Publications by authors named "Desalegn Markos Shifti"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Risk factors for COVID-19 infection, disease severity and related deaths in Africa: a systematic review.

BMJ Open 2021 02 18;11(2):e044618. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.

Objective: The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive evidence on risk factors for transmission, disease severity and COVID-19 related deaths in Africa.

Design: A systematic review has been conducted to synthesise existing evidence on risk factors affecting COVID-19 outcomes across Africa.

Data Sources: Data were systematically searched from MEDLINE, Scopus, MedRxiv and BioRxiv.

Eligibility Criteria: Studies for review were included if they were published in English and reported at least one risk factor and/or one health outcome. We included all relevant literature published up until 11 August 2020.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: We performed a systematic narrative synthesis to describe the available studies for each outcome. Data were extracted using a standardised Joanna Briggs Institute data extraction form.

Results: Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria of which four were exclusively on Africa and the remaining 11 papers had a global focus with some data from Africa. Higher rates of infection in Africa are associated with high population density, urbanisation, transport connectivity, high volume of tourism and international trade, and high level of economic and political openness. Limited or poor access to healthcare are also associated with higher COVID-19 infection rates. Older people and individuals with chronic conditions such as HIV, tuberculosis and anaemia experience severe forms COVID-19 leading to hospitalisation and death. Similarly, high burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, high prevalence of tobacco consumption and low levels of expenditure on health and low levels of global health security score contribute to COVID-19 related deaths.

Conclusions: Demographic, institutional, ecological, health system and politico-economic factors influenced the spectrum of COVID-19 infection, severity and death. We recommend multidisciplinary and integrated approaches to mitigate the identified factors and strengthen effective prevention strategies.
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February 2021

Socioeconomic inequality in short birth interval in Ethiopia: a decomposition analysis.

BMC Public Health 2020 Oct 6;20(1):1504. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Priority Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

Background: Short birth interval, defined as a birth-to-birth interval less than 33 months, is associated with adverse maternal and child outcomes. Evidence regarding the association of maternal socioeconomic status and short birth interval is inconclusive. Factors contributing to the socioeconomic inequality of short birth interval have also not been investigated. The current study assessed socioeconomic inequality in short birth interval and its contributing factors in Ethiopia.

Methods: Data from 8448 women collected in the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health survey were included in the study. Socioeconomic inequality in short birth interval was the outcome variable. Erreygers normalized concentration index (ECI) and concentration curves were used to measure and illustrate socioeconomic-related inequality in short birth interval, respectively. Decomposition analysis was performed to identify factors explaining the socioeconomic-related inequality in short birth interval.

Results: The Erreygers normalized concentration index for short birth interval was - 0.0478 (SE = 0.0062) and differed significantly from zero (P < 0.0001); indicating that short birth interval was more concentrated among the poor. Decomposition analysis indicated that wealth quintiles (74.2%), administrative regions (26.4%), and not listening to the radio (5.6%) were the major contributors to the pro-poor socioeconomic inequalities in short birth interval.

Conclusion: There was a pro-poor inequality of short birth interval in Ethiopia. Strengthening the implementation of poverty alleviation programs may improve the population's socioeconomic status and reduce the associated inequality in short birth interval.
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October 2020

Application of geographically weighted regression analysis to assess predictors of short birth interval hot spots in Ethiopia.

PLoS One 2020 29;15(5):e0233790. Epub 2020 May 29.

School of Medicine and Public Health, Priority Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: Birth interval duration is an important and modifiable risk factor for adverse child and maternal health outcomes. Understanding the spatial distribution of short birth interval, an inter-birth interval of less than 33 months, and its predictors are vital to prioritize and facilitate targeted interventions. However, the spatial variation of short birth interval and its underlying factors have not been investigated in Ethiopia.

Objective: This study aimed to assess the predictors of short birth interval hot spots in Ethiopia.

Methods: The study used data from the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey and included 8,448 women in the analysis. The spatial variation of short birth interval was first examined using hot spot analysis (Local Getis-Ord Gi* statistic). Ordinary least squares regression was used to identify factors explaining the geographic variation of short birth interval. Geographically weighted regression was used to explore the spatial variability of relationships between short birth interval and selected predictors.

Results: Statistically significant hot spots of short birth interval were found in Somali Region, Oromia Region, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region and some parts of Afar Region. Women with no education or with primary education, having a husband with higher education (above secondary education), and coming from a household with a poorer wealth quintile or middle wealth quintile were predictors of the spatial variation of short birth interval. The predictive strength of these factors varied across the study area. The geographically weighted regression model explained about 64% of the variation in short birth interval occurrence.

Conclusion: Residing in a geographic area where a high proportion of women had either no education or only primary education, had a husband with higher education, or were from a household in the poorer or middle wealth quintile increased the risk of experiencing short birth interval. Our detailed maps of short birth interval hot spots and its predictors will assist decision makers in implementing precision public health.
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September 2020

Individual and community level determinants of short birth interval in Ethiopia: A multilevel analysis.

PLoS One 2020 14;15(1):e0227798. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Priority Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: The World Health Organization recommends a minimum of 33 months between two consecutive live births to reduce the risk of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. However, determinants of short birth interval have not been well understood in Ethiopia.

Objective: The aim of this study was to assess individual- and community-level determinants of short birth interval among women in Ethiopia.

Methods: A detailed analysis of the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data was performed. A total of 8,448 women were included in the analysis. A two-level multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to identify associated individual- and community-level factors and estimate between-community variance.

Results: At the individual-level, women aged between 20 and 24 years at first marriage (AOR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.18-1.60), women aged between 25 and 29 years at first marriage (AOR = 1.65; 95% CI: 1.20-2.25), having a husband who attended higher education (AOR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.01-1.73), being unemployed (AOR = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.03-1.31), having an unemployed husband (AOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.04-1.45), being in the poorest wealth quintile (AOR = 1.82; 95% CI: 1.39-2.39), being in the poorer wealth quintile (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.21-2.06), being in the middle wealth quintile (AOR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.24-2.10), being in the richer wealth quintile (AOR = 1.54; 95% CI: 1.19-2.00), increased total number of children born before the index child (AOR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.03-1.10) and death of the preceding child (AOR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.59-2.45) were associated with increased odds of short birth interval. At the community-level, living in a pastoralist region (AOR = 2.01; 95% CI: 1.68-2.39), being a city dweller (AOR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.38-2.22), high community-level female illiteracy (AOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05-1.45) and increased distance to health facilities (AOR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.11-1.56) were associated with higher odds of experiencing short birth interval. Random effects showed significant variation in short birth interval between communities.

Conclusion: Determinants of short birth interval are varied and complex. Multifaceted intervention approaches supported by policy initiatives are required to prevent short birth interval.
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April 2020

Effects of unintended pregnancy on maternal healthcare services utilization in low- and lower-middle-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Public Health 2019 Jun 30;64(5):743-754. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Priority Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine, Hunter Medical Research Institute, University of Newcastle, West Wing, Level 4, Lot 1 Kookaburra Circuit, New Lambton Heights, NSW, 2305, Australia.

Objectives: To examine the association between unintended pregnancy and maternal healthcare services utilization in low- and lower-middle-income countries.

Methods: A systematic literature search of Medline, Cinahl, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Popline, Maternity and Infant Care, and Scopus databases published since the beginning of the Millennium Development Goals (i.e. January 2000) to June 2018 was performed. We estimated the pooled odds ratios using random effect models and performed subgroup analysis by participants and study characteristics.

Results: A total of 38 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Our study found the occurrence of unintended pregnancy was associated with a 25-39% reduction in the use of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal healthcare services. Stratified analysis found the differences of healthcare services utilization across types of pregnancy unintendedness (e.g. mistimed, unwanted).

Conclusions: Integrating family planning and maternal healthcare services should be considered to encourage women with unintended pregnancies to access maternal healthcare services.
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June 2019

Generalized peritonitis after spontaneous rupture of pyonephrosis: a case report.

Int Med Case Rep J 2018 15;11:113-116. Epub 2018 May 15.

Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, Madda Walabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia.

Background: Peritoneal fistulization of a pyonephrosis is an extremely rare event which invariably leads to generalized peritonitis. This is a very rare case report on generalized peritonitis after spontaneous rupture of pyonephrosis.

Case Presentation: A 28-year-old male patient from the rural part of Bale zone, Ethiopia, was admitted to Goba Referral Hospital with high-grade fever, diffused abdominal pain and abdominal distension. Initially, he experienced colicky and intermittent pain that made him stay at home for 2-3 days. He then started to develop constant left flank pain which gradually got worse and was associated with urinary frequency of approximately 5-6 times/day, high-grade intermittent fever, chills, rigors and loss of appetite. With the diagnosis of generalized peritonitis, we resuscitated him with two bags of normal saline and one bag of ringer lactate intravenously. During an abdominal ultrasound examination we identified that the left kidney was replaced by an abscess containing sac, and there was a huge intraperitoneal loculated abscess with internal septation and an associated free inter-loop and pelvic echo debris abscess. When we performed an exploratory laparotomy, 1 L-thick abscess from the general peritoneum was aspirated and early fibrinous inter-loop adhesion was identified. In addition, there was a large retroperitoneal cystic abscess containing sac extended from the spleen up to the pelvic brim crossing the midline to the right side and bulged intraperitoneally. Furthermore, a 1.5 cm wide perforation that pour abscess in to peritoneal cavity was found. A total of 4 L of puss was removed from the left kidney. As treatment, since the left kidney lost all function and became a pus-contacting sac, we performed a left-sided nephrectomy and abdominal lavage. Postoperatively, the patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged from the hospital on the eighth day. We followed him for 6 months, and kidney function tests were normal and he did not develop any complications.

Conclusion: This case report highlighted the importance of recognizing the possibility of underlying kidney rupture in a patient with generalized peritonitis. Uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) might be the possible cause of pyonephrosis in our case. As a treatment, nephrectomy is a preferable option when the affected kidney is not fully functional and the contralateral kidney is normal.
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May 2018

Child and Adolescent Health From 1990 to 2015: Findings From the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2015 Study.

Nicholas Kassebaum Hmwe Hmwe Kyu Leo Zoeckler Helen Elizabeth Olsen Katie Thomas Christine Pinho Zulfiqar A Bhutta Lalit Dandona Alize Ferrari Tsegaye Tewelde Ghiwot Simon I Hay Yohannes Kinfu Xiaofeng Liang Alan Lopez Deborah Carvalho Malta Ali H Mokdad Mohsen Naghavi George C Patton Joshua Salomon Benn Sartorius Roman Topor-Madry Stein Emil Vollset Andrea Werdecker Harvey A Whiteford Kalkidan Hasen Abate Kaja Abbas Solomon Abrha Damtew Muktar Beshir Ahmed Nadia Akseer Rajaa Al-Raddadi Mulubirhan Assefa Alemayohu Khalid Altirkawi Amanuel Alemu Abajobir Azmeraw T Amare Carl A T Antonio Johan Arnlov Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Euripide Frinel G Arthur Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Umar Bacha Balem Demtsu Betsu Aleksandra Barac Till Winfried Bärnighausen Estifanos Baye Neeraj Bedi Isabela M Bensenor Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Oscar Alberto Bernal Addisu Shunu Beyene Sibhatu Biadgilign Boris Bikbov Cheryl Anne Boyce Alexandra Brazinova Gessessew Bugssa Hailu Austin Carter Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ferrán Catalá-López Fiona J Charlson Abdulaal A Chitheer Jee-Young Jasmine Choi Liliana G Ciobanu John Crump Rakhi Dandona Robert P Dellavalle Amare Deribew Gabrielle deVeber Daniel Dicker Eric L Ding Manisha Dubey Amanuel Yesuf Endries Holly E Erskine Emerito Jose Aquino Faraon Andre Faro Farshad Farzadfar Joao C Fernandes Daniel Obadare Fijabi Christina Fitzmaurice Thomas D Fleming Luisa Sorio Flor Kyle J Foreman Richard C Franklin Maya S Fraser Joseph J Frostad Nancy Fullman Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs Alemseged Aregay Gebru Johanna M Geleijnse Katherine B Gibney Mahari Gidey Yihdego Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed Ginawi Melkamu Dedefo Gishu Tessema Assefa Gizachew Elizabeth Glaser Audra L Gold Ellen Goldberg Philimon Gona Atsushi Goto Harish Chander Gugnani Guohong Jiang Rajeev Gupta Fisaha Haile Tesfay Graeme J Hankey Rasmus Havmoeller Martha Hijar Masako Horino H Dean Hosgood Guoqing Hu Kathryn H Jacobsen Mihajlo B Jakovljevic Sudha P Jayaraman Vivekanand Jha Tariku Jibat Catherine O Johnson Jost Jonas Amir Kasaeian Norito Kawakami Peter N Keiyoro Ibrahim Khalil Young-Ho Khang Jagdish Khubchandani Aliasghar A Ahmad Kiadaliri Christian Kieling Daniel Kim Niranjan Kissoon Luke D Knibbs Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer Rachel Kulikoff G Anil Kumar Dharmesh Kumar Lal Hilton Y Lam Heidi J Larson Anders Larsson Dennis Odai Laryea Janni Leung Stephen S Lim Loon-Tzian Lo Warren D Lo Katharine J Looker Paulo A Lotufo Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Reza Malekzadeh Desalegn Markos Shifti Mohsen Mazidi Peter A Meaney Kidanu Gebremariam Meles Peter Memiah Walter Mendoza Mubarek Abera Mengistie Gebremichael Welday Mengistu George A Mensah Ted R Miller Charles Mock Alireza Mohammadi Shafiu Mohammed Lorenzo Monasta Ulrich Mueller Chie Nagata Aliya Naheed Grant Nguyen Quyen Le Nguyen Elaine Nsoesie In-Hwan Oh Anselm Okoro Jacob Olusegun Olusanya Bolajoko O Olusanya Alberto Ortiz Deepak Paudel David M Pereira Norberto Perico Max Petzold Michael Robert Phillips Guilherme V Polanczyk Farshad Pourmalek Mostafa Qorbani Anwar Rafay Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Mahfuzar Rahman Rajesh Kumar Rai Usha Ram Zane Rankin Giuseppe Remuzzi Andre M N Renzaho Hirbo Shore Roba David Rojas-Rueda Luca Ronfani Rajesh Sagar Juan Ramon Sanabria Muktar Sano Kedir Mohammed Itamar S Santos Maheswar Satpathy Monika Sawhney Ben Schöttker David C Schwebel James G Scott Sadaf G Sepanlou Amira Shaheen Masood Ali Shaikh June She Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Inga Dora Sigfusdottir Jasvinder Singh Naris Silpakit Alison Smith Chandrashekhar Sreeramareddy Jeffrey D Stanaway Dan J Stein Caitlyn Steiner Muawiyyah Babale Sufiyan Soumya Swaminathan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Fentaw Tadese Mohammad Tavakkoli Bineyam Taye Stephanie Teeple Teketo Kassaw Tegegne Girma Temam Shifa Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Bernadette Thomas Alan J Thomson Ruoyan Tobe-Gai Marcello Tonelli Bach Xuan Tran Christopher Troeger Kingsley N Ukwaja Olalekan Uthman Tommi Vasankari Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov Elisabete Weiderpass Robert Weintraub Solomon Weldemariam Gebrehiwot Ronny Westerman Hywel C Williams Charles D A Wolfe Rachel Woodbrook Yuichiro Yano Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Mustafa Z Younis Chuanhua Yu Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Elias Asfaw Zegeye Liesl Joanna Zuhlke Christopher J L Murray Theo Vos

JAMA Pediatr 2017 06;171(6):573-592

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Comprehensive and timely monitoring of disease burden in all age groups, including children and adolescents, is essential for improving population health.

Objective: To quantify and describe levels and trends of mortality and nonfatal health outcomes among children and adolescents from 1990 to 2015 to provide a framework for policy discussion.

Evidence Review: Cause-specific mortality and nonfatal health outcomes were analyzed for 195 countries and territories by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2015 using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling, with subsequent analysis of the findings to describe levels and trends across geography and time among children and adolescents 19 years or younger. A composite indicator of income, education, and fertility was developed (Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) for each geographic unit and year, which evaluates the historical association between SDI and health loss.

Findings: Global child and adolescent mortality decreased from 14.18 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 14.09 million to 14.28 million) deaths in 1990 to 7.26 million (95% UI, 7.14 million to 7.39 million) deaths in 2015, but progress has been unevenly distributed. Countries with a lower SDI had a larger proportion of mortality burden (75%) in 2015 than was the case in 1990 (61%). Most deaths in 2015 occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Global trends were driven by reductions in mortality owing to infectious, nutritional, and neonatal disorders, which in the aggregate led to a relative increase in the importance of noncommunicable diseases and injuries in explaining global disease burden. The absolute burden of disability in children and adolescents increased 4.3% (95% UI, 3.1%-5.6%) from 1990 to 2015, with much of the increase owing to population growth and improved survival for children and adolescents to older ages. Other than infectious conditions, many top causes of disability are associated with long-term sequelae of conditions present at birth (eg, neonatal disorders, congenital birth defects, and hemoglobinopathies) and complications of a variety of infections and nutritional deficiencies. Anemia, developmental intellectual disability, hearing loss, epilepsy, and vision loss are important contributors to childhood disability that can arise from multiple causes. Maternal and reproductive health remains a key cause of disease burden in adolescent females, especially in lower-SDI countries. In low-SDI countries, mortality is the primary driver of health loss for children and adolescents, whereas disability predominates in higher-SDI locations; the specific pattern of epidemiological transition varies across diseases and injuries.

Conclusions And Relevance: Consistent international attention and investment have led to sustained improvements in causes of health loss among children and adolescents in many countries, although progress has been uneven. The persistence of infectious diseases in some countries, coupled with ongoing epidemiologic transition to injuries and noncommunicable diseases, require all countries to carefully evaluate and implement appropriate strategies to maximize the health of their children and adolescents and for the international community to carefully consider which elements of child and adolescent health should be monitored.
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June 2017