Publications by authors named "Devin N Fachko"

3 Publications

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B Cell Receptor-Responsive miR-141 Enhances Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Cycle via FOXO3 Inhibition.

mSphere 2021 Apr 14;6(2). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA

Antigen recognition by the B cell receptor (BCR) is a physiological trigger for reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and can be recapitulated by cross-linking of surface immunoglobulins. Previously, we identified a subset of EBV microRNAs (miRNAs) that attenuate BCR signal transduction and subsequently dampen lytic reactivation in B cells. The roles of host miRNAs in the EBV lytic cycle are not completely understood. Here, we profiled the small RNAs in reactivated Burkitt lymphoma cells and identified several miRNAs, such as miR-141, that are induced upon BCR cross-linking. Notably, EBV encodes a viral miRNA, miR-BART9, with sequence homology to miR-141. To better understand the functions of these two miRNAs, we examined their molecular targets and experimentally validated multiple candidates commonly regulated by both miRNAs. Targets included B cell transcription factors and known regulators of EBV immediate-early genes, leading us to hypothesize that these miRNAs modulate kinetics of the lytic cascade in B cells. Through functional assays, we identified roles for miR-141 and EBV miR-BART9 and one specific target, FOXO3, in progression of the lytic cycle. Our data support a model whereby EBV exploits BCR-responsive miR-141 and further mimics activity of this miRNA family via a viral miRNA to promote productive lytic replication. EBV is a human pathogen associated with several malignancies. A key aspect of lifelong virus persistence is the ability to switch between latent and lytic replication modes. The mechanisms governing latency, reactivation, and progression of the lytic cycle are only partly understood. This study reveals that specific miRNAs can act to support the EBV lytic phase following BCR-mediated reactivation triggers. Furthermore, this study identifies a role for FOXO3, commonly suppressed by both host and viral miRNAs, in modulating progression of the EBV lytic cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00093-21DOI Listing
April 2021

Multiple Viral microRNAs Regulate Interferon Release and Signaling Early during Infection with Epstein-Barr Virus.

mBio 2021 03 30;12(2). Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Research Unit Gene Vectors, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health and German Center for Infection Research (DZIF), Partner site Munich, Munich, Germany

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human herpesvirus, encodes 44 microRNAs (miRNAs), which regulate many genes with various functions in EBV-infected cells. Multiple target genes of the EBV miRNAs have been identified, some of which play important roles in adaptive antiviral immune responses. Using EBV mutant derivatives, we identified additional roles of viral miRNAs in governing versatile type I interferon (IFN) responses upon infection of human primary mature B cells. We also found that Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) and LF2, viral genes with previously reported functions in inducing or regulating IFN-I pathways, had negligible or even contrary effects on secreted IFN-α in our model. Data mining and Ago PAR-CLIP experiments uncovered more than a dozen previously uncharacterized, direct cellular targets of EBV miRNA associated with type I IFN pathways. We also identified indirect targets of EBV miRNAs in B cells, such as TRL7 and TLR9, in the prelatent phase of infection. The presence of epigenetically naive, non-CpG methylated viral DNA was essential to induce IFN-α secretion during EBV infection in a TLR9-dependent manner. In a newly established fusion assay, we verified that EBV virions enter a subset of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and determined that these infected pDCs are the primary producers of IFN-α in EBV-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Our findings document that many EBV-encoded miRNAs regulate type I IFN response in newly EBV infected primary human B cells in the prelatent phase of infection and dampen the acute release of IFN-α in pDCs upon their encounter with EBV. Acute antiviral functions of all nucleated cells rely on type I interferon (IFN-I) pathways triggered upon viral infection. Host responses encompass the sensing of incoming viruses, the activation of specific transcription factors that induce the transcription of IFN-I genes, the secretion of different IFN-I types and their recognition by the heterodimeric IFN-α/β receptor, the subsequent activation of JAK/STAT signaling pathways, and, finally, the transcription of many IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). In sum, these cellular functions establish a so-called antiviral state in infected and neighboring cells. To counteract these cellular defense mechanisms, viruses have evolved diverse strategies and encode gene products that target antiviral responses. Among such immune-evasive factors are viral microRNAs (miRNAs) that can interfere with host gene expression. We discovered that multiple miRNAs of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) control over a dozen cellular genes that contribute to the antiviral states of immune cells, specifically B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). We identified the viral DNA genome as the activator of IFN-α and question the role of abundant EBV EBERs, that, contrary to previous reports, do not have an apparent inducing function in the IFN-I pathway early after infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.03440-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092300PMC
March 2021

Role of IL-15 Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in Rhesus Macaques.

J Immunol 2019 12 25;203(11):2928-2943. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Beaverton, OR 97006;

Although IL-15 has been implicated in the pathogenic hyperimmune activation that drives progressive HIV and SIV infection, as well as in the generation of HIV/SIV target cells, it also supports NK and T cell homeostasis and effector activity, potentially benefiting the host. To understand the role of IL-15 in SIV infection and pathogenesis, we treated two cohorts of SIVmac239-infected rhesus macaques (RM; ), one with chronic infection, the other with primary infection, with a rhesusized, IL-15-neutralizing mAb (versus an IgG isotype control) for up to 10 wk ( = 7-9 RM per group). In both cohorts, anti-IL-15 was highly efficient at blocking IL-15 signaling in vivo, causing 1) profound depletion of NK cells in blood and tissues throughout the treatment period; 2) substantial, albeit transient, depletion of CD8 effector memory T cells (T) (but not the naive and central memory subsets); and 3) CD4 and CD8 T hyperproliferation. In primary infection, reduced frequencies of SIV-specific effector T cells in an extralymphoid tissue site were also observed. Despite these effects, the kinetics and extent of SIV replication, CD4 T cell depletion, and the onset of AIDS were comparable between anti-IL-15- and control-treated groups in both cohorts. However, RM treated with anti-IL-15 during primary infection manifested accelerated reactivation of RM rhadinovirus. Thus, IL-15 support of NK cell and T homeostasis does not play a demonstrable, nonredundant role in SIV replication or CD4 T cell deletion dynamics but may contribute to immune control of oncogenic γ-herpesviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1900792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6864325PMC
December 2019