Publications by authors named "Dewi Vernerey"

81 Publications

Investigation of Relation of Radiation Therapy Quality With Toxicity and Survival in LAP07 Phase 3 Trial for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Carcinoma.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Feb 6. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tenon Hospital, Institut Universitaire du Cancer, AP-HP, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Purpose: The LAP07 multicenter randomized study assessed whether chemoradiation therapy increases overall survival versus continuation chemotherapy in patients whose locally advanced pancreatic cancer was controlled after 4 months of induction chemotherapy. This analysis investigated whether failure to adhere to radiation therapy (RT) guidelines influenced survival and toxicity.

Methods And Materials: This is a planned analysis of secondary objectives in the framework of a randomized international phase 3 trial. The protocol included detailed written RT guidelines. All participating institutions undertook an initial benchmark case to check adherence to protocol guidelines. Centers with major deviation were not allowed to include patients until they achieved a significant improvement and rigorously followed the guidelines. On-trial RT quality assurance consisted of a central review of treatment plan with dose-volume histograms for each patient. Adherence to guidelines was graded as per protocol (PP), minor deviation (MiD), or major deviation (MaD).

Results: Fifty-seven benchmark cases were evaluated, 26% were classified as PP, 60% were MiD, and 14% were MaD. Among the 442 included patients, 133 patients were randomized in the chemoradiation therapy arm, and 117 patients were assessable for RT quality analysis. RT quality was graded as PP in 38.5% of patients, MiD in 43.6% of patients, and MaD in 17.9% of patients. The most frequent protocol violations were dose distribution heterogeneities. Median overall survival was 17 months with PP and MiD versus 13.4 months with MaD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99-2.71; P = .055). There was no difference in terms of progression-free survival (HR, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.66-1.8; P = .72). Patients with MaD had more nausea than patients treated PP or with MiD (P = .0045).

Conclusions: MaD was associated with a trend for worst survival. There was no difference in terms of progression-free survival. Because of the low rate of major deviations, their effects on the LAP07 trial results may be negligeable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.01.055DOI Listing
February 2021

Predictive Value of Neutrophils Count for Local Tumor Control After Chemoradiotherapy in Patients With Locally Advanced Pancreatic Carcinoma.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Service d'Oncologie Radiothérapie, Hôpital Tenon, Paris, France; Groupe Coopérateur Multidisciplinaire en Oncologie, Paris, France.

Purpose: Baseline neutrophil count may predict overall survival (OS) in patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC).

Methods And Materials: The international multicenter randomized LAP07 phase 3 trial has enrolled 442 patients with LAPC. We analyzed the prognostic value of both baseline neutrophilia (neutrophil count >7 g/L) and elevated or increasing neutrophil count as (1) neutrophilia or (2) increased absolute neutrophil count after induction chemotherapy versus baseline for OS, progression-free survival, and local control (LC). A Cox proportional hazard model was used to assess elevated or increasing neutrophil count status by randomly assigned treatment interactions for each endpoint.

Results: Among the 442 patients, 47 patients (11%) with baseline neutrophilia had worse OS (median 8.9 vs 13.3 months; P = .01). After induction chemotherapy, among the 235 patients whose blood counts were available, 90 patients (38%) had elevated or increasing neutrophil count associated with poorer OS in univariate (median 14.4 vs 17.9 months; P = .001) and multivariate analysis (P = .004). Elevated or increasing neutrophil count was also predictive of a decreased benefit of chemoradiation therapy on LC. In 126 patients without elevated or increasing neutrophil count, 1-year LC was 80% in the chemoradiation arm versus 54% in the chemotherapy arm (P < .001; interaction test P = .015).

Conclusions: In this study, baseline neutrophilia and increased absolute neutrophil count were associated with worse OS in this large series of patients with LAPC. In addition, the counts were an independent prognosis factor and a strong predictive LC biomarker for chemoradiation therapy benefit. An assessment of neutrophils counts can help to improve the selection of patients who might benefit from chemoradiation therapy after induction chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.01.052DOI Listing
February 2021

Pooled analysis of 115 patients from updated data of Epitopes-HPV01 and Epitopes-HPV02 studies in first-line advanced anal squamous cell carcinoma.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2020 4;12:1758835920975356. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besançon, Besançon, France.

Aims: The addition of docetaxel to cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (DCF) has shown promising efficacy in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA). Preliminary results of Epitopes-HPV01 study showed a high rate of long-lasting complete response to DCF. The prospective, multicenter, Epitopes-HPV02 trial then confirmed the high efficacy of the modified DCF (mDCF) regimen in terms of complete response rate and long-term survival in metastatic or non-resectable locally advanced recurrent SCCA. Here, we present updated results of the Epitopes-HPV01 and Epitopes-HPV02 studies.

Patients & Methods: Epitopes-HPV01 is a prospective study performed by the regional cancer network of Franche-Comté, France. Epitopes-HPV02 is a phase II study supported by two French collaborative oncological groups, performed in 25 centers. Both studies included patients with metastatic, or with unresectable local recurrent SCCA, treated with DCF regimen.

Results: In Epitopes-HPV01, 51 patients were enrolled between September 2012 and January 2019, and 49 patients were included for analysis; while 69 patients were included between September 2014 and December 2016 in Epitopes-HPV02, and 66 patients for analysis. Pooled analysis of 115 patients showed a median progression-free survival of 12.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.6-16.1] [11.0 months (9.3-16.0) in -HPV02, and 15.6 months (11.2-34.5) in -HPV01, ( = 0.06)]. The median overall survival was 39.2 months (26.0-109.1) [36.3 in -HPV02 (25.2-NR), and 61.1 months (21.4-120.0) in -HPV01 ( = 0.62)]. Objective response rate was 87.7% (90.9% in -HPV02 and 83.3% in -HPV01) with 40.3% of complete response (45.5% in -HPV02 and 33.3% in -HPV01). No differences were observed between standard DCF ( = 54) and mDCF ( = 58) in terms of OS ( = 0.57) and PFS ( = 0.99). 5-years PFS and OS rates were 24.5% and 44.4%, respectively, in the whole population. No treatment-related death was observed.

Conclusion: Updated results of Epitopes-HPV01 and 02 studies, as well as the pooled analysis, confirm mDCF as a standard treatment in patients with advanced SCCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758835920975356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720302PMC
December 2020

Triplet combination of durvalumab, tremelimumab, and paclitaxel in biliary tract carcinomas: Safety run-in results of the randomized IMMUNOBIL PRODIGE 57 phase II trial.

Eur J Cancer 2021 01 3;143:55-63. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

GERCOR, Paris, France; Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Curie - Site Saint Cloud, Versailles Saint-Quentin University, Paris Saclay University, Saint-Cloud, France. Electronic address:

Background: The IMMUNOBIL PRODIGE 57 trial is a non-comparative randomized phase II study assessing the efficacy and safety of the durvalumab (an anti-PD-L1) and tremelimumab (an anti-CTLA4) combination with or without weekly paclitaxel in patients with advanced biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) after failure of platinum-based chemotherapy. Taxanes have already been safely combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors in other tumors. We report results of the 20-patient safety run-in.

Methods: Patients received durvalumab (1500 mg at day 1 [D1] of each cycle)/tremelimumab (75 mg at D1 for 4 cycles; Arm A) or durvalumab/tremelimumab with paclitaxel (80 mg/m at D1, D8, D15; Arm B) every 28 days.

Results: Twenty patients were enrolled (Arm A/B: 10/10). There were no dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) in Arm A. Six DLTs were observed in five patients (50%) in Arm B, meeting a stopping rule for the trial inclusions. DLTs included three serious anaphylactic reactions (with one cardiac arrest), two enterocolitis, and one infectious pneumopathy with septic shock. There were no patients with history of personal or familial auto-immune disease.

Conclusion: The safety run-in part of IMMUNOBIL PRODIGE 57 raised concerns regarding co-administration of paclitaxel with durvalumab and tremelimumab in BTC, with an unexpected increase in anaphylactic adverse events. Phase II of the study will only evaluate the durvalumab and tremelimumab combination arm.

Clinicaltrials Registration: NCT03704480.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.10.027DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of duration of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage III colon cancer (IDEA collaboration): final results from a prospective, pooled analysis of six randomised, phase 3 trials.

Lancet Oncol 2020 12;21(12):1620-1629

Department of Health Science Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: A prospective, pooled analysis of six randomised phase 3 trials was done to investigate disease-free survival regarding non-inferiority of 3 months versus 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage III colon cancer; non-inferiority was not shown. Here, we report the final overall survival results.

Methods: In this prospective, pooled analysis of six randomised phase 3 trials, we included patients with stage III colon cancer aged at least 18 years with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1 recruited between June 20, 2007, and Dec 31, 2015, across 12 countries in the CALGB/SWOG 80702, IDEA France, SCOT, ACHIEVE, TOSCA, and HORG trials, who started any treatment (modified intention-to-treat). Patients in all trials were randomly assigned to 3 months or 6 months of adjuvant fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) every 2 weeks or capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CAPOX) in different doses and methods every 3 weeks, at the treating physician's discretion. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (time to relapse, secondary colorectal primary tumour, or death due to all causes), and overall survival (time to death due to all causes) was the prespecified secondary endpoint. The non-inferiority margin for overall survival was set as a hazard ratio (HR) of 1·11. Pre-planned subgroup analyses included regimen and risk group. Non-inferiority was declared if the one-sided false discovery rate adjusted (FDRadj) p value was less than 0·025.

Findings: With median follow-up of 72·3 months (IQR 72·2-72·5), 2584 deaths among 12 835 patients were observed. 5064 (39·5%) patients received CAPOX and 7771 (60·5%) received FOLFOX. 5-year overall survival was 82·4% (95% CI 81·4-83·3) with 3 months of therapy and 82·8% (81·8-83·8) with 6 months of therapy (HR 1·02 [95% CI 0·95-1·11]; non-inferiority FDRadj p=0·058). For patients treated with CAPOX, 5-year overall survival was 82·1% (80·5-83·6) versus 81·2% (79·2-82·9; HR 0·96 [0·85-1·08]); non-inferiority FDRadj p=0·033), and for patients treated with FOLFOX 5-year overall survival was 82·6% (81·3-83·8) and 83·8% (82·6-85·0; HR 1·07 [0·97-1·18]; non-inferiority FDRadj p=0·34). Updated disease-free survival results confirmed previous findings (HR 1·08 [95% CI 1·02-1·15]; non-inferiority FDRadj p=0·25). Data on adverse events were not further recorded.

Interpretation: Non-inferiority of 3 months versus 6 months of adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with stage III colon cancer was not confirmed in terms of overall survival, but the absolute 0·4% difference in 5-year overall survival should be placed in clinical context. Overall survival results support the use of 3 months of adjuvant CAPOX for most patients with stage III colon cancer. This conclusion is strengthened by the substantial reduction of toxicities, inconveniencies, and cost associated with a shorter treatment duration.

Funding: US National Cancer Institute.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30527-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7786835PMC
December 2020

Panel gene profiling of small bowel adenocarcinoma: Results from the NADEGE prospective cohort.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 4;148(7):1731-1742. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Sorbonne Université, Inserm, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare tumour. Large genomic analyses with prognostic assessments are lacking. The NADEGE cohort has enrolled 347 patients with all stage SBA from 2009 to 2012. Next-generation sequencing investigates the presence of 740 hotspot somatic mutations in a panel of 46 genes involved in carcinogenesis. The mismatch repair (MMR) status was assessed by immunochemistry. We have collected 196 tumour samples and 125 had conclusive results for mutation analysis. The number of mutations was 0 in 9.6% of tumours, only 1 in 32.0%, 2 in 26.4% and ≥3 in 32.0%. Overall, at least one genomic alteration was observed in 90.4% of tumour. The most frequent genomic alteration was in KRAS (44.0%), TP53 (38.4%), PIK3CA (20.0%), APC (18.4%), SMAD4 (14.4%) and ERBB2 (7.2%) genes. KRAS mutations were more frequent in synchronous metastatic tumours than in localised tumours (72.7% vs 38.2%, P = .003). There was no significant difference in the mutation rates according to primary location for the most frequently altered gene. ATM, FGFR3 and FGFR1 gene alterations were associated with Lynch syndrome and IDH1 mutations with Crohn disease. dMMR tumours were associated with younger age, localised tumours, less KRAS but more SMARCB1 mutations. No genomic alteration was associated with overall survival. There is a trend for better survival in patient with dMMR tumours. In conclusion, there is a different genomic alteration profile in SBA according to predisposing diseases. No association between genomic alterations and prognoses was observed except for a trend of better prognoses associated with dMMR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33392DOI Listing
April 2021

RECIST and iRECIST criteria for the evaluation of nivolumab plus ipilimumab in patients with microsatellite instability-high/mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer: the GERCOR NIPICOL phase II study.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 11;8(2)

Sorbonne University, Department of Medical Oncology, Saint-Antoine Hospital, APHP, Paris, France

Background: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are highly effective in patients with microsatellite instability/mismatch repair-deficient (MSI/dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 criteria may underestimate response to ICIs due to the pseudoprogression phenomenon. The GERCOR NIPICOL phase II study aimed to evaluate the frequency of pseudoprogressions in patients with MSI/dMMR mCRC treated with nivolumab and ipilimumab.

Methods: Patients with MSI/dMMR mCRC previously treated with fluoropyrimidines, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan with/without targeted therapies received nivolumab 3 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 3 weeks for four cycles then nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until progression or a maximum of 20 cycles. Computed tomography scan tumor assessments were done every 6 weeks for 24 weeks and then every 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was disease control rate at 12 weeks according to RECIST 1.1 and iRECIST by central review.

Results: Of 57 patients included between December 2017 and November 2018, 48.0% received ≥3 prior lines of chemotherapy, 18.0% had mutation, and 56.0% had Lynch syndrome-related cancer. Seven patients (12.0%) discontinued treatment due to adverse events; one died due to a treatment-related adverse event. The disease control rate (DCR) at 12 weeks was 86.0% with RECIST 1.1% and 87.7% with iRECIST. Two pseudoprogressions (3.5%) were observed, at week 6 and at week 36, representing 18% of patients with disease progression per RECIST 1.1 criteria. With a median follow-up of 18.4 months, median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were not reached. The 12-month PFS rate was 72.9% with RECIST 1.1% and 76.5% with iRECIST. The 12-month OS rate was 84%. Overall response rate was 59.7% with both criteria. / status, sidedness, Lynch syndrome, and other baseline parameters were not associated with PFS.

Conclusion: Pseudoprogression is rare in patients with MSI/dMMR mCRC treated with nivolumab and ipilimumab. This combined ICI therapy confirms impressive DCR and survival outcomes in these patients.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03350126.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jitc-2020-001499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7640587PMC
November 2020

Prognostic value of the early change in neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol 2020 Oct 11:101541. Epub 2020 Oct 11.

Sorbonne Université, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005, Paris, France; Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, 47 Boulevard de l'Hôpital 75013, APHP, Paris, France. Electronic address:

In metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a high neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) at diagnosis is a marker of poor prognosis. The prognostic role of baseline NLR and NLR change during first-line chemotherapy were determined. We conducted a retrospective study by using data from a single-center prospective cohort and a randomized open-label, multicenter, randomized trial. Two hundred and twelve patients were analyzed. Baseline NLR>5 was an independent marker of poor prognosis for overall survival (HR=2.01, 95% CI 1.33-3.05; P=0.001) and progression-free survival (PFS; HR=1.80, 95% CI 1.23-2.65; P=0.0026). According to NLR dynamics (n=172), patients with NLR≤5 on days 1 and 15 had a significantly better prognosis than those with NLR≤5 on day 1 and NLR>5 on day 15 (HR=2.23, 95% CI 1.18-4.21; P=0.013), NLR >5 on day 1 and NLR ≤5 on day 15 (HR=3.25, 95% CI 1.86-5.68; P<0.001), and NLR>5 on days 1 and 15 (HR=3.37, 95% CI 1.93-5.90; P<0.001). Over time, bad responders (PFS <6 months) had significantly higher mean NLR than good responders (PFS>6 months; group effect: P<0.0001). Seven out of eight patients with baseline NLR>5 had circulating tumor DNA. This study confirmed the independent prognostic value of baseline NLR >5 in metastatic pancreatic cancer. The change in NLR early during chemotherapy was also a prognostic indicator in patients with NLR ≤5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinre.2020.08.016DOI Listing
October 2020

How to Choose the Right Treatment for Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma in the Absence of a Comparative Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2020 11 7;38(33):3973-3974. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Stefano Kim, MD, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besançon, Besançon; Clinical Investigational Center, CIC-1431, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon; and INSERM, Unit 1098, University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; Dewi Vernerey, PhD, INSERM, Unit 1098, University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besançon, and Methodology and Quality of Life in Oncology Unit, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France; and Christophe Borg, MD, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besançon, Besançon; Clinical Investigational Center, CIC-1431, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon; and INSERM, Unit 1098, University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besançon, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02137DOI Listing
November 2020

Anti-Telomerase CD4 Th1 Immunity and Monocytic-Myeloid-Derived-Suppressor Cells Are Associated with Long-Term Efficacy Achieved by Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and 5-Fluorouracil (DCF) in Advanced Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Translational Study of Epitopes-HPV01 and 02 Trials.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Sep 17;21(18). Epub 2020 Sep 17.

INSERM, EFS BFC, UMR1098, RIGHT, University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Interactions Greffon-Hôte-Tumeur/Ingénierie Cellulaire et Génique, F-25000 Besançon, France.

Docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (DCF) chemotherapy regimen is highly effective in advanced anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCCA), as demonstrated by the Epitopes-HPV02 study results. Here, we analyzed the impact of DCF regimen and the prognostic value of adaptive immune responses and immunosuppressive cells in SCCA patients included in two prospective studies (Epitopes-HPV01 and HPV02). The presence of T-cell responses against Human papillomavirus (HPV)16-E6/E7 and anti-telomerase (hTERT)-antigens was measured by IFNᵧ-ELISpot. Here, we showed that HPV-adaptive immune responses are increased in SCCA patients. SCCA patients also displayed enhanced circulating TH1 T-cells restricted by hTERT. Exposition to DCF increased hTERT immunity but not HPV or common viruses immune responses. Notably, the correlation of hTERT immune responses with SCCA patients' clinical outcomes highlights that hTERT is a relevant antigen in this HPV-related disease. The influence of peripheral immunosuppressive cells was investigated by flow cytometry. While both regulatory T-cells and monocytic-myeloid-derived suppressive cells (M-MDSC) accumulated in the peripheral blood of SCCA patients, only high levels of M-MDSC were negatively correlated with hTERT adaptive immune responses and predicted poor prognosis. Altogether, our results reveal that hTERT is a relevant antigen in HPV-driven SCCA disease and that M-MDSC levels influence TH1-adaptive immune responses and patients' survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21186838DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554943PMC
September 2020

FOLFIRINOX De-Escalation in Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Multicenter Real-Life Study.

Oncologist 2020 11 17;25(11):e1701-e1710. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Oncology Multidisciplinary Research Group (GERCOR), Paris, France.

Background: Our study describes the feasibility and efficacy of a first-line FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil [5FU], folinic acid, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) induction chemotherapy (CT) followed by de-escalation as a maintenance strategy for advanced pancreatic cancer.

Materials And Methods: This multicenter retrospective study was conducted from January 2011 to December 2018. FOLFIRINOX de-escalation was defined as stopping oxaliplatin and/or irinotecan after at least four cycles of FOLFIRINOX, without evidence of disease progression. Maintenance schedules were fluoropyrimidine monotherapy (intravenous or oral [capecitabine]), FOLFOX (5FU, oxaliplatin), or FOLFIRI (5FU, irinotecan). Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints were first progression-free survival (PFS1), second progression-free survival (PFS2), and toxicity.

Results: Among 321 patients treated with FOLFIRINOX, 147 (45.8%) were included. Median OS was 16.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7-20.3) and median PFS1 was 9.4 months (95% CI, 8.5-10.4). The preferred maintenance regimen was FOLFIRI in 66 (45%) patients versus 5FU monotherapy in 52 (35%) and FOLFOX in 25 (17%) patients. Among 118 patients who received maintenance CT with FOLFIRI or 5FU, there was no difference in PFS1 (median, 9.0 vs. 10.1 months, respectively; p = .33) or OS (median, 16.6 vs. 18.7 months; p = .86) between the two maintenance regimens. Reintroduction of FOLFIRINOX was performed in 20.2% of patients, with a median PFS2 of 2.8 months (95% CI, 2.0-22.3). The rates of grade 3-4 toxicity were significantly higher with FOLFIRI maintenance CT than with 5FU (41% vs. 22%; p = .03), especially for neuropathy (73% vs. 9%).

Conclusion: 5FU monotherapy maintenance appeared to be as effective as FOLFIRI, in a FOLFIRINOX de-escalation strategy, which is largely used in France.

Implications For Practice: FOLFIRINOX de-escalation and maintenance is a feasible strategy in advanced pancreatic cancer that decreases chemotherapy toxicity to improve both survival and quality of life. Survivals in patients with maintenance therapy are clinically meaningful. Fluoropyrimidine monotherapy maintenance seems to be as efficient as FOLFIRI and should be a reference arm in future pancreatic cancer maintenance trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2020-0577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7648331PMC
November 2020

Exposure-response analysis of Raltitrexed assessing liver toxicity.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 Mar 4;87(3):1327-1337. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

INSERM, EFS BFC, Université Bourgogne Franche-Comté, UMR1098, Interactions Hôte-Greffon-Tumeur/Ingénierie Cellulaire et Génique, Besançon, F-25000, France.

Aim: Raltitrexed (RTX) is a thymidylate synthase inhibitor with large pharmacokinetics (PK) variability that can be administered in case of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) intolerance or dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase deficiency. While it is a more potent thymidylate synthase inhibitor than 5FU, RTX failed to replace this drug for colorectal cancer patients, mainly due to its toxicity at the recommended dose of 3 mg/m every 3 weeks. However, every 2 weeks administration at 2 mg/m demonstrated a favourable toxicity profile.

Method: We performed a randomized crossover comparative population PK study between every 2 weeks TOMOX (RTX 2 mg/m ) and every 3 weeks TOMOX (RTX 3 mg/m ).

Results: A three-compartment model and a proportional error model best describe the data. Creatinine clearance and sex, but not body surface area (BSA), were covariates of RTX clearance leading to decrease of its interindividual variability of 28%. Weight and body surface area were covariates of central and peripheral volumes of distribution, respectively, leading to decreases of interindividual variability of 34.6% and 100%, respectively. In contrast to the dose, AUC was a good predictor of liver toxicity (P = 0.006, OR = 3.91, 95%CI = [1.48-10.34]). Using covariates to compute individual clearance and a threshold AUC (1.639, determined in this study), a covariates-based dose was calculated, leading to less variability in AUC than observed with the actual BSA-based or fixed doses.

Conclusion: These results advocate for the use of creatinine clearance and sex to determine the RTX dose instead of BSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14519DOI Listing
March 2021

Activity and tolerability of maintenance avelumab immunotherapy after first line polychemotherapy including platinum in patients with locally advanced or metastatic squamous cell penile carcinoma: PULSE.

Bull Cancer 2020 Jun;107(5S):eS16-eS21

Oncologie médicale, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Besançon, 25030 Besançon cedex, France; / Medical Oncology, University Hospital, Besançon, France; INSERM, UMR1098, Besançon, France.

Background Metastatic Squamous cell Penile Carcinoma (mSCPC) is an orphan disease with a virally induced oncogenesis. PD-L1 expression rate is around 60% with a strong correlation between PD-L1 in the primary tumour and metastases. The first line systemic treatment relies on platinum-based chemotherapies with a median progression free survival and overall survival around 7.5 and 16 months, respectively. Immunotherapies targeting PD-1/PD-L1 axis are effective in other squamous cell or HPV related cancers. Methods PULSE is a prospective multicenter open label single arm phase II study. Thirty-two patients will be enrolled after a radiological assessment showing a non-progressive disease after 3 to 6 cycles of a first line platinum-based polychemotherapy. Patients will receive Avelumab injections 10mg/ kg every two weeks until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint will be the progression free survival (PFS) according to RECIST v1.1 criteria. Secondary endpoints will include PFS according to iRECIST criteria, overall survival, quality of life, safety. Ancillary explorations will include assessing blood and tissue biomarkers for association with clinical benefit. Discussion After the first line, the prognosis remains poor with no consensus on a second line systemic treatment in locally advanced or mSCPC. PULSE trial is the first study that assess an anti PD-L1 immunotherapy in maintenance among patients with locally advanced or mSCPC. NCT NUMBER : NCT03774901.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0007-4551(20)30282-4DOI Listing
June 2020

Fluropyrimidine single agent or doublet chemotherapy as second line treatment in advanced biliary tract cancer.

Int J Cancer 2020 12 7;147(11):3177-3188. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Methodology and Quality of Life in Oncology Unit, Besançon University Hospital, Besançon, France.

Fluoropyrimidine (FP) plus platinum chemotherapy has been recently established as a second-line (L2) preferred option in advanced biliary tract cancer (aBTC) (ABC-06 phase III trial). However, the overall survival (OS) benefit was limited and comparison with FP monotherapy was not available. Our aim was to assess the OS of patients treated with a FP monotherapy compared to a doublet with irinotecan or platinum in L2. We performed a retrospective analysis of two large multicenter prospective cohorts: a French cohort (28 centers) and an Italian cohort (9 centers). All consecutive patients with aBTC receiving FP-based L2 after gemcitabine plus cisplatin/gemcitabine plus oxaliplatin L1 between 2003 and 2016 were included. A subgroup analysis according to performance status (PS) and an exploratory analysis according to platinum sensitivity in L1 were planned. In the French cohort (n = 351), no significant OS difference was observed between the FP monotherapy and doublet groups (median OS: 5.6 vs 6.8 months, P = .65). Stratification on Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) PS showed similar results in PS 0-1 and 2. Median OS was not different between FP monotherapy, platinum- and irinotecan-based doublets (5.6 vs 7.1 vs 6.7 months, P = .68). Similar findings were observed in the Italian cohort (n = 174) and in the sensitivity analysis in pooled cohorts (n = 525). No L2 regimen seemed superior over others in the platinum resistant/refractory or sensitive subgroups. Our results suggest that FP monotherapy is as active as FP doublets in aBTC in L2, regardless of the patient PS and country, and could be a therapeutic option in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33146DOI Listing
December 2020

Surgical Management and Outcomes of Rectal Cancer with Synchronous Prostate Cancer: A Multicenter Experience from the GRECCAR Group.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Oct 4;27(11):4286-4293. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Digestive Surgical Oncology - Liver Transplantation Unit, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon Cedex, France.

Background: Synchronous prostate cancer (PC) and rectal cancer (RC) is a rare clinical situation. While combining curative-intent management for both cancers can be challenging, available data for guiding the multidisciplinary strategy are lacking.

Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing rectal resection for a mid-low RC with synchronous PC treated at 9 tertiary-care centers between 2008 and 2018 were included. Management strategy and data on postoperative and long-term outcomes were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Overall, 25 patients underwent curative-intent RC resection combined with PC management. Nine (36%), 10 (40%) and 6 (24%) patients had low-, intermediate-, and high-risk PC, respectively. Management mostly consisted of chemoradiotherapy combined in 18 patients (72%) with either TME in 12 patients or pelvic exenteration for resection of both cancers in 6 patients. Most patients underwent RC resection using a laparoscopic approach (n = 16, 64%). Anastomosis was performed in 18 patients (72%) of whom 13 received diverting ileostomy. The complete R0 resection rate was 96% (n = 24). The overall morbidity rate was 64% (n = 16) and 5 patients (20%) experienced severe surgical morbidity of which two died within 90 days of surgery after pelvic exenteration. Among patients with anastomosis, 2 patients (11%) experienced anastomotic leak requiring surgical management. After a median follow-up of 31.2 months, 3-year OS and RFS were 80.2% (CI 95% 58.8-92.2) and 68.6% (CI 95% 42.3-84.8), respectively.

Conclusions: This series is the largest to report that simultaneous curative-intent management of synchronous PC and RC is feasible and safe. Pelvic exenteration might be a better option when RC complete resection seems not achievable through TME.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08683-4DOI Listing
October 2020

NORAD01-GRECCAR16 multicenter phase III non-inferiority randomized trial comparing preoperative modified FOLFIRINOX without irradiation to radiochemotherapy for resectable locally advanced rectal cancer (intergroup FRENCH-GRECCAR- PRODIGE trial).

BMC Cancer 2020 May 29;20(1):485. Epub 2020 May 29.

Service de Chirurgie Digestive et Oncologique, Hôpital Bicêtre, Groupe Hospitalier Universitaire Paris Sud, Assistance Publique, Hôpitaux de Paris, 63, rue Gabriel Péri, Le Kremlin Bicetre, 94275, France.

Background: Preoperative radiochemotherapy (RCT) is recommended in France prior to total mesorectal excision in patients with mid or low locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) (cT3/T4 and/or N+) because it has been shown to improve local control. Preoperative RCT has also disadvantages including the absence of proven impact on metastatic recurrence and the risk of late side effects on bowel and genitourinary function. In patients with primarily resectable LARC, preoperative systemic chemotherapy without pelvic irradiation could be used as an alternative to RCT.

Methods: This study is a multicenter, open-label randomized, 2-arm phase III non-inferiority trial. Patients with mid or low resectable LARC (cT3N0 or cT1-T3N+ with circumferential resection margin [CRM] > 2 mm on pretreatment MRI) will be randomized to either modified FOLFIRINOX for 3 months or RCT (Cap50 intensified-modulated radiotherapy). All patients have restaging MRI after preoperative treatment. The primary endpoint is 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) from the time to randomization including progression during preoperative treatment. Secondary endpoints are treatment related toxicity, treatment compliance, R0 resection rate, sphincter saving surgery rate, postoperative morbidity and mortality rates, loco-regional recurrence free survival, overall survival, bowel and sexual functions at diagnosis, quality of life, radiologic and pathologic response after preoperative treatment. The number of patients required is 574.

Discussion: The choice of modified FOLFIRINOX for preoperative chemotherapy is supported by recent and consistent data on safety and efficacy of this regimen on rectal cancer. The use of preoperative chemotherapy instead of RCT could be associated with pronounced advantages in terms of functional results and quality of life in cancer survivors. However and first of all, the non-inferiority of preoperative chemotherapy compared to RCT on oncologic outcome has to be validated. If this study demonstrates the non-inferiority of chemotherapy compared to RCT, this can lead to a crucial change in clinical practice in a large subset of rectal cancer patients.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03875781 (March 15, 2019). Version 1.1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-06968-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7257230PMC
May 2020

Efficacy of Anti-EGFR in Microsatellite Instability Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Depending on Sporadic or Familial Origin.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Apr;113(4):496-500

Gastroenterology Department, Poitiers University Hospital and University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France.

Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) efficacy in patients with microsatellite instability (MSI) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) according to sporadic vs familial origin is unknown. We retrospectively analyzed 128 patients with MSI mCRC treated with first-line chemotherapy ± anti-EGFR. Among them, 61 and 67 patients were respectively categorized as familial and sporadic based on mismatch repair protein immunostaining, BRAF mutational status, and MLH1 promoter methylation status. We observed that addition of anti-EGFR to chemotherapy was associated with a statistically significant improvement of progression-free survival for familial (median = 5.0 vs 10.2 months, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.23 to 0.94; P = .03) but not for sporadic (median = 4.4 vs 5.4 months, HR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.39 to 1.60; P = .52) MSI mCRC patients. In multivariate analysis, the survival benefit of adding anti-EGFR to chemotherapy remained statistically significant for familial MSI cases (P = .04). These findings deserve to be confirmed in a prospective study and could help decision making in MSI mCRC without access or resistant to immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023852PMC
April 2021

Atezolizumab plus modified docetaxel-cisplatin-5-fluorouracil (mDCF) regimen versus mDCF in patients with metastatic or unresectable locally advanced recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma: a randomized, non-comparative phase II SCARCE GERCOR trial.

BMC Cancer 2020 Apr 25;20(1):352. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Besançon, 3 Boulevard Alexander Flemingn, F-25030, Besançon, France.

Background: Modified docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (mDCF) regimen has become a new standard for the treatment of metastatic or unresectable locally advanced recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) after demonstrating improved efficacy (12-month PFS of 47%) in the Epitopes-HPV02 trial. Antibodies targeting the checkpoint inhibitor (CKI) programmed cell death protein-1 (PD1) have demonstrated the efficacy as monotherapies in second-line treatment of SCCA. The aim of this study is to evaluate the combination of atezolizumab and mDCF as first-line chemotherapy in a non-comparative multicentre randomized phase II study of advanced SCCA patients.

Methods: Patients with chemo-naive advanced histologically proven SCCA, metastatic or unresectable locally advanced recurrence, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-performance status (ECOG-PS) < 2 will be eligible. The primary endpoint is a 12-month PFS rate. Using one-arm non-parametric survival with unilateral alpha type I error of 5% and a statistical power of 80%, the upper critical value for the 12-month PFS rate is 47% to reject H0. Assuming 5% lost to follow-up, 99 patients will be randomized on a 2:1 basis, 66 to the experimental arm (arm A, mDCF plus atezolizumab) and 33 to the standard arm (arm B, mDCF). In both arms, 8 cycles of mDCF will be administered. In arm A, patients receive mDCF with a fixed dose of atezolizumab (800 mg every 2 weeks) and are followed up to 1 year. Secondary endpoints are overall survival, PFS, response rate, safety, health-related quality of life, and an extensive biomarker programme and its correlation with the treatment efficacy.

Discussion: Although the Epitopes-HPV02 trial has changed long-lasting prognosis of patients with SCCA in advanced stage disease, more than 50% of patients will progress at 12 months. The purpose of the SCARCE trial to establish the addition of atezolizumab to mDCF as a new standard in this rare disease. Associated biomarker studies and the control arm could contribute to better understanding of the potential synergic and tumour resistance mechanisms in SCCA.

Trial Registration: NCT03519295.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-06841-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183720PMC
April 2020

FOLFOXIRI FOLFIRINOX as first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: A population-based cohort study.

World J Gastrointest Oncol 2020 Mar;12(3):332-346

University Bourgogne Franche-Comté, INSERM, EFS BFC, UMR1098, Interactions Hôte-Greffon-Tumeur/Ingénierie Cellulaire et Génique, Besançon F-25000, France.

Background: FOLFIRINOX regimen is the first-line reference chemotherapy (L1) in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (aPDAC). FOLFOXIRI, a schedule with a lower dose of irinotecan and no bolus 5-fluorouracil, has demonstrated efficacy and feasibility in colorectal cancer.

Aim: To investigate the potential clinical value of FOLFOXIRI in patients with aPDAC in routine clinical practice.

Methods: Analyses were derived from all consecutive aPDAC patients treated in L1 between January 2011 and December 2017 in two French institutions, with either FOLFOXIRI ( = 165) or FOLFIRINOX ( = 124) regimens. FOLFOXIRI consisted of irinotecan (165 mg/m), oxaliplatin (85 mg/m), leucovorin (200 mg/m) and 5-fluorouracil (3200 mg/m as a 48-h continuous infusion) every 2 wk. Ninety-six pairs of patients were selected through propensity score matching, and clinical outcomes of the two treatment regimens were compared.

Results: Median overall survival was 11.1 mo in the FOLFOXIRI and 11.6 mo in the FOLFIRINOX cohorts, respectively. After propensity score matching, survival rates remained similar between the two regimens in terms of overall survival (hazard ratio = 1.22; = 0.219) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio = 1.27; = 0.120). The objective response rate was 37.1% in the FOLFOXIRI group 47.8% in the FOLFIRINOX group ( = 0.187). Grade 3/4 toxicities occurred in 28.7% of patients in the FOLFOXIRI cohort 19.5% in the FOLFIRINOX cohort ( = 0.079). FOLFOXIRI was associated with a higher incidence of grade 3/4 digestive adverse events. Hematopoietic growth factors were used after each chemotherapy cycle and the low hematological toxicity rates were below 5% with both regimens.

Conclusion: FOLFOXIRI is feasible in L1 in patients with aPDAC but does not confer any therapeutic benefit as compared with FOLFIRINOX. The low hematological toxicity rates strengthened the relevance of primary prophylaxis with hematopoietic growth factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4251/wjgo.v12.i3.332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7081111PMC
March 2020

Guidelines for time-to-event end-point definitions in adjuvant randomised trials for patients with localised colon cancer: Results of the DATECAN initiative.

Eur J Cancer 2020 05 12;130:63-71. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Sorbonne Université, Department of Medical Oncology, AP-HP, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, F-7512, Paris, France.

Background: The variability of definitions for time-to-event (TTE) end-points impacts the conclusions of randomised clinical trials (RCTs). The Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer (DATECAN) initiative aims to provide consensus definitions for TTE end-points used in RCTs. Here, we formulate guidelines for adjuvant colon cancer RCTs.

Methods: We performed a literature review to identify TTE end-points and events included in their definition in RCT publications. Then, a consensus was reached among a panel of international experts, using a formal modified Delphi method, with 2 rounds of questionnaires and an in-person meeting.

Results: Twenty-four experts scored 72 events involved in 6 TTE end-points. Consensus was reached for 24%, 57% and 100% events after the first round, second round and in-person meeting. For RCTs not using overall survival as their primary end-point, the experts recommend using disease-free survival (DFS) rather than recurrence-free survival (RFS) or time to recurrence (TTR) as the primary end-point. The consensus definition of DFS includes all causes of death, second primary colorectal cancers (CRCs), anastomotic relapse and metastatic relapse as an event, but not second primary non-CRCs. Events included in the RFS definition are the same as for DFS with the exception of second primary CRCs. The consensus definition of TTR includes anastomotic or metastatic relapse, death with evidence of recurrence and death from CC cause.

Conclusion: Standardised definitions of TTE end-points ensure the reproducibility of the end-points between RCTs and facilitate cross-trial comparisons. These definitions should be integrated in standard practice for the design, reporting and interpretation of adjuvant CC RCTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.02.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7409551PMC
May 2020

Prognostic Value of Tumor Deposits for Disease-Free Survival in Patients With Stage III Colon Cancer: A Post Hoc Analysis of the IDEA France Phase III Trial (PRODIGE-GERCOR).

J Clin Oncol 2020 05 13;38(15):1702-1710. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

Patients And Methods: A post hoc analysis of all pathologic reports from patients with stage III CC included in the IDEA France phase III study (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00958737) investigating the duration of adjuvant fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin or capecitabine and oxaliplatin therapy (3 6 months) was performed. The primary objective was to determine the prognostic impact of TD on disease-free survival (DFS). The effect of the addition of TD to LNM count on pN restaging was also evaluated. A multivariable analysis was performed to establish the association between TD and DFS.

Results: Of 1,942 patients, 184 (9.5%) had TDs. The pN1a/b and pN1c populations showed similar DFS. TD-positive patients had worse prognosis compared with TD-negative patients, with 3-year DFS rates of 65.6% (95% CI, 58.0% to 72.1%) and 74.7% (95% CI, 72.6% to 76.7%; = .0079), respectively. On multivariable analysis, TDs were associated with a higher risk of recurrence or death (hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; = .0201). Other adverse factors included pT4 and/or pN2 disease (HR, 2.21; < .001), the 3 months of adjuvant treatment (HR, 1.29; = .0029), tumor obstruction (HR, 1.28; = .0233), and male sex (HR, 1.24; = .0151). Patients restaged as having pN2 disease (n = 35, 2.3%) had similar DFS as patients initially classified as pN2.

Conclusion: The presence of TDs is an independent prognostic factor for DFS in patients with stage III CC. The addition of TD to LNM may help to better define the duration of adjuvant therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.01960DOI Listing
May 2020

Correction to: Resectable pancreatic adenocarcinoma neo-adjuvant FOLF(IRIN)OX-based chemotherapy - a multicenter, non-comparative, randomized, phase II trial (PANACHE01-PRODIGE48 study).

BMC Cancer 2020 03 3;20(1):168. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Department of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery and Liver Transplantation, Paul Brousse Hospital, Villejuif, France.

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported an error in the "Samples size calculation and statistical considerations" section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-6678-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053072PMC
March 2020

[Localized MSI/dMMR gastric cancer patients, perioperative immunotherapy instead of chemotherapy: The GERCOR NEONIPIGA phase II study is opened to recruitment].

Bull Cancer 2020 Apr 10;107(4):438-446. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

AP-HP, Sorbonne Université, hôpital Saint-Antoine, department of medical oncology, 75012 Paris, France.

Introduction: Perioperative chemotherapy is the standard strategy for localized gastric cancers. Nevertheless, this strategy seems to be inefficient, if not deleterious, for patients with tumors harboring microsatellite instability (MSI) and/or mismatch repair deficiency (dMMR), a tumor phenotype predictive for the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICKi).

Aim: The GERCOR NEONIPIGA single-arm phase II study (NCT04006262; EUDRACT 2018-004712-22) aims at evaluating the efficacy of a peri-operative strategy with nivolumab and ipilimumab in neoadjuvant setting, then nivolumab alone after surgery for patients with resectable MSI/dMMR gastric cancer.

Material And Methods: Main inclusion criteria are: gastric and oesogastric junction adenocarcinoma (GOA), T2-T4, all N stage and M0, MSI/dMMR. Patients will be treated with nivolumab 240mg Q2W, 6 infusions, and ipilimumab 1mg/kg Q6W, 2 infusions in neoadjuvant setting. Following surgery, patients with TRG 1-2-3 (Mandard tumor regression grade), acceptable tolerance of neoadjuvant treatment and postoperative ECOG performance status 0-1, will be treated with adjuvant nivolumab 480mg Q4W, 9 infusions.

Results: The primary endpoint is pathological complete response rate (pCR-R). Based on a Fleming design, with α=5% and β=20%, 27 patients have to be evaluated (H0=5%; H1=20%). Secondary endpoints include disease-free survival, overall survival and safety.

Conclusion: This study is planned to include 32 patients to evaluate the pCR-R with the combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab in neoadjuvant setting for MSI/dMMR localized GOA. The MSI/MMR status should be systematically assessed on diagnostic biopsies of all GOA. If it meets its primary endpoint, the GERCOR NEONIPIGA study might mark a turning point in the management of localized MSI/dMMR GOA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2019.11.016DOI Listing
April 2020

Prognosis and chemosensitivity of deficient MMR phenotype in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: An AGEO retrospective multicenter study.

Int J Cancer 2020 07 13;147(1):285-296. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Sorbonne University and Medical Oncology Department, Saint Antoine Hospital, Paris, France.

Mismatch repair-deficient (dMMR) and/or microsatellite instability-high (MSI) colorectal cancers (CRC) represent about 5% of metastatic CRC (mCRC). Prognosis and chemosensitivity of dMMR/MSI mCRC remain unclear. This multicenter study included consecutive patients with dMMR/MSI mCRC from 2007 to 2017. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival (PFS) in a population receiving first-line chemotherapy. Associations between chemotherapy regimen and survival were evaluated using a Cox regression model and inverse of probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) methodology in order to limit potential biases. Overall, 342 patients with dMMR/MSI mCRC were included. Median PFS and overall survival (OS) on first-line chemotherapy were 6.0 and 26.3 months, respectively. For second-line chemotherapy, median PFS and OS were 4.4 and 21.6 months. Longer PFS (8.1 vs. 5.4 months, p = 0.0405) and OS (35.1 vs. 24.4 months, p = 0.0747) were observed for irinotecan-based chemotherapy compared to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. The association was no longer statistically significant using IPTW methodology. In multivariable analysis, anti-VEGF as compared to anti-EGFR was associated with a trend to longer OS (HR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.00-3.19, p = 0.0518), whatever the backbone chemotherapy used. Our study shows that dMMR/MSI mCRC patients experienced short PFS with first-line chemotherapy with or without targeted therapy. OS was not different according to the chemotherapy regimen used, but a trend to better OS was observed with anti-VEGF. Our study provides some historical results concerning chemotherapy in dMMR/MSI mCRC in light of the recent nonrandomized trials with immune checkpoint inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32879DOI Listing
July 2020

Small bowel adenocarcinoma: Results from a nationwide prospective ARCAD-NADEGE cohort study of 347 patients.

Int J Cancer 2020 08 22;147(4):967-977. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Oncology, Saint Antoine Hospital, APHP, Paris, France.

Small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare tumour. We conducted a prospective cohort to describe the prevalence, survival and prognostic factors in unselected SBA patients. The study enrolled patients with all stages of newly diagnosed or recurrent SBA at 74 French centres between January 2009 and December 2012. In total, 347 patients were analysed; the median age was 63 years (range 23-90). The primary tumour was in the duodenum (60.6%), jejunum (20.7%) and ileum (18.7%). The prevalence of predisposing disease was 8.7%, 6.9%, 1.7%, 1.7% and 0.6% for Crohn disease, Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, celiac disease and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, respectively. At diagnosis, 58.9%, 5.5% and 35.6% of patients had localised and resectable, locally advanced unresectable and metastatic disease, respectively. Crohn disease was significantly associated with younger age, poor differentiation and ileum location, whereas Lynch syndrome with younger age, poor differentiation, early stage and duodenum location. Adjuvant chemotherapy (oxaliplatin-based in 89.9%) was performed in 61.5% of patients with locally resected tumours. With a 54-months median follow-up, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 87.9%, 78.2% and 55.5% in Stages I, II and III, respectively. The median OS of patients with Stage IV was 12.7 months. In patients with resected tumours, poor differentiation (p = 0.047) and T4 stage (p = 0.001) were associated with a higher risk of death. In conclusion, our study showed that the prognosis of advanced SBA remains poor. Tumour characteristics differed according to predisposing disease. In SBA-resected tumours, the prognostic factors for OS were grade and T stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32860DOI Listing
August 2020

Efficacy and Safety of Aflibercept in Combination With Chemotherapy Beyond Second-Line Therapy in Metastatic Colorectal Carcinoma Patients: An AGEO Multicenter Study.

Clin Colorectal Cancer 2020 03 4;19(1):39-47.e5. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Digestive Oncology, European Georges Pompidou Hospital, René Descartes University, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Although no data have been reported beyond second-line therapy, aflibercept is approved in this setting in many countries. We conducted a multicenter study to analyze the efficacy and safety of a aflibercept-chemotherapy regimen beyond second-line therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

Patients And Methods: Metastatic colorectal cancer patients treated with aflibercept beyond second-line therapy were included. Objective response rate, overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed.

Results: A total of 130 patients were included. Median OS and PFS were 7.6 months (95% confidence interval, 6.2-9.3) and 3.3 months (95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.8), respectively. The best response rates were partial response 6.9%, stable disease 38.5%, progressive disease 42.5%, and not evaluable 12%. According to whether patients received previous FOLFIRI (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin)-bevacizumab or not, OS was 7.7 and 8.1 months (P = .31), and PFS was 2.9 and 3.9 months (P = .02), respectively. Interestingly, PFS and OS were both significantly improved by 4% and 5% per month, respectively, without antiangiogenic treatment before the initiation of the aflibercept regimen. The negative effect of prior FOLFIRI-bevacizumab or shorter time since last bevacizumab was maintained in multivariate analysis for both OS and PFS.

Conclusion: The aflibercept-chemotherapy regimen is a therapeutic option in patients with chemorefractory disease beyond second-line therapy, in particular in patients with an antiangiogenic-free interval.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clcc.2019.08.003DOI Listing
March 2020

Fong's Score in the Era of Modern Perioperative Chemotherapy for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Post Hoc Analysis of the GERCOR-MIROX Phase III Trial.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Mar 22;27(3):877-885. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Department of Medical Oncology, Lille University Hospital, Lille, France.

Background: Despite improvement in colorectal liver metastasis (CLM) treatment, survival after liver surgery remains highly variable. Several clinicopathologic prognostic factors have been reported, but their validity in the era of more effective perioperative chemotherapy remains to be defined. The aim of this study is to analyze the prognostic factors associated with survival after CLM resection.

Methods: Clinicopathologic data of patients included in the MIROX phase III trial who underwent surgery for isolated CLMs were analyzed. The primary endpoints were 5-year overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Univariate Cox analysis was performed to identify associations with OS and DFS and select variables for inclusion in a multivariate model to determine their independent prognostic value.

Results: A total of 181 patients were analyzed. The median follow-up period was 6.42 years [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.15-8.71 years], and the 5-year OS and DFS rates were 67.1% and 35.4%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, Fong's clinical risk score (CRS) as a categorical variable (CRS 0-1 vs. 2-3 vs. 4-5, p = 0.036) and polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) count (> 6000/mm vs. ≤ 6000/mm, p = 0.006) before chemotherapy were found to be independent prognostic factors for OS. However, only Fong's CRS remained significantly associated with DFS (p = 0.027). The final OS model was used to establish a nomogram that allows individual OS estimations at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years.

Conclusions: Fong's CRS was independently associated with DFS and poor OS after CLM resection with FOLFOX-based chemotherapy regimen. It could be useful in daily practice and future trials to select patients more accurately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-019-07976-7DOI Listing
March 2020

Validated Nomogram Predicting 6-Month Survival in Pancreatic Cancer Patients Receiving First-Line 5-Fluorouracil, Oxaliplatin, and Irinotecan.

Clin Colorectal Cancer 2019 12 4;18(4):e394-e401. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

S.C. Oncologia, Department of Oncology, ASL BI, Biella, Italy.

Background: FOLFIRINOX (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan, and oxaliplatin) is an option for fit patients with metastatic (MPC) and locally advanced unresectable (LAPC) pancreatic cancer. However, no criteria reliably identify patients with better outcomes.

Patients And Methods: We investigated putative prognostic factors among 137 MPC/LAPC patients treated with triplet chemotherapy. Association with 6-month survival status (primary endpoint) was assessed by multivariate logistic regression models. A nomogram predicting the risk of death at 6 months was built by assigning a numeric score to each identified variable, weighted on its level of association with survival. External validation was performed in an independent data set of 206 patients. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03590275).

Results: Four variables (performance status, liver metastases, baseline carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) were found to be associated with 6-month survival by multivariate analysis or had sufficient clinical plausibility to be included in the nomogram. Accuracy was confirmed in the validation cohort (C index = 0.762; 95% confidence interval, 0.713-0.825). After grouping all cases, 4 subsets with different outcomes were identified by 0, 1, 2, or > 2 poor prognostic features (P < .0001).

Conclusion: The nomogram we constructed accurately predicts the risk of death in the first 6 months after initiation of FOLFIRINOX in MPC/LAPC patients. This tool could be useful to guide communication about prognosis, and to inform the design and interpretation of clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clcc.2019.08.004DOI Listing
December 2019

Mismatch Repair System Deficiency Is Associated With Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2019 11 9;105(4):824-833. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Tenon Hospital, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris Est, APHP, Paris, France; Sorbonne Université, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Purpose: Defective mismatch repair system (dMMR) has been shown to have a favorable impact on outcome in patients with colorectal cancer treated with surgery or immunotherapy, with adjuvant chemotherapy being discouraged unless there is nodal involvement. Its impact on radiosensitivity is unknown in patients with colorectal cancer.

Methods And Materials: Patients treated for locally advanced rectal cancer between 2000 and 2016 were studied. Reported points included age, sex, clinical and radiologic tumor stages at diagnosis, modalities of neoadjuvant treatment, posttreatment pathologic staging, tumor regression score, and local, distant relapse-free, and overall survival. An inverse probability of treatment weighting propensity score analysis was performed to evaluate the association of mismatch repair proficiency with surgical and clinical outcomes.

Results: Among the 296 patients included, 23 (7.8%) had dMMR. Median follow-up was 43.0 months (interquartile range, 27.9-66.7). Patients with dMMR were significantly younger than the others. After inverse probability of treatment weighting propensity score matching, dMMR patients had higher pathologic downstaging rate (P < .0001), higher tumor regression grade (P = .024), and a longer recurrence-free survival (P < .0001).

Conclusions: dMRR was associated with significant tumor downstaging after neoadjuvant chemoradiation and with increased recurrence-free survival. dMMR patients may have more radiosensitive tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2019.07.057DOI Listing
November 2019

Distinct prognostic value of circulating anti-telomerase CD4 Th1 immunity and exhausted PD-1/TIM-3 T cells in lung cancer.

Br J Cancer 2019 08 30;121(5):405-416. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

University Bourgogne Franche-Comté, INSERM, EFS BFC, UMR1098, Interactions Hôte-Greffon-Tumeur/Ingénierie Cellulaire et Génique, F-25000, Besançon, France.

Background: Despite the critical roles of Th1-polarised CD4 T cells in cancer immunosurveillance, the translation of their potential to clinical use remains challenging. Here, we investigate the clinical relevance of circulating antitumor Th1 immunity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: The circulating antitumor Th1 response was assessed by the ELISpot assay in 170 NSCLC patients using a mixture of HLA class II-restricted peptides from telomerase (TERT). Phenotyping of blood immune cells was performed by flow cytometry.

Results: TERT-reactive CD4 T-cell response was detected in 35% of NSCLC patients before any treatment. Functional analysis showed that these cells were effector memory and Th1 polarised capable to produce effector cytokines, such as IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2. The presence of anti-TERT Th1 response was inversely correlated with the level of exhausted PD-1/TIM-3CD4 T cells. The level of these two immune parameters differentially affected the survival, so that increased level of anti-TERT Th1 response and low rate of exhausted PD-1TIM-3CD4 T cells were associated with a better prognosis.

Conclusions: Systemic anti-TERT Th1 response plays a strong antitumor protective role in NSCLC. This study underlines the potential interest of monitoring circulating antitumor Th1 response for patients' stratification and therapy decision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0531-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738094PMC
August 2019