 mM EDTA, but could be restored by the addition of CaCl, MgCl, ZnCl, and MnCl, suggesting that these divalent cations promote the natural transformation of . Overall, this study revealed that natural competence is not universal in members and triggering of competence differs from species to species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.634895DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7965970PMC
March 2021

Functional characterization of Fur in iron metabolism, oxidative stress resistance and virulence of Riemerella anatipestifer.

Vet Res 2021 Mar 19;52(1):48. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine of Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, 611130, Sichuan, China.

Iron is essential for most bacteria to survive, but excessive iron leads to damage by the Fenton reaction. Therefore, the concentration of intracellular free iron must be strictly controlled in bacteria. Riemerella anatipestifer (R. anatipestifer), a Gram-negative bacterium, encodes the iron uptake system. However, the iron homeostasis mechanism remains largely unknown. In this study, it was shown that compared with the wild type R. anatipestifer CH-1, R. anatipestifer CH-1Δfur was more sensitive to streptonigrin, and this effect was alleviated when the bacteria were cultured in iron-depleted medium, suggesting that the fur mutant led to excess iron accumulation inside cells. Similarly, compared with R. anatipestifer CH-1∆recA, R. anatipestifer CH-1∆recAΔfur was more sensitive to HO-induced oxidative stress when the bacteria were grown in iron-rich medium rather than iron-depleted medium. Accordingly, it was shown that R. anatipestifer CH-1∆recAΔfur produced more intracellular ROS than R. anatipestifer CH-1∆recA in iron-rich medium. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that R. anatipestifer CH-1 Fur suppressed the transcription of putative iron uptake genes through binding to their promoter regions. Finally, it was shown that compared with the wild type, R. anatipestifer CH-1Δfur was significantly attenuated in ducklings and that the colonization ability of R. anatipestifer CH-1Δfur in various tissues or organs was decreased. All these results suggested that Fur is important for iron homeostasis in R. anatipestifer and its pathogenic mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13567-021-00919-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7976709PMC
March 2021

DPV UL41 gene encoding protein induces host shutoff activity and affects viral replication.

Vet Microbiol 2021 Apr 27;255:108979. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu City, Sichuan, 611130, PR China; Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu City, Sichuan, 611130, PR China; Avian Disease Research Center, College of Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Wenjiang, Chengdu City, Sichuan, 611130, PR China.

The virion host shutoff (VHS) protein, encoded by the UL41 gene of herpes simplex virus (HSV), specifically degrades mRNA and induces host shutoff. VHS and its homologs are highly conserved in the Alphaherpesvirinae subfamily. However, the role of the duck plague virus (DPV) UL41 gene is unclear. In this study, we found that the DPV UL41 gene-encoded protein (pUL41) degrades RNA polymerase (pol) II-transcribed translatable RNA and induces protein synthesis shutoff. DPV pUL41 was dispensable for viral replication, but the UL41-deleted mutant virus exhibited a significant viral growth defect and plaque size reduction in Duck embryo fibroblast (DEF) cells. Furthermore, DPV pUL41 regulated viral mRNA accumulation to affect viral DNA replication, release and cell-to-cell spread.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2021.108979DOI Listing
April 2021

Carboxylic acid-tuned nickel(ii) clusters: syntheses, structures, solution behaviours and magnetic properties.

Dalton Trans 2021 Mar 10;50(12):4355-4362. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Ji'nan 250100, China.

Three novel cicada-like nickel(ii) clusters, formulated as [Ni(bdped)(mba)(Hdmpz)(NO)(HO)]·4MeCN (SD/Ni6b), [Ni(bdped)(tca)(Hdmpz)(MeOH)(HO)]·MeOH (SD/Ni5a) and [Ni(Hbdped)(ba)(Hdmpz)]·2NO·2MeCN (SD/Ni4a), were obtained by tuning the auxiliary carboxylic acids, where Hbdped = 1,2-bis-(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)-ethane-1,2-diol; Hmba = 2-methylbenzoic acid; Hdmpz = 3,5-dimethyl-1H-pyrazole; Htca = 3-thiophenecarboxylic acid; and Hba = benzoic acid. The structures of SD/Ni6b, SD/Ni5a and SD/Ni4a are built from a central NiO opened cube, appending two to zero NiNO octahedra. The solution behaviours of SD/Ni6b, SD/Ni5a and SD/Ni4a were studied in detail via an ESI-MS technique and their solution stabilities were confirmed. Magnetic analysis indicated the presence of Ising-type anisotropy: D = -13, -10, and -11 cm for SD/Ni6b, SD/Ni5a, and SD/Ni4a, respectively; moreover, dominantly ferromagnetic interactions were found between magnetic centers: J = 6.5 cm, J = -0.44 cm and J = 5.9 cm, J = 2.6 cm for SD/Ni5a and SD/Ni4a, respectively. Besides, the photocurrent signals were observed and they reached the maximum very quickly for these three nickel(ii) clusters and then their current intensities remained almost constant, which provide a possibility to be used for light-harvesting and photo-related catalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00165eDOI Listing
March 2021

The Roles of Envelope Glycoprotein M in the Life Cycle of Some Alphaherpesviruses.

Front Microbiol 2021 19;12:631523. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Institute of Preventive Veterinary Medicine, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.

The envelope glycoprotein M (gM), a surface virion component conserved among alphaherpesviruses, is a multiple-transmembrane domain-containing glycoprotein with a complex N-linked oligosaccharide. The gM mediates a diverse range of functions during the viral life cycle. In this review, we summarize the biological features of gM, including its characterization and function in some specicial alphaherpesviruses. gM modulates the virus-induced membrane fusion during virus invasion, transports other proteins to the appropriate intracellular membranes for primary and secondary envelopment during virion assembly, and promotes egress of the virus. The gM can interact with various viral and cellular components, and the focus of recent research has also been on interactions related to gM. And we will discuss how gM participates in the life cycle of alphaherpesviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.631523DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7933518PMC
February 2021

Combination of Extended Paramedian Forehead Flap and Laser Hair Removal in the Reconstruction of Distal Nasal Defect.

Ann Plast Surg 2021 03;86(3 Suppl 2):S293-S298

From the Department of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery, Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, PR China.

Aim: The study sought to determine whether extended forehead flap by using part of the scalp combined with laser hair removal is a practical approach when repairing distal nasal defect.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted with 6 patients who underwent reconstruction of nasal defects with extended forehead flaps (including scalp combined with subsequent laser hair removal) at Shanghai Ninth People's Hospital between June 2016 and December 2018. Surgical data collected included age, causes of defects, sizes of defects, invaded nasal subunits, implantation of tissue expander, time elapsed between the formation of defects and surgical treatments, sessions of laser hair removal, and follow-up results. All patients had nasal defects after removal of a benign nevus (diameter, >1.5 cm), which invaded distal nasal subunits (including the nasal tip, soft triangle, columella, and nasal ala) and could not be repaired using adjacent tissue. Preoperative and postoperative assessments of esthetic outcomes were analyzed, including skin color and texture match, appearance deformity, and scar appearance.

Results: All 6 female patients (ages 4 to 24 years) accepted the extended forehead flap technique and subsequent laser hair removal treatments. Among the 6 patients, 2 had nasal tip defects, 1 had a columella nasi defect, one had an alar defect, and 2 had multiunit defects. All transferred forehead flaps survived with no necrosis and underwent 2 to 5 subsequent laser hair removal treatments. The color and texture of the transferred flaps was similar to the adjacent skin in all patients. All patients were satisfied with the final outcome of the reconstructed nose with no obvious scarring during follow-up.

Conclusions: Extending the forehead flap using the scalp is a practical and safe approach for the repair of large and distal nasal defects. Subsequent laser hair removal can eliminate the hair follicles of the scalp and improve the appearance and color of the flap.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000002588DOI Listing
March 2021

Atrophic Pattern of Hippocampal Subfields in Post-Stroke Demented Patient.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 ;80(3):1299-1309

Key Laboratory for Biomedical Engineering of Ministry of Education, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Biomedical Engineering & Instrument Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that hippocampal atrophy is a hallmark of dementia and can be used to predict the outcome of post-stroke demented (PSD) patients. The hippocampus consists of several subfields but their involvement in the pathophysiology of the PSD remains unclear.

Objective: The present study aimed to investigate volumetric alterations of hippocampal subfields in patients with PSD.

Methods: High-resolution T1-weighted images were collected from 27 PSD and 28 post-stroke nondemented (PSND) patients who recovered from ischemic stroke, and 17 age-matched normal control (NC). We estimated the volumes of the hippocampal subfields using FreeSurfer 6.0 which segmented the hippocampus into 12 subfields in each hemisphere. The volumetric differences between the groups were evaluated by the two-sample tests after regressing out the age, sex, education, and total intracranial volume.

Results: Compared with NC group, PSD group showed smaller volumes in the entire hippocampus and its subfields, and such differences were not found in PSND group. Moreover, we found the dementia-specific atrophy in the left granule cell layer of dentate gyrus (GC-DG) and CA4 in the PSD patients compared with NC and PSND. Regression analysis showed positive correlations between the changes of cognitive performance and the asymmetry index in the CA3/4 and GC-DG of the PSD group. Furthermore, we found that the volumes of hippocampal subfields provided a better classification performance than the entire hippocampus.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the hippocampus is reduced in the PSD patients and it presents a selective subfield involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-200804DOI Listing
January 2021

Silica-Organometallic One-Dimensional Hybrid Employing a Ag-π Bond Connecting Alternating Ag(NO) and Octavinylsilsesquioxane.

Inorg Chem 2021 Mar 16;60(5):2899-2904. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Ji'nan 250100, People's Republic of China.

Layering AgNO in alcohol onto octavinylsilsesquioxane (OVS) in CHCl results in a one-dimensional coordination polymer, {Ag(NO)(OVS)·solvents} (), consisting of unprecedented flat weakly bonded Ag(NO) alternating with the firmly covalent OVS through Ag-π bonds. The preferential assembling medium for is proven to be alcohols, where a 4:1 silver-OVS adduct is detected by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The present outcomes may assist our knowledge of particular interactions for supramolecular architectures of a polynuclear silver system built from OVS containing eight pendent olefin tails.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.1c00160DOI Listing
March 2021