Publications by authors named "Desmond Kuupiel"

41 Publications

Association between food insecurity and key metabolic risk factors for diet-sensitive non-communicable diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 4;11(1):5178. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

In previous studies, food insecurity has been hypothesised to promote the prevalence of metabolic risk factors on the causal pathway to diet-sensitive non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the associations between food insecurity and key metabolic risk factors on the causal pathway to diet-sensitive NCDs and estimate the prevalence of key metabolic risk factors among the food-insecure patients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was guided by the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD) guidelines for undertaking systematic reviews in healthcare. The following databases were searched for relevant literature: PubMed, EBSCOhost (CINAHL with full text, Health Source - Nursing, MedLine). Epidemiological studies published between January 2015 and June 2019, assessing the associations between food insecurity and metabolic risk outcomes in sub-Saharan African populations, were selected for inclusion. Meta-analysis was performed with DerSimonian-Laird's random-effect model at 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The I statistics reported the degree of heterogeneity between studies. Publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of the funnel plots for asymmetry, and sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the meta-analysis results' stability. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) - Version 2018 was used to appraise included studies critically. The initial searches yielded 11,803 articles, 22 cross-sectional studies were eligible for inclusion, presenting data from 26,609 (46.8% males) food-insecure participants, with 11,545 (42.1% males) reported prevalence of metabolic risk factors. Of the 22 included studies, we identified strong evidence of an adverse association between food insecurity and key metabolic risk factors for diet-sensitive NCDs, based on 20 studies. The meta-analysis showed a significantly high pooled prevalence estimate of key metabolic risk factors among food-insecure participants at 41.8% (95% CI: 33.2% to 50.8%, I = 99.5% p-value < 0.00) derived from 14 studies. The most prevalent type of metabolic risk factors was dyslipidaemia 27.6% (95% CI: 6.5% to 54.9%), hypertension 24.7% (95% CI: 15.6% to 35.1%), and overweight 15.8% (95% CI: 10.6% to 21.7%). Notably, the prevalence estimates of these metabolic risk factors were considerably more frequent in females than males. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, exposure to food insecurity was adversely associated with a wide spectrum of key metabolic risk factors, such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, underweight, and overweight. These findings highlight the need to address food insecurity as an integral part of diet-sensitive NCDs prevention programmes. Further, these findings should guide recommendations on the initiation of food insecurity status screening and treatment in clinical settings as a basic, cost-effective tool in the practice of preventive medicine in sub-Saharan Africa.PROSPERO registration number: PROSPERO 2019 CRD42019136638.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84344-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Rural healthcare providers coping with clinical care delivery challenges: lessons from three health centres in Ghana.

BMC Fam Pract 2021 Feb 5;22(1):32. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Ghana Health Service, Accra, Ghana.

Background: Rural settings in low- and middle-income countries are bedeviled with poverty and high disease burden, and lack adequate resources to deliver quality healthcare to the population. Drug shortage and inadequate number and skill-mix of healthcare providers is very common in rural health facilities. Hence, rural healthcare providers have no choice but to be innovative and introduce some strategies to cope with health delivery challenges at the health centre levels. This study explored how and why rural healthcare providers cope with clinical care delivery challenges at the health centre levels in Ghana.

Methods: This study was a multiple case studies involving three districts: Bongo, Kintampo North, and Juaboso districts. In each case study district, a cross-sectional design was used to explore the research question. Purposive sampling technique was used to select study sites and the study participants. The authors conducted 11 interviews, 9 focus group discussions (involving 61 participants), and 9-week participant observation (in 3 health centres). Transcription of the voice-recordings was done verbatim, cleaned and imported into the Nvivo version 11 platform for analysis. Data was analysed using the inductive content analysis approach. Ethical clearance was granted by the Ethics Review Committee of the Ghana Health Service.

Results: The study found three main coping strategies (borrowing, knowledge sharing and multi-tasking). First, borrowing arrangements among primary health care institutions help to address the periodic shortage of medical supplies at the health centres. Secondly, knowledge sharing among healthcare providers mitigates skills gap during service delivery; and finally, rural healthcare providers use multi-tasking to avert staff inadequacy challenges during service delivery at the health centre levels.

Conclusion: Borrowing, knowledge sharing, and multi-tasking are coping strategies that are sustaining and potentially improving health outcomes at the district levels in Ghana. We recommend that health facilities across all levels of care in Ghana and other settings with similar challenges could adopt and modify these strategies in order to ensure quality healthcare delivery amidst delivery challenges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12875-021-01379-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866672PMC
February 2021

Mapping evidence of nurses' attitudes toward older adults in Africa: a scoping review protocol.

Syst Rev 2021 Jan 9;10(1):19. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Discipline of Nursing, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, 71 Manor Drive, Manor Gardens, Durban, 4001, South Africa.

Background: Culture influences nurses' attitudes towards caring for older adults. Additionally, nursing students' perceptions and attitudes towards older adults affect their behavior, possibly their career choices and/or the quality of care provided to older adults after graduation. In the context of lower-middle-income countries with a faster growing older adults population compared to upper income countries, the improvement of the quality care, inclusive of nurses' attitudes towards older adults, is one of the strategies for strengthening nursing and midwifery in Africa. Furthermore, examining nurses and nursing students' attitudes towards older adults will answer the United Nations' call for more data to understand the needs and the status of older adults in Africa.

Methods: This scoping review will be guided by Arksey and O'Malley's framework. The search will be performed using Scopus, PubMed databases, Academic search complete, CINAHL with full text, Education source, Health source: Nursing/Academic Edition, with words related to the topic. The reviewers will also use Google Scholar and the reference lists of the relevant articles. Primary studies and grey literature addressing the research question will be included. The search process will include a first stage where two reviewers will perform the title screening and the removal of duplicates, followed by a parallel abstract screening according to eligibility criteria. The second stage will involve the reading of full articles and the exclusion of articles, in accordance with the eligibility criteria. Data will be collated by two reviewers independently and parallel, using a predetermined data extraction form. Discrepancies will involve a third reviewer. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool, version 2018 will be used to assess the quality of the data of eligible articles. A narrative approach containing summary tables and graphs will facilitate synthesis.

Discussion: The review will provide insight into nurses' and nursing students' attitudes towards older adults in African countries. The outcomes will guide future research, practice, and education in nursing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-021-01575-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797139PMC
January 2021

Mapping evidence of mobile health technologies for disease diagnosis and treatment support by health workers in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review.

BMC Med Inform Decis Mak 2021 Jan 6;21(1):11. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Second Floor of George Campbell Building, Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban, 4001, South Africa.

Background: The rapid growth of mobile technology has given rise to the development of mobile health (mHealth) applications aimed at treating and preventing a wide range of health conditions. However, evidence on the use of mHealth in high disease burdened settings such as sub-Sharan Africa is not clear. Given this, we systematically mapped evidence on mHealth for disease diagnosis and treatment support by health workers in sub-Saharan Africa.

Methods: We conducted a scoping review study guided by the Arksey and O'Malley's framework, Levac et al. recommendations, and Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. We thoroughly searched the following databases: MEDLINE and CINAHL with full text via EBSCOhost; PubMed; Science Direct and Google Scholar for relevant articles from the inception of mHealth technology to April 2020. Two reviewers independently screened abstracts and full-text articles using the eligibility criteria as reference. This study employed the mixed methods appraisal tool version 2018 to assess the methodological quality of the included studies.

Results: Out of the 798 articles identified, only 12 published articles presented evidence on the availability and use of mHealth for disease diagnosis and treatment support by health workers in SSA since 2010. Of the 12 studies, four studies were conducted in Kenya; two in Malawi; two in Nigeria; one in South Africa; one in Zimbabwe; one in Mozambique, and one in Lesotho. Out of the 12 studies, one reported the use of mHealth for diseases diagnosis; three reported the use of mHealth to manage HIV; two on the management of HIV/TB; two on the treatment of malaria; one each on the management of hypertension; cervical cancer; and three were not specific on any disease condition. All the 12 included studies underwent methodological quality appraisal with a scored between 70 and 100%.

Conclusions: The study shows that there is limited research on the availability and use of mHealth by health workers for disease diagnosis and treatment support in sub-Saharan Africa. We, therefore, recommend primary studies focusing on the use of mHealth by health workers for disease diagnosis and treatment support in sub-Saharan Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12911-020-01381-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789784PMC
January 2021

The use of non-prescribed antibiotics; prevalence estimates in low-and-middle-income countries. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Arch Public Health 2021 Jan 3;79(1). Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Discipline of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: The global increase in the utilization of non - prescribed antibiotics (NPA), is concerning, with high persistence within the low and middle-income countries (LMICs). With a negative impact on the health of individuals and communities the use of NPA paves the way to the  propagation of superbugs that potentially predisposes to changes in bacterial resistance patterns, antibiotic resistance (AR) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR). This study aimed at estimating through a systematic review and meta-analysis, the prevalence of NPA utilisation and describe its primary sources in LMICs.

Methods: The study is a systematic review and meta-analysis which study protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42017072954). The review used The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines.  The studies searched in databases were deemed eligible if reported evidence of practices of self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) and the prevalence of NPA utilisation within adult participants from LMICs, published between 2007 to 2017. The pooled analyses were carried out using Meta XL statistical software. The pooled prevalence was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). The risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using the Quality in Prognosis Studies (QUIPS) tool.

Results: The review included a total of 11 cross-sectional studies, involving 5080 participants and conducted in LMICs from Asia (India, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Yemen), Latin America (Guatemala), Africa (Nigeria). All studies reported existing  practices of SMA, with reported prevalence ranging from 50% to 93,8%. The pooled prevalence of SMA was 78% (95% CI: 65-89%). The main sources of NPA were; pharmacies, family and friends, old prescriptions, home cabinet and leftover antibiotics.

Conclusion: This study revealed a high prevalence of utilisation of NPA in the studied LMICs, these were found to be twice as high in women than men and those participants aged between 18 and 40 years old. The review suggests f considering broader qualitative and comprehensive contextuallized research to better understand the nuances of NPA use. These would be benefitial to uncover uncover gray areas, inform decisions, support the (re) design and implementation of multifaceted interventions towards antibiotic stewardship and conservancy in LMICs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-020-00517-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780654PMC
January 2021

Prevalence, incidence, and trends of childhood overweight/obesity in Sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic scoping review.

Arch Public Health 2020 Oct 29;78(1):109. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Allied Sciences, Catholic University College of Ghana, Fiapre, Sunyani, Ghana.

Background: The growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NDC), particularly in low-and middle-income countries, poses a significant threat to global health. Obesity and overweight constitute major risk factors of NCDs such as heart diseases, diabetes, and kidney disease, and as a result, contribute significantly to the development of chronic morbidities, reduced quality of life, and increased risk of premature death. This study described evidence on the prevalence, incidence, and trends of childhood overweight and obesity in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA).

Methods: We conducted a systematic scoping review employing the Arksey and O'Malley framework, Levac et al. recommendations, and the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. To obtain relevant published articles for this review, we performed a comprehensive keywords search in PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CINAHL via EBSCOhost platform for studies published between 2009 and June 2019. Guided by the eligibility criteria, title and abstracts, as well as the full-text articles were independently screened in parallel by two investigators. All relevant data were independently extracted by two investigators using a piloted form designed in Microsoft and thematic analysis conducted.

Results: Of the 81 included studies obtained from 250,148 potentially eligible articles, the majority (25) conducted in South Africa followed by 18 in Nigeria. Six studies were conducted in Ethiopia (6), Tanzania (5), Kenya (4), Cameroon (4), Ghana (3), Uganda (2), Mozambique (2), and Sudan (2). One study each was conducted in Botswana, Gambia, Lesotho, Mauritius, Seychelles, Togo, and Zimbabwe. The remaining three articles were multi-country studies. Most (81.5%) of the included studies were cross-sectional surveys and the majority (79) focused on both male and female participants. The majority (80/81) of the included studies reported on the prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity, 8 on the trends of childhood overweight/obesity, and one presented evidence on the incidence of childhood overweight and obesity in SSA.

Conclusion: This review demonstrates limited studies on childhood overweight/obesity in most SSA countries although the included studies suggest an increasing burden. Considering the consequences of childhood obesity, there is a need for more primary researches to inform policies decision and implementation to halt the rise of childhood obesity/overweight in SSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-020-00491-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599109PMC
October 2020

Mapping evidence on adolescents' HIV-positive status disclosure in sub-Saharan Africa: a protocol for a scoping review.

Syst Rev 2020 12 4;9(1):278. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Research for Sustainable Development (r4ds) Consult, Sunyani, Ghana.

Background: Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) homes most of the people living with HIV/AIDS in the world. Adolescents/young people are a vulnerable population and at high risk of HIV infection. Identifying and bridging the research gaps on the disclosure of HIV-positive status among adolescents, particularly to their sexual partners, is essential to inform appropriate policy planning and implementation towards preventing HIV transmission. This study will aim to explore literature and describe the evidence on HIV-positive status disclosure among adolescents in SSA.

Methods: The framework provided by Arksey and O'Malley's framework and improved by Levac and colleagues will be used to conduct a scoping review. A keyword search for relevant literature presenting evidence on HIV-positive status disclosure among adolescents in SSA will be conducted in CINAHL, PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and SCOPUS. Date limitations will be removed, but Boolean terms "AND" and "OR" as well as Medical Subject Headings terms will be included where possible and syntax modified to suit the database during the search. Additional relevant articles will be sought from the reference lists of all included studies using a snowballing method. Two reviewers will independently screen the articles at the abstract and full-text screening phases in order to reduce bias and improve the reliability of this study's findings. A tabular form will be developed using Microsoft Word and piloted for data extraction. Thematic content analysis will be conducted, and a narrative summary of all relevant outcomes reported. Quality appraisal of the included studies for this proposed study will be performed utilizing the recent mixed methods appraisal tool.

Discussion: The evidence produced by this review may help inform policy and strategies to reduce the incidence of HIV infection among adolescents and improve social support for adolescents living with HIV/AIDS in SSA. It may also reveal literature gaps to guide future researches to further inform HIV policies for adolescents in SSA. Platforms such as peer review journals, policy briefs, and conferences will be used to disseminate this study's findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01546-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7716478PMC
December 2020

Geographical access to point-of-care testing for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy as an integral part of maternal healthcare in Ghana.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2020 Nov 25;20(1):733. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are associated with high maternal mortality in Ghana and globally. Evidence shows that there is poor availability of pregnancy-related point-of-care (POC) tests in Ghana's primary healthcare (PHC) clinics (health centre or community-based health planning services facilities). Therefore, we employed geographic information systems to estimate the geographical distribution of and physical accessibility to HDP POC testing services in the Upper East Region (UER), Ghana.

Methods: We collected data on 100 out of 365 PHC clinics, public hospitals providing HDP testing, PHC clinic type, ownership, and availability of urine dipsticks and blood pressure (BP) devices. We also obtained the geo-located data of the PHC clinics and hospitals using the global positioning system. We employed ArcGIS 10.4 to measure the distance and travel time from the location of each PHC clinic without HDP POC testing services as well as from all locations of each district to the nearest hospital/clinic where the service is available. The travel time was estimated using an assumed motorised tricycle speed of 20 km/hour. We further calculated the spatial distribution of the hospitals/clinics providing HDP POC testing services using the spatial autocorrelation tool in ArcMap, and Stata version 14 for descriptive statistical analysis.

Results: Of the 100 participating PHC clinics, POC testing for HDP was available in 19% (14% health centres and 5% community-based health planning services compounds) in addition to the 10 hospitals use as referral points for the service. The findings indicated that the spatial pattern of the distribution of the health facilities providing HDP POC testing was random (z-score = -0.61; p = 0.54). About 17% of the PHC clinics without HDP POC testing service were located > 10 km to the nearest facility offering the service. The mean distance and travel time from PHC clinics without HDP POC testing to a health facility providing the service were 11.4 ± 9.9 km and 31.1 ± 29.2 min respectively. The results suggest that if every 19% of the 365 PHC clinics are offering HDP POC testing in addition to these 10 hospitals identified, then the estimated coverage (health facility-to-women in fertility age ratio) in the UER is 1: 3,869.

Conclusions: There is poor physical accessibility to HDP POC testing services from PHC clinics without HDP POC testing in the UER. Mothers who obtain maternal healthcare in about 17% of the PHC clinics travel long distances (> 10 km) to access the service when needed. Hence, there is a need to improve the availability of HDP POC diagnostic tests in Ghana's rural clinics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12884-020-03441-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690122PMC
November 2020

Mapping evidence on HIV status awareness among key and vulnerable populations in sub-Sahara Africa: a scoping review protocol.

Syst Rev 2020 Nov 24;9(1):266. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Faculty of Health and Allied Sciences, Catholic University College of Ghana, Fiapre, Sunyani, Ghana.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) continue to be a major public health issue, especially in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA). Literature shows significant HIV status awareness, testing, and treatment have generally improved among the population since the inception of the UNAIDS 90:90:90 programme. Despite this, it is possible literature gaps exist that require future research to inform in-country programmes to improve the gains post-UNAIDS 90:90:90 programme. This study, therefore, aims to synthesize literature and describe the evidence on HIV status awareness among key and vulnerable populations in SSA focusing on the first UNAIDS 90 since it is essential for treatment initiation.

Method: This systematic scoping review will be guided by the framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley and improved by Levac and colleagues. Literature searches will be conducted in PubMed, SCOPUS, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and Science Direct from 2016 to 2020. A snowball approach will also be used to search for relevant articles from the reference of all included studies. This study will include both published and grey literature, articles that include HIV key and vulnerable populations, HIV status awareness, and evidence from SSA countries. Two reviewers will independently conduct the abstract and full-text article screening as well as pilot the data extraction form. Thematic content analysis and a summary of the themes and sub-themes will be reported narratively.

Discussions: The evidence that will be provided by this study may be useful to inform in-country programmes to improve the gains made post-UNAIDS 90:90:90 programme from 2021 onwards. This study also anticipates identifying literature gaps to guide researchers interested in this field of study in the future. Peer review journals, policy briefs, and conference platforms will be used to disseminate this study's findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01537-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7686736PMC
November 2020

Availability and use of mHealth for disease diagnosis and treatment support by health workers in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review protocol.

BMJ Open 2020 10 20;10(10):e036641. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Public Health, College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Introduction: Improving healthcare for all is one of the global health priorities, particularly in disease burdened settings such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Considering the high penetration rate of mobile phones in SSA, mobile health (mHealth) could be used to achieve universal health coverage. The proposed study will map evidence on the availability and use of mHealth for disease diagnosis and treatment support by health workers in SSA.

Methods And Analysis: This review will be guided by Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review framework and Levac s recommendations and guidelines from the Joanna Briggs Institute. A scoping review will be conducted to explore what is known about mHealth for disease diagnosis and treatment support by health workers in SSA and to identify areas for future research. In addition to searching the grey literature, the following databases will be explored from PubMed, MEDLINE and CINAHL with full text via EBSCOhost and ScienceDirect databases. A search in Google Scholar will be considered as an additional information source. The literature search will involve published studies from 2000 to 2020 in any language. This review will cover mHealth for disease diagnosis and treatment support by health workers in SSA. The primary investigator will conduct the title screening, and subsequently, two reviewers will independently conduct abstract and full article screening and data extraction. The results of this proposed review will be presented using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis: Extension for Scoping Review guidelines.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethical approval is not required for the scoping review, which is the first stage in a PhD study in public health on accessing mHealth for disease diagnosis and treatment support by health workers in Ghana. The final review will be submitted for publications to a scientific journal, and our results will be presented at appropriate conferences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036641DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7577031PMC
October 2020

Maternal perceptions of the quality of Care in the Free Maternal Care Policy in sub-Sahara Africa: a systematic scoping review.

BMC Health Serv Res 2020 Oct 1;20(1):911. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Research for Sustainable Development Consult, Sunyani, Ghana.

Background: The world aims to achieve universal health coverage by removing all forms of financial barriers to improve access to healthcare as well as reduce maternal and child deaths by 2030. Although free maternal healthcare has been embraced as a major intervention towards this course in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the perception of the quality of healthcare may influence utilization and maternal health outcomes. We systematically mapped literature and described the evidence on maternal perceptions of the quality of care under the free care financing policies in SSA.

Methods: We employed the Arskey and O'Malley's framework to guide this scoping review. We searched without date limitations to 19th May 2019 for relevant published articles in PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, and CINAHL using a combination of keywords, Boolean terms, and medical subject headings. We included primary studies that involved pregnant/post-natal mothers, free maternal care policy, quality of care, and was conduct in an SSA country. Two reviewers independently screened the articles at the abstract and full-text screening guided by inclusion and exclusion criteria. All relevant data were extracted and organized into themes and a summary of the results reported narratively. The recent version of the mixed methods appraisal tool was used to assess the methodological quality of the included studies.

Results: Out of 390 studies, 13 were identified to have evidence of free maternal healthcare and client perceived quality of care. All the 13 studies were conducted in 7 different countries. We found three studies each from Ghana and Kenya, two each in Burkina Faso and Nigeria, and a study each from Niger, Sierra Leone, and Tanzania. Of the 13 included studies, eight reported that pregnant women perceived the quality of care under the free maternal healthcare policy to be poor. The following reasons accounted for the poor perception of service quality: long waiting time, ill-attitudes of providers, inadequate supply of essential drugs and lack of potable water, unequal distribution of skilled birth attendants, out-of-pocket payment and weak patient complaint system.

Conclusion: This study suggests few papers exist that looked at maternal perceptions of the quality of care in the free care policy in SSA. Considering the influence mothers perceptions of the quality of care can have on future health service utilisation, further studies at the household, community, and health facility levels are needed to help unearth and address all hidden quality of care challenges and improve maternal health services towards attaining the sustainable development goals on maternal and child health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05755-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7528345PMC
October 2020

Women's knowledge, attitude, and practice of breast self- examination in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review.

Arch Public Health 2020 22;78:84. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Research for Sustainable Development Consult, Sunyani, Ghana.

Background: Breast cancer (BC) is a non-communicable disease with increased morbidity and mortality. Early detection of BC contributes to prompt linkage to care and reduction of complications associated with BC. Breast self-examination (BSE) is useful for detecting breast abnormalities particularly in settings with poor access to healthcare for clinical breast examination and mammography. Therefore, we mapped evidence on women's knowledge, attitude, and practice of BSE in sub-Sahara Africa (SSA).

Methods: We conducted a systematic scoping review using Arskey and O'Malleys' framework as a guide. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, and Science Direct databases for relevant studies on women's knowledge, attitude and practice on BSE. Studies included in the review were from SSA countries as defined by the World Health Organization published from 2008 to May 2019. Two reviewers independently screened the articles at the abstract and full-text screening guided by inclusion and exclusion criteria. All relevant data were extracted, and a thematic analysis conducted. The themes were collated, and a narrative summary of the findings reported.

Results: Of the 264 potentially eligible articles identified from 595,144, only 21 met the inclusion criteria and were included for data extraction. These included studies were conducted in 7 countries of which 11 were conducted in Nigeria; two each in Ethiopia, Ghana, Cameroon, and Uganda; and one each in Kenya and Sudan. Of the 21 included studies, 18 studies reported evidence on BSE knowledge and practice; two on only knowledge; one on only practice only; and six presented evidence on women's attitude towards BSE. The study findings suggest varying knowledge levels on BSE among women in SSA countries. The study findings also suggest that BSE practice is still a challenge in SSA.

Conclusion: There is a paucity of published literature on women's knowledge, practice, and attitude of BSE in SSA. Hence, this study recommends further studies on knowledge, practice, and attitude of BSE, to identify contextual challenges and provide evidence-based solutions to improve women's knowledge, practice, and attitude of BSE in SSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13690-020-00452-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7507650PMC
September 2020

Risk factors and morbidities associated with childhood obesity in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic scoping review.

BMC Nutr 2020 1;6:37. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Research for Sustainable Development Consult, Sunyani, Ghana.

Background: The rising burden of childhood obesity is a major public health concern, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where most health systems are weak and least prepared for complications that may arise. While the need for preventive action is increasingly recognized, policy implementation within the sub-region has often been inadequate, non-systematic, and ad hoc. This study described evidence on the risk factors and morbidities associated with childhood obesity in SSA.

Methods: Guided by the Arksey and O'Malley framework incorporating the Levac et al. recommendations, and the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines, we conducted a scoping study to address the research question. Thorough keywords systematic search was conducted for potentially eligible articles in PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and CINAHL published between 2009 and June 2019. Articles obtained were screened independently by two investigators at the abstract and full text phases using the eligibility criteria. All relevant data were extracted by two investigators in parallel and thematic analysis conducted.

Results: A total of 337,229 articles were obtained from the database search of which 68 satisfied the inclusion criteria and were included for data extraction. These 68 included studies were conducted in 19 countries with the majority, 27.9% (19/68) from South Africa followed by Nigeria with 20.6% (14/68). Six of the included studies were conducted in Ethiopia, 5 studies in Kenya, 4 studies each in Tanzania and Cameroon, and 2 studies each in Ghana, Uganda, and Sudan. Of the 68 included studies, one each was conducted in Botswana, Gambia, Lesotho, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Togo, and Zimbabwe. Most (80.9%) of the included studies were cross-sectional, and only one was an intervention trial. Of the 68 included studies, 53 reported on risk factors, 12 reported on morbidities, and 3 reported both risk factors and morbidities. We found no evidence in almost 60% (28/47) of countries included in the World Health Organisation Africa region.

Conclusion: This review findings suggest a paucity of literature on the risk factors of childhood obesity and morbidities in most SSA countries. Hence, there is the need to intensify research efforts, especially experimental study designs using innovative strategies to promote healthy lifestyle choices that will prevent or minimize the risks and health consequences of childhood obesity in SSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40795-020-00364-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7460801PMC
September 2020

Mapping evidence of food safety at transport stations in Africa: a scoping review protocol.

BMJ Open 2020 08 11;10(8):e035879. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering and Science, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.

Introduction: In Africa, travels, urbanisation and changing consumer habits are increasing the number of people buying and eating food prepared/sold at public spaces including transport stations, particularly in the urban and periurban areas. Although food trading in such public spaces serves as a source of livelihood for many people, unsafe food can have a negative impact on health. We, therefore, aim to systematically explore and examine the literature, and describe the evidence on food safety (food handling, storage, preparation and sale, packaging of food when sold, hygiene of sale venue and quality (nutrition) of food sold/purchased/eaten) at transport stations to inform policy, as well as identify research gaps for future studies in Africa.

Methods And Analysis: We will employ the Arksey & O'Malley framework, Levac recommendations and the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines to guide this study. We will conduct a comprehensive search in PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Google Scholar and EBSCOhost (Academic search complete, CINAHL with Full-text and Health Source) from inception to December 2019 for relevant peer-review articles using a combination of keywords/search terms with no limitations. We will also search for relevant literature from the reference list of all included articles. Two investigators will independently screen the articles in parallel at the abstract and full-text phases using the eligibility criteria as a guide. Data extraction will be done using a piloted data extraction form designed in a Microsoft Word tabular format. Afterward, the extracted data will be collated into themes and subthemes, summarised, and the results reported using a narrative approach. We will the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses: Extension for scoping reviews checklist to report this study results.

Ethics And Dissemination: Ethics approval is not required. All sources of data will be adequately cited and added to the reference list. We will present the final scoping review results at the appropriate workshops, meetings, conferences, as well as submit for peer-review and publication in a scientific journal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-035879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7418661PMC
August 2020

Tuberculosis active case-finding interventions and approaches for prisoners in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic scoping review.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Aug 5;20(1):570. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Limpopo, Polokwane, South Africa.

Background: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), most prisons are overcrowded with poor ventilation and put prisoners disproportionally at risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and developing TB infection but are mostly missed due to poor access to healthcare. Active case-finding (ACF) of TB in prisons facilitates early diagnosis and treatment of inmates and prevent the spread. We explored literature and described evidence on TB ACF interventions and approaches for prisoners in SSA prisons.

Methods: Guided by the Arksey and O'Malley framework, we searched PubMed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, Academic search complete, CINAHL and MEDLINE with full text via EBSCOhost for articles on prisoners and ACF from 2000 to May 2019 with no language restriction. Two investigators independently screened the articles at the abstract and full-text stages in parallel guided by the eligibility criteria as well as performed the methodological quality appraisal of the included studies using the latest mixed-method appraisal tool. We extracted all relevant data, organized them into themes and sub-themes, and presented a narrative summary of the results.

Results: Of the 391 eligible articles found, 31 met the inclusion criteria. All 31 articles were published between 2006 and 2019 with the highest six (19.4%) in 2015. We found evidence in 11 countries. That is, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Coˆte d'Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, and Zambia with most 41.9% (13/31) recorded in Ethiopia. These intervention studies were conducted in 134 prisons between 2001 and 2018 using either a single or combination of mass, facility-led, entry, peer educators for routine screening, and exit ACF approaches. The majority (74%) of the studies utilized only a mass screening approach. The most (68%) reported study outcome was smear-positive TB cases only (68%). We found no evidence in 16 SSA countries although they are classified among the three high-burden country lists for TB TB/HIV and Multidrug resistant-TB group.

Conclusion: Our review highlights a dearth of evidence on TB ACF interventions in most SSA countries prisons. Hence, there is the need to scaling-up ACF interventions in SSA prisons, particularly countries included in the three high-burden country lists for TB, TB/HIV, and MDR-TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05283-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7405346PMC
August 2020

The interplay of HIV and human papillomavirus-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa: scoping review.

Syst Rev 2020 04 22;9(1):88. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: People living with HIV (PLHIV) are at a high risk of developing HPV-related cancers. HPV-related malignancies occur frequently and/or are high among PLHIV, with cervical cancer as a designated AIDS-defining condition. We aimed to explore the evidence on the interplay of HIV and HPV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Methods: The scoping review was guided by Arksey and O'Malley's framework. We searched for literature from the following databases: PubMed; World Health Organization (WHO) Library; Science Direct; Google Scholar and EBSCOhost (Academic search complete, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, CINAHL). Studies reporting on evidence HIV and HPV-related cancers interplay in SSA were eligible for inclusion in this review. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool (MMAT) tool was used to assess the risk of bias of the included studies. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) was used for reporting the search results. Thematic analysis used to reveal the emerging themes from the included studies.

Results: A total of 74 potentially eligible articles were screened. Of these, nine (7 reviews, 1 transversal case controls, and 1 quantitative study) were eligible for data extraction. The studies reported about a total of 16,351 participants in different settings. The nine included studies showed evidence of cervical cancer among HIV-infected women and distribution of HPV infection and cervical abnormalities among HIV-positive individuals. In the four studies generalizing about HIV and anal cancer, only one reported about HPV. Two studies generally reported about HIV and head and neck cancers and one reported about interaction of HIV with vaginal cancer, vulvar cancer, and penile cancer, respectively.

Conclusion: HIV positivity is associated with increased prevalence of HPV infection on different anatomic sites, which will result in increased burden of HPV-related cancers among PLHIV. Furthermore, primary studies with robust study designs aimed at investigating the risk developing HPV-related cancers among PLHIV are recommended. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42017062403.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01354-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178989PMC
April 2020

Geographical Accessibility to Glucose-6-Phosphate Dioxygenase Deficiency Point-of-Care Testing for Antenatal Care in Ghana.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Apr 16;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa.

Background: Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency screening test is essential for malaria treatment, control, and elimination programs. G6PD deficient individuals are at high risk of severe hemolysis when given anti-malarial drugs such as primaquine, quinine, other sulphonamide-containing medicines, and chloroquine, which has recently been shown to be potent for the treatment of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). We evaluated the geographical accessibility to POC testing for G6PD deficiency in Ghana, a malaria-endemic country.

Methods: We obtained the geographic information of 100 randomly sampled clinics previously included in a cross-sectional survey. We also obtained the geolocated data of all public hospitals providing G6PD deficiency testing services in the region. Using ArcGIS 10.5, we quantified geographical access to G6PD deficiency screening test and identified clinics as well as visualize locations with poor access for targeted improvement. The travel time was estimated using an assumed speed of 20 km per hour.

Findings: Of the 100 clinics, 58% were Community-based Health Planning and Services facilities, and 42% were sub-district health centers. The majority (92%) were Ghana Health Service facilities, and the remaining 8% were Christian Health Association of Ghana facilities. Access to G6PD deficiency screening test was varied across the districts, and G6PD deficiency screening test was available in all eight public hospitals. This implies that the health facility-to-population ratio for G6PD deficiency testing service was approximately 1:159,210 (8/1,273,677) population. The spatial analysis quantified the current mean distance to a G6PD deficiency testing service from all locations in the region to be 34 ± 14 km, and travel time (68 ± 27 min). The estimated mean distance from a clinic to a district hospital for G6PD deficiency testing services was 15 ± 11 km, and travel time (46 ± 33 min).

Conclusion: Access to POC testing for G6PD deficiency in Ghana was poor. Given the challenges associated with G6PD deficiency, it would be essential to improve access to G6PD deficiency POC testing to facilitate administration of sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine to pregnant women, full implementation of the malaria control program in Ghana, and treatment of COVID-19 patients with chloroquine in malaria-endemic countries. To enable the World Health Organization include appropriate G6PD POC diagnostic tests in its list of essential in-vitro diagnostics for use in resource-limited settings, we recommend a wider evaluation of available POC diagnostic tests for G6PD deficiency, particularly in malaria-endemic countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10040229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235997PMC
April 2020

Stakeholders' Perspectives for the Development of a Point-of-Care Diagnostics Curriculum in Rural Primary Clinics in South Africa-Nominal Group Technique.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2020 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa.

Poor knowledge and adherence to point-of-care (POC) HIV testing standards have been reported in rural KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), a high HIV prevalent setting. Improving compliance to HIV testing standards is critical, particularly during the gradual phasing out of lay counsellor providers and the shifting of HIV testing and counselling duties to professional nurses. The main objective of this study was to identify priority areas for development of POC diagnostics curriculum to improve competence and adherence to POC diagnostics quality standards for primary healthcare (PHC) nurses in rural South Africa.

Method: PHC clinic stakeholders were invited to participate in a co-creation workshop. Participants were purposely sampled from each of the 11 KwaZulu-Natal Districts. Through the Nominal Group Technique (NGT), participants identified training related challenges concerning delivery of quality point of care diagnostics and ranked them from highest to lowest priority. An importance ranking score (scale 1-5) was calculated for each of the identified challenges.

Results: Study participants included three PHC professional nurses, one TB professional nurse, one HIV lay councilor, one TB assistant and three POC diagnostics researchers, aged 23-50. Participants identified ten POC diagnostics related challenges. Amongst the highest ranked challenges were the following:absence of POC testing Curriculum for nurses, absence of training of staff on HIV testing and counselling as lay counsellor providers are gradually being phased out,. absence of Continuous Professional Development opportunities and lack of Staff involvement in POC Management programs.

Conclusion: Key stakeholders perceived training of PHC nurses as the highest priority for the delivery of quality POC diagnostic testing at PHC level. We recommend continual collaboration among all POC diagnostics stakeholders in the development of an accessible curriculum to improve providers' competence and ensure sustainable quality delivery of POC diagnostic services in rural PHC clinics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10040195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235861PMC
April 2020

Mapping evidence on malnutrition screening tools for children under 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review protocol.

Syst Rev 2020 03 9;9(1):52. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, 2nd Floor of George Campbell Building, Durban, 4001, South Africa.

Background: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), malnutrition remains a major public health challenge, particularly among children under 5 years of age. Despite nutritional screening tools being developed and available to detect early malnutrition in under five-year-old children, malnutrition continues to be a health concern. However, the level of evidence on nutritional screening tools for predicting early malnutrition at the community level in a high disease burden setting is unclear. The objective of this scoping review is to systematically map the evidence on malnutrition screening tools for children under 5 years in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to identify knowledge gaps.

Methods: The proposed study will be guided by an improved Arksey and O'Malley's framework, Levac et al. 2010 recommendations, and the 2015 Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. We will conduct a systematic search of relevant imperial sources of evidence from the following databases: CINAHL with full text, Academic search complete via EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and PubMed. We will search for grey literature from the following humanitarian and aid organization websites: World Health Organization (WHO), The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), and governmental departments. Following the database searches and title screening, eligible sources of evidence will be exported to an EndNote X9 reference library. Thereafter, duplicate articles will be removed in preparation for abstract and full article screenings. Data from the included sources of evidence will be extracted, and the emerging themes will be analyzed. The relationship between the emerging themes and the research questions will be critically examined. The quality of the included sources of evidence will be determined by using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT) version 2018. The search results will be presented in adapted Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis: Extension for Scoping Reviews chart (PRISMA-ScR).

Discussion: We anticipate finding relevant literature on malnutrition screening tools for children under 5 years in SSA. This study is likely to reveal research gaps, which could guide future research on malnutrition screening tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-020-01309-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7061476PMC
March 2020

Mapping evidence on the implementation of the WHO's collaborative framework for the management of tuberculosis and diabetes: a scoping review protocol.

BMJ Open 2020 01 21;10(1):e033341. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health,College of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Introduction: The emergence of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) coepidemic threatens the gains made in fighting the prevalence of these two diseases. As a result, in 2011, WHO and the International Union Against Lung Disease launched a framework to address the growing TB-DM coepidemic across the world. The aim of the proposed review study is mapping evidence on the implementation of the WHO collaborative framework for the management of TB-DM using a scoping review.

Methodology And Analysis: This study will map literature on the global implementation of the WHO collaborative framework for the management of TB-DM, using Arksey and O'Malley's scoping review framework. An extensive literature search for the peer-reviewed articles, grey literature, unpublished studies, thesis, studies in the press and a list of references from the selected studies will be conducted to find eligible studies. PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, Science Direct, the EBSCOhost platform (Academic search complete, health source: nursing/academic edition, CINAHL with full text) and the WHO library will be used to source literature. The researcher will perform title screening of articles using keywords in the databases, and two independent reviewers will then screen abstracts and full articles. The screening will be guided by the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The Mixed Method Appraisal Tool V.2018 will be used to examine the quality of studies to be included. The findings will be analysed using the thematic content analysis approach and the results presented in the form of a narrative report.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study did not require ethics approval because it is a scoping review protocol. Findings from this study will be disseminated by print and electronic mediums.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-033341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7045001PMC
January 2020

Health education programs for improving men's engagement with health services in low- to middle-income countries: a scoping review protocol.

Syst Rev 2020 01 7;9(1). Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, 4001, South Africa.

Background: Health education programs (HEPs) have been documented to increase individuals' awareness toward their health and improve health outcomes. Given the reported poor health seeking behavior among men in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs), it is crucial for HEPs to be targeted toward men in order to improve health outcomes. Here, we outline a protocol for a scoping review aimed at mapping literature on HEPs for men in LMICs in order to reveal gaps to guide future research and practice.

Methods: We will conduct a scoping review with guidance from the Arksey and O'Malley framework (Journal of Social Research Methodology 8(1):19-32, 2005), further enhanced by Levac et al. (Implementation Science 5(1):69, 2010). We will conduct a comprehensive keyword search for relevant studies presenting evidence on HEP for men in LMICs from PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCOhost, and WEB of Science databases. In addition, we will search for relevant gray literature, dissertations, and theses from university repositories as well as international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO). We will include articles reporting evidence on health education programs for men in LMICs and published between January 2000 and March 2019. We will employ NVIVO version 12 software package to extract the relevant outcomes from the included articles using content thematic analysis. We will conduct quality appraisal of the included articles using the mixed methods appraisal tool (MMAT) 2018 version.

Discussion: We anticipate to find relevant studies reporting on health education programs for men in LMICs. The findings of this review will guide further implementation research on health education programs for men in LMICs. The results of the proposed scoping review will be disseminated electronically, in print, and through conference presentation as well as key stakeholder meetings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-019-1266-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6945727PMC
January 2020

Mapping evidence on women's knowledge and practice of breast self-examination in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review protocol.

Syst Rev 2020 01 6;9(1). Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Department of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Globally, breast cancer is the most common malignant condition in women. Breast self-examination practice following correct procedure potentially can lead to early detection of breast abnormalities. We propose to systematically chart literature and examine the scope of evidence on women's knowledge and practice of breast self-examination in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA).

Methods: Our scoping review methods will be guided by the framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley, Levac et al. and Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Literature searches will be conducted in the following electronic databases (from 2008 onwards): PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Health Sources. Grey literature will be identified through searching dissertation databases, Google Scholar and governmental databases. Two reviewers will screen all citations and full-text articles We will abstract data, organise them into themes and sub-themes, summarise them and report the results using a narrative synthesis. The study methodological quality (or bias) will be appraised using a mixed-method appraisal tool.

Discussion: The findings from the scoping review will contribute to obtain an understanding of the women's knowledge and practice of breast self-examination in sub-Saharan Africa, and will likely reveal the depth of evidence helping to identify gaps for future research. Results will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. Implications for clinical practice and health policy will be discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-019-1254-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6945542PMC
January 2020

Impact of Implementing Antenatal Syphilis Point-of-Care Testing on Maternal Mortality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2019 Dec 10;9(4). Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa.

Background: Syphilis infection has been associated with an increased risk of HIV infection during pregnancy which poses greater risk for maternal mortality, and antenatal syphilis point-of-care (POC) testing has been introduced to improve maternal and child health outcomes. There is limited evidence on the impact of syphilis POC testing on maternal outcomes in high HIV prevalent settings. We used syphilis POC testing as a model to evaluate the impact of POC diagnostics on the improvement of maternal mortality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

Methods: We extracted 132 monthly data points on the number of maternal deaths in facilities and number of live births in facilities for 12 tertiary healthcare facilities in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa from 2004 to 2014 from District Health Information System (DHIS) health facility archived. We employed segmented Poisson regression analysis of interrupted time series to assess the impact of the exposure on maternal mortality ratio (MMR) before and after the implementation of antenatal syphilis POC testing. We processed and analyzed data using Stata Statistical Software: Release 13. (Stata, Corp LP, College Station, TX, USA).

Results: The provincial average annual maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was estimated at 176.09 ± 43.92 ranging from a minimum of 68.48 to maximum of 225.49 per 100,000 live births. The data comprised 36 temporal points before the introduction of syphilis POC test exposure and 84 after the introduction in primary health care clinics in KZN. The average annual MMR for KZN from 2004 to 2014 was estimated at 176.09 ± 43.92. A decrease in MMR level was observed during 2008 after syphilis POC test implementation, followed by a rise during 2009. Analysis of the MMR trend estimates a significant 1.5% increase in MMR trends during the period before implementation and 1.3% increase after implementation of syphilis POC testing ( < 0.001).

Conclusion: Although our finding suggests a brief reduction in the MMR trend after the implementation of antenatal syphilis POC testing, a continued increase in syphilis rates is seen in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The study used one of the most powerful quasi-experimental research methods, segmented Poisson regression analysis of interrupted time series to model the impact of syphilis POC on maternal outcome. The study finding requires confirmation by use of more rigorous primary study design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9040218DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963181PMC
December 2019

Mapping evidence of free maternal healthcare financing and quality of care in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic scoping review protocol.

Health Res Policy Syst 2019 Nov 27;17(1):93. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

Research for Sustainable Development Consult, Sunyani, Ghana.

Background: Identifying and addressing research gaps on the implementation of free maternal healthcare financing policies and the quality of service delivery in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is essential in ensuring continuous patronage of the services by clients and sustainability of the policies to meet the intended goals. The proposed scoping review is aimed at mapping evidence on free maternal healthcare financing and quality of care in SSA.

Methods: Arksey and O'Malley's framework, Levac and colleagues' recommendations, and the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines will be used to guide the proposed study. A complete keyword search for relevant studies presenting evidence on free maternal healthcare financing and perceived quality of care among women in SSA will be performed in EBSCOhost, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and SCOPUS. Relevant grey literature from university repositories and international organisations such as WHO and government websites, and the reference lists of included studies will be additionally searched. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis: Extension for Scoping Review (PRISMA-ScR) will be used to present the results of the proposed scoping review. NVivo version 11 software package will be employed to extract the relevant outcomes from the included studies using content thematic analysis. Quality appraisal of the included studies for this proposed study will be performed utilising the latest mixed methods appraisal tool.

Discussion: It is anticipated that the results of the proposed study will inform future research and reveal evidence-based information to address potential quality of care issues that may arise because of free maternal healthcare policy implementation in some SSA countries. The proposed study will also be useful to other SSA countries planning to implement free maternal health policy, as they will be able to draw useful lessons to guide them through the process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12961-019-0495-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882201PMC
November 2019

Mapping evidence on the burden and distribution of childhood obesity in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review protocol.

Syst Rev 2019 11 13;8(1):274. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Research for Sustainable Development Consult, Sunyani, Ghana.

Background: Obesity in childhood is associated with adverse health outcomes and complications throughout the life-span of a child. Available evidence suggests a dramatic increase in childhood obesity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) over the past two decades. The health risks associated with obesity/overweight are particularly problematic in children due to the potential for long-term health concerns. The researchers propose to conduct a systematic scoping review to map evidence on the burden and distribution of childhood obesity in SSA.

Methods: The study will be guided by the scoping review framework proposed by Arksey and O'Malley. A comprehensive literature search will be performed in the following electronic databases: PubMed, Web of Science, African Index Medicus, and CINAHL with full text via EBSCOhost platform. Primary studies both published in peer-reviewed journals and gray literature such as unpublished studies, thesis, and studies in press addressing the research topic will be included. One reviewer will conduct title screening, and the results will be exported to Mendeley Desktop library. Two independent reviewers will perform both abstract and full article screening in parallel as well as data extraction from eligible studies. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis: Extension for Scoping Review (PRISMA-ScR) will be utilized to present the study findings of the proposed scoping review. NVivo version 11.0 will be used to extract the relevant outcomes from the included studies, a content thematic analysis performed, and the results reported using a narrative approach. The Mixed Method Quality Appraisal Tool Version 2018 will be used to assess the methodological quality of all included studies.

Discussion: We anticipate that the proposed study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge on childhood obesity, identify gaps in knowledge on the topic, inform future research direction, and provide evidence-based information to strengthen health systems and policies on childhood obesity towards achieving the WHO global target of halting the rise in obesity by 2025.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-019-1189-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6868500PMC
November 2019

Mapping evidence on the distribution of paediatric cancers in sub-Saharan Africa: a scoping review protocol.

Syst Rev 2019 11 7;8(1):262. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Paediatric cancers account for a minor fraction of deaths and hence receive little attention from policymakers. In low-income countries, the absence of comprehensive national paediatric strategies results in a lack of access for a majority of children with cancer. In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the burden of childhood cancers is underestimated due to a lack of paediatric cancer registries, poor health care systems and competing healthcare needs. The objective of this study is to map evidence on the distribution of paediatric cancers in the SSA region.

Method: A scoping review will be conducted to map literature on the distribution of paediatric cancers in SSA. An electronic literature search will be conducted from the following databases: PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCOhost (CINAHL and Health Source) and World Health Organization (WHO)/International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC) (GLOBOCAN databases). We will also search the reference lists of included studies to source relevant literature. A pilot search was conducted to determine the feasibility of the study. Study selection will be guided by the inclusion and exclusion criteria. After charting the data, a descriptive overview of the studies will be presented in a narrative format. An account of the study characteristics will be described in this narrative. The analysis will be mainly based on mapping the country-specific outcomes emerging from the studies, and a numerical summary of these outcomes will be conducted. Tables, maps and charts will be produced and presented in the result section.

Discussion: This review study will identify existing research gaps for future research to influence policy implementation and to improve the availability of diagnosis and treatment of paediatric cancers in SSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-019-1184-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6836462PMC
November 2019

Estimating the Spatial Accessibility to Blood Group and Rhesus Type Point-of-Care Testing for Maternal Healthcare in Ghana.

Diagnostics (Basel) 2019 Nov 5;9(4). Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School 0.0of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban 4001, South Africa.

Background: In Ghana, a blood group and rhesus type test is one of the essential recommended screening tests for women during antenatal care since blood transfusion is a key intervention for haemorrhage. We estimated the spatial accessibility to health facilities for blood group and type point-of-care (POC) testing in the Upper East Region (UER), Ghana.

Methods: We assembled the attributes and spatial data of hospitals, clinics, and medical laboratories providing blood group and rhesus type POC testing in the UER. We also obtained the spatial data of all the 131 towns, and 94 health centres and community-based health planning and services (CHPS) compounds providing maternal healthcare in the region. We further obtained the topographical data of the region, and travel time estimated using an assumed tricycle speed of 20 km/h. We employed ArcGIS 10.5 to estimate the distance and travel time and locations with poor spatial access identified for priority improvement.

Findings: In all, blood group and rhesus type POC testing was available in 18 health facilities comprising eight public hospitals and six health centres, one private hospital, and three medical laboratories used as referral points by neighbouring health centres and CHPS compounds without the service. Of the 94 health centres and CHPS compounds, 51.1% (48/94) and 66.4% (87/131) of the towns were within a 10 km range to a facility providing blood group and rhesus type testing service. The estimated mean distance to a health facility for blood group and rhesus POC testing was 8.9 ± 4.1 km, whilst the mean travel time was 17.8 ± 8.3 min. Builsa South district recorded the longest mean distance (25.6 ± 7.4 km), whilst Bongo district recorded the shortest (3.1 ± 1.9 km). The spatial autocorrelation results showed the health facilities providing blood group and rhesus type POC testing were randomly distributed in the region (Moran Index = 0.29; z-score = 1.37; = 0.17).

Conclusion: This study enabled the identification of district variations in spatial accessibility to blood group and rhesus type POC testing in the region for policy decisions. We urge the health authorities in Ghana to evaluate and implement recommended POC tests such as slide agglutination tests for blood group and rhesus type testing in resource-limited settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics9040175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963207PMC
November 2019

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Authors:
Christina Fitzmaurice Degu Abate Naghmeh Abbasi Hedayat Abbastabar Foad Abd-Allah Omar Abdel-Rahman Ahmed Abdelalim Amir Abdoli Ibrahim Abdollahpour Abdishakur S M Abdulle Nebiyu Dereje Abebe Haftom Niguse Abraha Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad Ahmed Abualhasan Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji Shailesh M Advani Mohsen Afarideh Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Dominic Agius Sutapa Agrawal Ayat Ahmadi Elham Ahmadian Ehsan Ahmadpour Muktar Beshir Ahmed Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari Tomi Akinyemiju Ziyad Al-Aly Assim M AlAbdulKader Fares Alahdab Tahiya Alam Genet Melak Alamene Birhan Tamene T Alemnew Kefyalew Addis Alene Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Majid Abdulrahman Hamad Almadi Amir Almasi-Hashiani Ubai Alsharif Shirina Alsowaidi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Erfan Amini Saeed Amini Yaw Ampem Amoako Zohreh Anbari Nahla Hamed Anber Catalina Liliana Andrei Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Ansariadi Ansariadi Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Morteza Arab-Zozani Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Habtamu Abera Areri Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Ephrem Tsegay Asfaw Alebachew Fasil Ashagre Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Hagos Tasew Atalay Zerihun Ataro Suleman Atique Marcel Ausloos Leticia Avila-Burgos Euripide F G A Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Nefsu Awoke Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Henok Tadesse Ayele Ebrahim Babaee Umar Bacha Alaa Badawi Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Eleni Bagli Senthilkumar Balakrishnan Abbas Balouchi Till Winfried Bärnighausen Robert J Battista Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Bayu Begashaw Bekele Yared Belete Belay Yaschilal Muche Belayneh Kathleen Kim Sachiko Berfield Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Mircea Beuran Nickhill Bhakta Krittika Bhattacharyya Belete Biadgo Ali Bijani Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed Charles Birungi Catherine Bisignano Helen Bitew Tone Bjørge Archie Bleyer Kassawmar Angaw Bogale Hunduma Amensisa Bojia Antonio M Borzì Cristina Bosetti Ibrahim R Bou-Orm Hermann Brenner Jerry D Brewer Andrey Nikolaevich Briko Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Maria Teresa Bustamante-Teixeira Zahid A Butt Giulia Carreras Juan J Carrero Félix Carvalho Clara Castro Franz Castro Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Yazan Chaiah Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Vijay Kumar Chattu Pankaj Chaturvedi Neelima Singh Chauhan Mohammad Chehrazi Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang Tesfaye Yitna Chichiabellu Onyema Greg Chido-Amajuoyi Odgerel Chimed-Ochir Jee-Young J Choi Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Maria-Magdalena Constantin Vera M Costa Emanuele Crocetti Christopher Stephen Crowe Maria Paula Curado Saad M A Dahlawi Giovanni Damiani Amira Hamed Darwish Ahmad Daryani José das Neves Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis Birhanu Wondimeneh Demissie Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez Afshin Derakhshani Kalkidan Solomon Deribe Rupak Desai Beruk Berhanu Desalegn Melaku Desta Subhojit Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Mesfin Tadese Tadese Dinberu Shirin Djalalinia David Teye Doku Thomas M Drake Manisha Dubey Eleonora Dubljanin Eyasu Ejeta Duken Hedyeh Ebrahimi Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Demelash Abewa Elemineh Hajer Elkout Richard G Ellenbogen Aisha Elsharkawy Mohammad Hassan Emamian Daniel Adane Endalew Aman Yesuf Endries Babak Eshrati Ibtihal Fadhil Vahid Fallah Omrani Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi Andrea Farioli Farshad Farzadfar Netsanet Fentahun Eduarda Fernandes Garumma Tolu Feyissa Irina Filip Florian Fischer James L Fisher Lisa M Force Masoud Foroutan Marisa Freitas Takeshi Fukumoto Neal D Futran Silvano Gallus Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe Reta Tsegaye Gayesa Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Belayneh K Gelaw Birhanu Geta Sefonias Getachew Kebede Embaye Gezae Mansour Ghafourifard Alireza Ghajar Ahmad Ghashghaee Asadollah Gholamian Paramjit Singh Gill Themba T G Ginindza Alem Girmay Muluken Gizaw Ricardo Santiago Gomez Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Ayman Grada Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra Andre Luiz Sena Guimaraes Prakash C Gupta Rahul Gupta Kishor Hadkhale Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Lolemo Kelbiso Hanfore Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Amir Hasanzadeh Hamid Yimam Hassen Roderick J Hay Simon I Hay Andualem Henok Nathaniel J Henry Claudiu Herteliu Hagos D Hidru Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Praveen Hoogar Nobuyuki Horita H Dean Hosgood Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohammedaman Mama Hussen Bogdan Ileanu Milena D Ilic Kaire Innos Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Kufre Robert Iseh Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Farhad Islami Nader Jafari Balalami Morteza Jafarinia Leila Jahangiry Mohammad Ali Jahani Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Spencer L James Mehdi Javanbakht Sudha Jayaraman Sun Ha Jee Ensiyeh Jenabi Ravi Prakash Jha Jost B Jonas Jitendra Jonnagaddala Tamas Joo Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Farin Kamangar André Karch Narges Karimi Ansar Karimian Amir Kasaeian Gebremicheal Gebreslassie Kasahun Belete Kassa Tesfaye Dessale Kassa Mesfin Wudu Kassaw Anil Kaul Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Amene Abebe Kerbo Yousef Saleh Khader Maryam Khalilarjmandi Ejaz Ahmad Khan Gulfaraz Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Maryam Khayamzadeh Maryam Khazaee-Pool Salman Khazaei Abdullah T Khoja Mohammad Hossein Khosravi Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Daniel Kim Yun Jin Kim Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek Hamidreza Komaki Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Vivek Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Carlo La Vecchia Deepesh P Lad Eyasu Alem Lake Ayenew Molla Lakew Dharmesh Kumar Lal Faris Hasan Lami Qing Lan Savita Lasrado Paolo Lauriola Jeffrey V Lazarus James Leigh Cheru Tesema Leshargie Yu Liao Miteku Andualem Limenih Stefan Listl Alan D Lopez Platon D Lopukhov Raimundas Lunevicius Mohammed Madadin Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Ali Manafi Navid Manafi Wondimu Ayele Manamo Morteza Mansourian Mohammad Ali Mansournia Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani Saman Maroufizadeh Santi Martini S Martini Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Motswadi Titus Maswabi Manu Raj Mathur Colm McAlinden Martin McKee Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu Ravi Mehrotra Varshil Mehta Toni Meier Yohannes A Melaku Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Hagazi Gebre Meles Addisu Melese Mulugeta Melku Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Shahin Merat Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Kebadnew Mulatu M Mihretie Ted R Miller Edward J Mills Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Rashmi Mishra Babak Moazen Dara K Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi Hiwa Mohammadi Moslem Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadian Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Ammas Siraj Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Ali H Mokdad Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Maryam Moossavi Ghobad Moradi Mohammad Moradi-Joo Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Farhad Moradpour Lidia Morawska Joana Morgado-da-Costa Naho Morisaki Shane Douglas Morrison Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Achenef Asmamaw Muche Oumer Sada S Muhammed Jonah Musa Ashraf F Nabhan Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gabriele Nagel Azin Nahvijou Gurudatta Naik Farid Najafi Luigi Naldi Hae Sung Nam Naser Nasiri Javad Nazari Ionut Negoi Subas Neupane Polly A Newcomb Haruna Asura Nggada Josephine W Ngunjiri Cuong Tat Nguyen Leila Nikniaz Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Shirin Nosratnejad Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh Mohammed Suleiman Obsa Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Abidemi E Omonisi Obinna E Onwujekwe Anu Mary Oommen Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Erika Ota Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Amir H Pakpour Adrian Pana Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Shanti Patel Snehal T Patil Alyssa Pennini David M Pereira Cristiano Piccinelli Julian David Pillay Majid Pirestani Farhad Pishgar Maarten J Postma Hadi Pourjafar Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Swayam Prakash Narayan Prasad Mostafa Qorbani Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Mahdi Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Fatemeh Rajati Saleem M Rana Samira Raoofi Goura Kishor Rath David Laith Rawaf Salman Rawaf Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Nima Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Daniela Ribeiro Luca Ronfani Elias Merdassa Roro Gholamreza Roshandel Ali Rostami Ragy Safwat Saad Parisa Sabbagh Siamak Sabour Basema Saddik Saeid Safiri Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Farkhonde Salehi Hosni Salem Marwa Rashad Salem Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Milena M Santric Milicevic Benn Sartorius Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Maheswar Satpathy Miloje Savic Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah Ione J C Schneider Ben Schöttker Mario Sekerija Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Sepehrimanesh Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Hosein Shabaninejad Mohammad Shahbaz Masood Ali Shaikh Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Heidar Sharafi Zeinab Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Ali Sharifi Hamid Sharifi Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Reza Shirkoohi Sharvari Rahul Shukla Si Si Soraya Siabani Diego Augusto Santos Silva Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira Ambrish Singh Jasvinder A Singh Solomon Sisay Freddy Sitas Eugène Sobngwi Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Vasiliki Stathopoulou Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Takahiro Tabuchi Ken Takahashi Omid Reza Tamtaji Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh Segen Gebremeskel Tassew Parvaneh Taymoori Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Mohamad-Hani Temsah Omar Temsah Berhe Etsay Tesfay Fisaha Haile Tesfay Manaye Yihune Teshale Gizachew Assefa Tessema Subash Thapa Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Roman Topor-Madry Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Eugenio Traini Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik Irfan Ullah Olalekan A Uthman Marco Vacante Maryam Vaezi Patricia Varona Pérez Yousef Veisani Simone Vidale Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Theo Vos Kia Vosoughi Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Henry Wabinga Tesfahun Mulatu Wachamo Fasil Shiferaw Wagnew Yasir Waheed Fitsum Weldegebreal Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Tissa Wijeratne Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Tewodros Eshete Wonde Adam Belay Wondmieneh Hailemariam Mekonnen Workie Rajaram Yadav Abbas Yadegar Ali Yadollahpour Mehdi Yaseri Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Alex Yeshaneh Mohammed Ahmed Yimam Ebrahim M Yimer Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Bahman Yousefi Mahmoud Yousefifard Chuanhua Yu Erfan Zabeh Vesna Zadnik Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Leila Zaki Kazem Zendehdel Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe Taye Abuhay Zewale Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

Geographical Accessibility to District Hospitals/Medical Laboratories for Comprehensive Antenatal Point-of-Care Diagnostic Services in the Upper East Region, Ghana.

EClinicalMedicine 2019 Aug 3;13:74-80. Epub 2019 Jul 3.

Discipline of Public Health Medicine, School of Nursing and Public Health, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

Background: Access to referral healthcare facilities from primary healthcare (PHC) clinics for diagnostic services is critical for improving maternal health outcomes. We described the geographical distribution and accessibility to district hospitals/medical laboratories for comprehensive antenatal point-of-care (POC) diagnostic services in the Upper East region (UER), Ghana.

Methods: We assembled detailed spatial data on 100 participated PHC clinics in our previous survey, their nearest referral district hospitals/medical laboratories, and landscape features influencing journeys in the UER. These were used in a geospatial model to estimate actual distance and travel time from a PHC facility to the nearest referral health facility for antenatal POC diagnostic services. Spatial distribution of the facilities was determined using spatial auto-correlation tool run in ArcMap 10.4.1. We employed Stata V14 for all other analysis.

Findings: Of the 100 PHC clinics included in the analysis, only 15% were located less than 10 km to their nearest referral health facilities. The mean distance ± standard deviation from a PHC clinic to the nearest referral district hospital/medical laboratory for comprehensive antenatal POC diagnostic services was 7.0 km ± 4.9. Whilst the mean travel time using a motorized tricycle speed of 20 km/h to the nearest referral health facility for comprehensive antenatal POC diagnostic was 14.0 min ± 8.8. The spatial auto-correlation results for the PHC clinics suggested that the PHC clinics were spatially distributed at random rather than clustered (MI = 0.01, z-score = 0.33, p = 0.74). Whereas the spatial distribution of the referral health facilities suggested that the hospitals or medical laboratories were spatially dispersed (MI = - 0.69 z-score = - 2.05, p = 0.04).

Interpretation: Although there is moderate geographical accessibility to district hospitals/medical laboratories for comprehensive antenatal diagnostic services in the UER, targeted improvement of POC diagnostic services in PHC clinics is recommended for improved maternal healthcare.

Funding: University of KwaZulu-Natal, College of Health Sciences Research Scholarship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2019.06.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734000PMC
August 2019