Publications by authors named "Despoina Kostopoulou"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Efficacy of a novel topical combination of esafoxolaner, eprinomectin and praziquantel against ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestations in cats.

Parasite 2021 2;28:26. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica GmbH, Kathrinenhof Research Center, Walchenseestr. 8-12, 83101 Rohrdorf, Germany.

Esafoxolaner, a purified enantiomer of afoxolaner with insecticidal and acaricidal properties, is combined with eprinomectin and praziquantel, nematodicidal and cestodicidal compounds, in NexGard Combo, a novel topical endectoparasiticide formulation for cats. The efficacy of this formulation was assessed against Otodectes cynotis in two laboratory studies conducted in South Africa and in the USA with local isolates, and in one field trial conducted in Europe. In each study, cats were randomly allocated to a placebo-treated control group and a novel formulation-treated group. In the laboratory studies, cats were treated at the minimum recommended dose; in the field trial, cats were treated at label dose. All included cats were diagnosed positive for O. cynotis prior to treatment by otoscopy. The main variable of efficacy was a comparison of the number of live O. cynotis collected in both ear canals of all cats in the treated and control groups, one month after treatment. Efficacy of the novel topical formulation exceeded 97% in the three studies. These studies demonstrated the high effectiveness of NexGard Combo in cats for the treatment of O. cynotis infestations. No health abnormalities were attributed to the treatment in any of the studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2021022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019571PMC
April 2021

Mapping the canine vector-borne disease risk in a Mediterranean area.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Jun 3;13(1):282. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Veterinary Research Institute, Hellenic Agricultural Organization Demeter, 57001, Thermi, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Background: The aim of this study was to determine exposure to vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) in populations of dogs living on Greek islands in the Ionian and Aegean seas.

Methods: In total, 1154 dogs with different lifestyles and of varying ages and breeds were randomly sampled and examined for the presence of clinical signs compatible with canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs). Blood was collected from each individual animal. For the detection of antibodies against Leishmania spp., the WITNESS® Leishmania test was performed, and positive samples were further examined with indirect enzymatic immunoassay (ELISA). Antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis or E. ewingii, as well as Anaplasma phagocytophilum or A. platys were investigated using the Snap® 4Dx® Plus test. Positive Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp. samples were further examined using an indirect ELISA for further identification of the species.

Results: In total, 25.6% of dogs were exposed to at least one of the pathogens investigated, with seroprevalences varying regionally. Of these seropositive dogs, 27.4% displayed clinical signs suggestive of CVBDs, such as cutaneous lesions, enlarged lymph nodes, pale mucous membranes, onychogryphosis and weight loss. The overall seroprevalence detected using the rapid tests was 15.3% for Leishmania spp., whereas 2.3% of the examined dogs were found to be positive for Anaplasma spp. and 7.5% for Ehrlichia spp. while B. burgdorferi was not detected. Twenty-four samples positive to A. phagocytophilum by ELISA were analysed by PCR for the presence of Anaplasma DNA. PCR and sequencing results showed the presence of A. platys DNA in 4 samples and E. canis DNA in 4 samples. The remaining samples (66.7%) were negative.

Conclusions: In the present study, exposure of dogs to VBPs was shown in the geographical areas investigated. Results confirm that on Greek islands VBPs represent a constant health risk for both native and visiting dogs, suggesting the presence of distinct "hot-spots" of VBP infections on different islands. In order to reduce the risk of transmission and the spread to non-endemic regions, the protection of dogs through use of repellents and vaccines, together with owner education, seem to be of paramount importance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04153-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7268178PMC
June 2020

Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water and drinking water: Animal sources and towards the use of a machine-learning approach as a tool for predicting contamination.

Environ Pollut 2020 Sep 11;264:114766. Epub 2020 May 11.

Laboratory of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases, Veterinary Research Institute, Hellenic Agricultural Organization - DEMETER, 57001, Thermi, Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:

Cryptosporidium and Giardia are important parasites due to their zoonotic potential and impact on human health, often causing waterborne outbreaks of disease. Detection of (oo)cysts in water matrices is challenging and few countries have legislated water monitoring for their presence. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and origin of these parasites in different water sources in Northern Greece and identify interactions between biotic/abiotic factors in order to develop risk-assessment models. During a 2-year period, using a longitudinal, repeated sampling approach, 12 locations in 4 rivers, irrigation canals, and a water production company, were monitored for Cryptosporidium and Giardia, using standard methods. Furthermore, 254 faecal samples from animals were collected from 15 cattle and 12 sheep farms located near the water sampling points and screened for both parasites, in order to estimate their potential contribution to water contamination. River water samples were frequently contaminated with Cryptosporidium (47.1%) and Giardia (66.2%), with higher contamination rates during winter and spring. During a 5-month period, (oo)cysts were detected in drinking-water (<1/litre). Animals on all farms were infected by both parasites, with 16.7% of calves and 17.2% of lambs excreting Cryptosporidium oocysts and 41.3% of calves and 43.1% of lambs excreting Giardia cysts. The most prevalent species identified in both water and animal samples were C. parvum and G. duodenalis assemblage AII. The presence of G. duodenalis assemblage AII in drinking water and C. parvum IIaA15G2R1 in surface water highlights the potential risk of waterborne infection. No correlation was found between (oo)cyst counts and faecal-indicator bacteria. Machine-learning models that can predict contamination intensity with Cryptosporidium (75% accuracy) and Giardia (69% accuracy), combining biological, physicochemical and meteorological factors, were developed. Although these prediction accuracies may be insufficient for public health purposes, they could be useful for augmenting and informing risk-based sampling plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.114766DOI Listing
September 2020

Abundance, zoonotic potential and risk factors of intestinal parasitism amongst dog and cat populations: The scenario of Crete, Greece.

Parasit Vectors 2017 01 25;10(1):43. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Veterinary Research Institute - Hellenic Agricultural Organization Demeter, Thermi, Thessaloniki, 57001, Greece.

Background: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence and infection intensity of intestinal parasites in different dog and cat populations in Crete, Greece, estimate the zoonotic risk and identify risk factors.

Methods: Faecal samples from shelter, household and shepherd dogs and shelter and household cats were analyzed using sedimentation/flotation techniques. Giardia and Cryptosporidium were detected by a quantitative direct immunofluorescence assay (IFA). PCR and sequencing was performed to evaluate the zoonotic potential of Giardia and Cryptosporidium positive samples.

Results: Totals of 879 dog and 264 cat faecal samples were examined. In dogs, the overall prevalence was 25.2% (CI: 22.4-28.1) for Giardia spp.; 9.2% (CI: 7.3-11.1) for Ancylostoma/Uncinaria spp.; 7.6% (CI: 5.9-9.4) for Toxocara spp.; 5.9% (CI: 4.4-7.5) for Cryptosporidium spp.; 4.6% (CI: 3.2-5.9) for Cystoisospora spp.; 2.7% (CI: 1.7-3.8) for Toxascaris leonina; 1.7% (CI: 0.9-2.6) for Capillaria spp.; 0.8% (CI: 0.2-1.4) for taeniid eggs; 0.2% (CI: 0-0.5) for Dipylidium caninum; and 0.1% (CI: 0-0.3) for Strongyloides stercoralis. In cats, the prevalence was 20.5% (CI: 15.6-25.3) for Giardia spp.; 9.5% (CI: 5.9-13.0) for Cystoisospora spp.; 8.3% (CI: 5.0-11.7) for Toxocara spp.; 7.6% (CI: 4.4-10.8) for Ancylostoma/Uncinaria spp.; 6.8% (CI: 3.8-9.9) for Cryptosporidium spp.; 4.2% (CI: 1.8-6.6) for Capillaria spp.; 0.8% (CI: 0-1.8) for taeniid eggs; and 0.4% (CI: 0-1.1) for Hammondia/Toxoplasma. Concerning the risk factors evaluated, there was a negative association between age and Giardia infection and between age and T. leonina infection intensity for dogs. Sequencing results revealed the presence of mainly animal-specific G. duodenalis assemblages C and D in dogs and assemblages F, C and BIV-like in cats, with only a limited number of (co-)infections with assemblage A. As for Cryptosporidium, the dog-specific C. canis and the pig-specific C. scrofarum were detected in dogs and the cat-specific C. felis was detected in cats.

Conclusions: High levels of parasitism in both dogs and cats were recorded. Giardia was the most prevalent parasite in all dog and cat populations except for shepherd dogs. Genotyping results suggest a limited zoonotic risk of Giardia and Cryptosporidium infections from dogs and cats in Crete. Taeniid eggs were more prevalent in shepherd dogs suggesting access to carcasses and posing a threat for cystic echinococcosis transmission. Infection rates of Toxocara spp. in both dogs and cats show that companion animals could be a significant source of infection to humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-1989-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5264337PMC
January 2017

Occurrence and molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in sheep and goats reared under dairy husbandry systems in Greece.

Parasite 2014 5;21:45. Epub 2014 Sep 5.

Laboratory for Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium.

Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. are gastro-intestinal protozoa known to infect small ruminants. Both protozoa are also considered as a potential public health concern. The objective of this study was to determine their prevalence in lambs and goat kids kept under common Mediterranean dairy husbandry systems and to identify the species and genotypes infecting these small ruminants. In total, 684 faecal samples (429 from lambs and 255 from goat kids) were collected on 21 farms in Greece and examined using a quantitative immunofluorescence assay. G. duodenalis was detected in 37.3% of the lambs and 40.4% of the goat kids. On all but one of the farms G. duodenalis was detected. Most samples were typed as a mono-infection with G. duodenalis assemblage E, both on the β-giardin gene and the triose phosphate isomerase gene. Only 10% of samples were typed as mixed assemblage A and E infections. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. was 5.1% in lambs and 7.1% in goat kids. In total, 8 out of the 14 farms with a sheep flock and 7 out of the 14 farms with a goat flock were positive. Cryptosporidium parvum (subtype IId), C. ubiquitum and C. xiaoi were identified, the latter especially in goat kids. In conclusion, the results of the present study illustrate that G. duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. occur frequently on both sheep and goats farms. The prevalence of zoonotic genotypes or species was low, indicating a limited but existing risk for zoonotic infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2014048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4154256PMC
May 2015

Anthelmintic resistance and multidrug resistance in sheep gastro-intestinal nematodes in France, Greece and Italy.

Vet Parasitol 2014 Mar 31;201(1-2):59-66. Epub 2014 Jan 31.

Zoetis, 23/25 avenue du Docteur Lannelongue, 75668 Paris Cedex 14, France.

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) in ovine gastro-intestinal nematodes has been reported to affect the health and productivity of sheep globally. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used oral drenches in sheep in France, Greece and Italy. In each country, 10 farms were selected. On each farm, 50 animals were blocked based on the pre-treatment faecal egg count (FEC). Within each block, animals were randomly allocated to one of 5 treatment groups. In addition to an untreated control group, there were 4 groups treated per oral route: moxidectin (MOX) and ivermectin (IVM), both at 0.2mg/kg bodyweight, levamisole (LEV; at 7.5mg/kg bodyweight) and a benzimidazole (BZ; at 3.75-5mg/kg bodyweight). In France, animals were not treated with LEV, but with netobimin (NET; at 7.5mg/kg bodyweight). The FEC was monitored using a modified McMaster technique. Two weeks after treatment, individual faecal samples were taken from all animals and efficacy was calculated as the difference between arithmetic mean FEC of the control group versus each respective treatment group. The results of the present study indicate the high efficacy of treatment with oral formulations of MOX (99-100%) and IVM (98-100%) on all farms, except on 1 farm in Greece. On this farm, multi drug resistance (MDR) was identified involving 4 anthelmintics (efficacy MOX: 91%; IVM: 0%; BZ: 58% and LEV: 87%). In Greece and Italy, AR against LEV and BZ was observed on some farms, with MDR involving both anthelmintics on 3 farms in Greece and on 2 farms in Italy. In France, AR against BZ and NET was observed on all 10 farms included. In all countries, Teladorsagia sp. was the most common nematode larva identified after treatment, followed by Haemonchus sp. and Trichostrongylus sp., with differences among farms and treatments. The current study confirms the high efficacy of oral treatments with MOX and IVM, even on farms with worm populations resistant to BZ, LEV or NET. This study also reports MDR against 4 anthelmintics on one farm in Greece.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.01.016DOI Listing
March 2014
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