Publications by authors named "Derk J. Stufkens"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Redox control of light-induced charge separation in a transition metal cluster: photochemistry of a methyl viologen-substituted [Os3(CO)10(alpha-diimine)] cluster.

Inorg Chem 2005 Mar;44(5):1319-31

Institute of Molecular Chemistry, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

(Sub)picosecond transient absorption (TA) and time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectra of the cluster [Os3(CO)10-(AcPy-MV)]2+ (the dication AcPy-MV = AcPy-MV2+ = [2-pyridylacetimine-N-(2-(1'-methyl-4,4'-bipyridine-1,1'-diium-1-yl)ethyl)](PF6)2) (1(2+)) reveal that photoinduced electron transfer to the electron-accepting 4,4'-bipyridine-1,1'-diium (MV2+) moiety competes with the fast relaxation of the initially populated sigmapi excited state of the cluster to the ground state and/or cleavage of an Os-Os bond. The TA spectra of cluster 1(2+) in acetone, obtained by irradiation into its lowest-energy absorption band, show the characteristic absorptions of the one-electron-reduced MV*+ unit at 400 and 615 nm, in accordance with population of a charge-separated (CS) state in which a cluster-core electron has been transferred to the lowest pi orbital of the remote MV2+ unit. This assignment is confirmed by picosecond TRIR spectra that show a large shift of the pilot highest-frequency nu(CO) band of 1(2+) by ca. +40 cm(-1), reflecting the photooxidation of the cluster core. The CS state is populated via fast (4.2 x 10(11) s(-1)) and efficient (88%) oxidative quenching of the optically populated sigmapi excited state and decays biexponentially with lifetimes of 38 and 166 ps (1.2:1 ratio) with a complete regeneration of the parent cluster. About 12% of the cluster molecules in the sigmapi excited state form long-lived open-core biradicals. In strongly coordinating acetonitrile, however, the cluster core-to-MV2+ electron transfer in cluster 1(2+) results in the irreversible formation of secondary photoproducts with a photooxidized cluster core. The photochemical behavior of the [Os3(CO)10(alpha-diimine-MV)]2+ (donor-acceptor) dyad can be controlled by an externally applied electronic bias. Electrochemical one-electron reduction of the MV2+ moiety prior to the irradiation reduces its electron-accepting character to such an extent that the photoinduced electron transfer to MV(*+) is no longer feasible. Instead, the irradiation of reduced cluster 1(*+) results in the reversible formation of an open-core zwitterion, the ultimate photoproduct also observed upon irradiation of related nonsubstituted clusters [Os3(CO)10(alpha-diimine)] in strongly coordinating solvents such as acetonitrile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic049191nDOI Listing
March 2005

Reduced and excited states of the intermediates (alpha-diimine)(C5R5)Rh in hydride transfer catalysis schemes: EPR and resonance Raman spectroscopy, and comparative DFT calculations of Co, Rh and Ir analogues.

Dalton Trans 2004 Nov 14(22):3815-21. Epub 2004 Oct 14.

Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70550 Stuttgart, Germany.

The electronic structures of the highly air-sensitive intermediates (N[caret]N) (C(5)Me(5))Rh, (N[caret]N = 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 2,2'-bipyrimidine (bpym), 2,2'-bipyrazine (bpz) and 3,3'-bipyridazine (bpdz)) of hydride transfer catalysis schemes were studied through resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy and through EPR of the reduced forms [(N[caret]N) (C(5)Me(5))Rh](.-). The rR results are compatible with a predominant MLCT character of the lowest excited states [ (N[caret]N) (C(5)Me(5))Rh]*, and the EPR spectra of the reduced states reveal the presence of anion radical ligands, (N[caret]N) (.-), coordinated by unusually electron rich rhodium(i) centres. The experimental results, including the assignments of electronic transitions, are supported by DFT calculations for the model compounds [(N[caret]N)(C(5)H(5))Rh](o)/(.-), (N[caret]N) = bpy or bpym. The calculations confirm a significant but not complete mixing of metal and ligand orbitals in the lowest unoccupied MO which still retains about 3/4 pi* (N[caret]N) character. DFT calculations on (bpy)(C(5)H(5))M and [(bpy)(C(5)H(5))ClM](+), M = Co, Rh, Ir, agree with the experimental results such as the differences between the homologues, especially the different LUMO characters of the precursor cations in the case of Co-->d(M)) and Rh or Ir (-->pi*(bpy)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b411892hDOI Listing
November 2004

Low-valent cobalt complexes with three different pi acceptor ligands: experimental and DFT studies of the reduced and the low-lying excited states of (R-DAB)Co(NO)(CO), R-DAB = substituted 1,4-diaza-1,4-butadiene.

Inorg Chem 2003 May;42(10):3340-6

Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70550 Stuttgart, Germany.

The complexes (RN=CH-CH=NR)Co(NO)(CO) with R = isopropyl, 2,6-diisopropylphenyl, or p-tolyl are chemically and electrochemically reducible to radical anions at potentials which strongly depend on R. The DFT calculated structure for the neutral compound with R = iPr agrees with the experiment, and the computed structure of the anion radical reveals changes according to a reduction of the R-DAB ligand. EPR results confirm an (R-DAB)-based singly occupied molecular orbital in [(RNCHCHNR)Co(NO)(CO)](.-), with minor but detectable contributions from NO as supported by IR spectroelectrochemistry and as quantified by DFT spin density calculations. The calculations indicate increasingly stabilized CO, NO, and RNCHCHNR pi* acceptor orbitals, in that order. On the basis of TD-DFT (time-dependent density functional theory) calculations, the lowest-lying excited states are assigned to metal-to-(R-DAB) charge transfer transitions while bands due to the metal-to-nitrosyl charge transfer occur at higher energies but still in the visible region. Resonance Raman studies were used to probe these assignments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic026078tDOI Listing
May 2003

Reduced and excited states of (bpym)[PtCl(2)](n)() (bpym = 2,2'-bipyrimidine; n = 1, 2): experiments and DFT calculations.

Inorg Chem 2002 Aug;41(16):4139-48

Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 55, D-70550 Stuttgart, Germany.

The complexes (bpym)PtCl(2) (1) and the new (micro-bpym)[PtCl(2)](2) (2), bpym = 2,2'-bipyrimidine, were synthesized and, in the case of 1, crystallized in solvent-free form for X-ray diffraction. The molecules 1 exhibit two different kinds of stacking motifs in the crystal with an interstack CH--N interaction. Complexes 1 and 2 were found to be sufficiently soluble for cyclic voltammetry, spectroscopy (absorption and emission), and spectroelectrochemical studies (UV-vis, EPR). As a result of single or double coordination of the strongly sigma-accepting [PtCl(2)] fragment to bpym, the paramagnetic anions 1(*)(-)() and 2(*)(-)() and the dianions 1(2-) and 2(2-) could be reversibly generated, despite the presence of metal-halide bonds. DFT calculations of A((195)Pt) and g tensor components confirm that the singly occupied MOs of the monoanionic species have mainly pi(bpym) character with nonnegligible platinum d orbital participation. The assignments of the electronic absorption and emission and resonance Raman spectra for both complexes are supported by DFT calculations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic020158fDOI Listing
August 2002

First direct observation of a CO-bridged primary photoproduct of [Ru3(CO)12] by picosecond time-resolved IR spectroscopy.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2002 Jun(11):1220-1

Institute of Molecular Chemistry, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, NL-1018 WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

For the first time, a CO-bridged primary photoproduct was observed for [Ru3(CO)12] by using picosecond time-resolved IR spectroscopy (ps-TRIR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b201272cDOI Listing
June 2002

Density Functional Study of the Primary Photoprocesses of Manganese Pentacarbonyl Chloride (MnCl(CO)(5)).

Inorg Chem 1997 Apr;36(8):1541-1551

Afdeling Theoretische Chemie, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Dipartimento di Chimica, Universitá della Basilicata, Via N. Sauro, 85, 85100 Potenza, Italy, and Anorganisch Chemisch Laboratorium, J. H. van't Hoff Research Insitute, Universteit van Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Density functional calculations have been performed on the ground and excited states of MnCl(CO)(5) in order to explain the photochemistry of MX(CO)(5) complexes (M = Mn, Re; X = Cl, Br, I). As found earlier for Mn(2)(CO)(10) (Inorg. Chem. 1996, 35, 2886), the e(g)-type unoccupied 3d orbitals in the pseudooctahedral environment are located rather high in the virtual orbital spectrum, and the corresponding ligand-field (LF) excitations are more than 1 eV above the lowest excitations. Potential energy curves (PECs) nevertheless show that the lowest excited states, which involve transitions to the Mn-Cl sigma orbital at equilibrium geometry, are dissociative for axial and equatorial CO loss. The mechanism is again, as in Mn(2)(CO)(10), a strongly avoided crossing of the lowest excited state (a(1,3)E) with the higher dissociative LF states (different ones for CO(ax) and CO(eq) dissociation) which rapidly descend upon Mn-CO bond lengthening. In spite of the lowest excitation being to the Mn-Cl sigma-orbital, Mn-Cl homolysis cannot occur out of the lowest excited state. The photochemical behavior of Mn(2)(CO)(10), MnH(CO)(5), and MnCl(CO)(5) is compared. The mechanisms of CO loss are found to be very similar, but there is a large difference with respect to the breaking of the sigma bond (Mn-Mn, Mn-H, or Mn-Cl). Only in the case of Mn(2)(CO)(10), the lowest broad absorption band contains the sigma --> sigma excitation and leads to sigma bond breaking.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic960688+DOI Listing
April 1997

Bonding Properties of a Novel Inorganometallic Complex, Ru(SnPh(3))(2)(CO)(2)(iPr-DAB) (iPr-DAB = N,N'-Diisopropyl-1,4-diaza-1,3-butadiene), and its Stable Radical-Anion, Studied by UV-Vis, IR, and EPR Spectroscopy, (Spectro-) Electrochemistry, and Density Functional Calculations.

Inorg Chem 1996 Sep;35(19):5468-5477

Anorganisch Chemisch Laboratorium, J. H. van 't Hoff Research Institute, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Amsterdam Institute for Molecular Studies, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Afdeling Theoretische Chemie, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1083, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands, J. Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Dolejskova 3, 182 23 Prague, Czech Republic.

Ru(SnPh(3))(2)(CO)(2)(iPr-DAB) was synthesized and characterized by UV-vis, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, (119)Sn NMR, and mass (FAB(+)) spectroscopies and by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which proved the presence of a nearly linear Sn-Ru-Sn unit. Crystals of Ru(SnPh(3))(2)(CO)(2)(iPr-DAB).3.5C(6)H(6) form in the triclinic space group P&onemacr; in a unit cell of dimensions a = 11.662(6) Å, b = 13.902(3) Å, c = 19.643(2) Å, alpha = 71.24(2) degrees, beta = 86.91(4) degrees, gamma = 77.89(3) degrees, and V = 2946(3) Å(3). One-electron reduction of Ru(SnPh(3))(2)(CO)(2)(iPr-DAB) produces the stable radical-anion [Ru(SnPh(3))(2)(CO)(2)(iPr-DAB)](*-) that was characterized by IR, and UV-vis spectroelectrochemistry. Its EPR spectrum shows a signal at g = 1.9960 with well resolved Sn, Ru, and iPr-DAB (H, N) hyperfine couplings. DFT-MO calculations on the model compound Ru(SnH(3))(2)(CO)(2)(H-DAB) reveal that the HOMO is mainly of sigma(Sn-Ru-Sn) character mixed strongly with the lowest pi orbital of the H-DAB ligand. The LUMO (SOMO in the reduced complex) should be viewed as predominantly pi(H-DAB) with an admixture of the sigma(Sn-Ru-Sn) orbital. Accordingly, the lowest-energy absorption band of the neutral species will mainly belong to the sigma(Sn-Ru-Sn)-->pi(iPr-DAB) charge transfer transition. The intrinsic strength of the Ru-Sn bond and the delocalized character of the three-center four-electron Sn-Ru-Sn sigma-bond account for the inherent stability of the radical anion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic960042hDOI Listing
September 1996

Proton-Induced Tuning of Electrochemical and Photophysical Properties in Mononuclear and Dinuclear Ruthenium Complexes Containing 2,2'-Bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)-4,4'-bipyridine: Synthesis, Molecular Structure, and Mixed-Valence State and Excited-State Properties.

Inorg Chem 1996 May;35(11):3335-3347

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Education, Mie University, 1515 Kamihama, Tsu, Mie 514, Japan, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Osaka University, Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560, Japan, Department of Chemistry, Aichi University of Education, Igaya, Kariya, Aichi 448, Japan, and Anorganisch Chemisch Laboratorium, Universiteit van Amsterdam, J. H. van't Hoff Research Institute, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

A series of mono- and dinuclear Ru(bpy)(2) complexes (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine) containing 2,2'-bis(benzimidazol-2-yl)-4,4'-bipyridine (bbbpyH(2)) were prepared. The mononuclear complex [Ru(bpy)(2)(bbbpyH(2))](ClO(4))(2).CH(3)OH.4H(2)O was characterized by an X-ray structure determination. Crystal data are as follows: triclinic, space group P&onemacr;, a = 14.443(4) Å, b = 15.392(4) Å, c = 11.675(2)Å, alpha = 101.44(2) degrees, beta = 107.85(2) degrees, gamma = 96.36(2) degrees, V = 2380(1) Å(3), Z = 2. The coordination geometry of the ruthenium(II) ion is approximately octahedral. The dihedral angle between the two pyridyl rings in bbbpyH(2) is 9.4(3) degrees, which is close to coplanar, in the complex. Mono- and dinuclear complexes exhibit broad charge-transfer absorption bands at 420-520 nm and emission at 660-720 nm in CH(3)CN solution with lifetimes of 200-800 ns at room temperature. Transient difference absorption spectra and resonance Raman (rR) spectra were used to assign the charge-transfer bands in the 420-520 nm region and to identify the lowest excited states. Both absorption and emission spectra are sensitive to solvent and solution pH. Deprotonation of the dinuclear complex raises the energies of the pi orbitals of the bbbpyH(2) ligand, so that they become closer in energy to the pi orbitals of bpy. The intervalence band of [(bpy)(2)Ru(bbbpyH(2))Ru(bpy)(2)](5+)()()is observed at 1200 nm ( epsilon = 170 M(-)(1) cm(-)(1)) in CH(3)CN. The value of the electronic coupling matrix element, H(AB), was determined as 120 cm(-)(1). Upon deprotonation, the IT band was not observed. It is therefore concluded that a superexchange pathway occurs predominantly via the Ru(II) dpi-bbbpyH(2) pi interaction, since deprotonation decreases the interaction. The role of the intervening fragments in the bridging ligand is discussed from the viewpoint of orbital energies and their orbital mixing with Ru dpi orbitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ic950083yDOI Listing
May 1996
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