Publications by authors named "Derek N Middlemiss"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

8-Piperazinyl-2,3-dihydropyrrolo[3,2-g]isoquinolines: potent, selective, orally bioavailable 5-HT1 receptor ligands.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2005 Oct;15(19):4370-4

High Throughput Chemistry, Discovery Research, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

The novel 8-piperazinyl-2,3-dihydropyrroloisoquinoline template was synthesized in nine steps. The template was N-substituted to give a series of compounds showing binding to human cloned 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors with pKi's greater than 9 and selectivities up to 1000-fold against other serotonin, dopamine and adrenergic receptors. Several compounds were shown to possess weak partial agonist activity in cloned receptors, which translated to antagonism in in vitro studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2005.06.042DOI Listing
October 2005

Neurochemical evaluation of the novel 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist/serotonin reuptake inhibitor, vilazodone.

Eur J Pharmacol 2005 Mar;510(1-2):49-57

Neuropharmacology Research, Psychiatry CEDD, Glaxo Smith Kline, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex, CM19 5AW, UK.

Vilazodone has been reported to be an inhibitor of 5-hydoxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake and a partial agonist at 5-HT1A receptors. Using [35S]GTPgammaS binding in rat hippocampal tissue, vilazodone was demonstrated to have an intrinsic activity comparable to the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT). Vilazodone (1-10 mg/kg p.o.) dose-dependently displaced in vivo [3H]DASB (N,N-dimethyl-2-(2-amino-4-cyanophenylthio)benzylamine) binding from rat cortex and hippocampus, indicating that vilazodone occupies 5-HT transporters in vivo. Using in vivo microdialysis, vilazodone (10 mg/kg p.o.) was demonstrated to cause a 2-fold increase in extracellular 5-HT but no change in noradrenaline or dopamine levels in frontal cortex of freely moving rats. In contrast, administration of 8-OH-DPAT (0.3 mg/kg s.c.), either alone or in combination with a serotonin specific reuptake inhibitor (SSRI; paroxetine, 3 mg/kg p.o.), produced no increase in cortical 5-HT whilst increasing noradrenaline and dopamine 2 and 4 fold, respectively. A 2-fold increase in extracellular 5-HT levels (but no change in noradrenaline or dopamine levels) was observed after combination of the 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist, N-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(pyridinyl)cyclohexanecarboxamide) (WAY-100635; 0.3 mg/kg s.c.) and paroxetine (3 mg/kg p.o.). In summary, vilazodone behaved as a high efficacy partial agonist at the rat hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors in vitro and occupied 5-HT transporters in vivo. In vivo vilazodone induced a selective increase in extracellular levels of 5-HT in the rat frontal cortex. This profile was similar to that seen with a 5-HT1A receptor antagonist plus an SSRI but in contrast to 8-OH-DPAT either alone or in combination with paroxetine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2005.01.018DOI Listing
March 2005

3,4-Dihydro-2H-benzoxazinones are 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists with potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitory activity.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2005 Feb;15(3):737-41

Psychiatry Center of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

Starting from a high throughput screening hit, a series of 3,4-dihydro-2H-benzoxazinones has been identified with both high affinity for the 5-HT(1A) receptor and potent 5-HT reuptake inhibitory activity. The 5-(2-methyl)quinolinyloxy derivative combined high 5-HT(1A/1B/1D) receptor affinities with low intrinsic activity and potent inhibition of the 5-HT reuptake site (pK(i)8.2). This compound also had good oral bioavailability and brain penetration in the rat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2004.11.030DOI Listing
February 2005

Design and synthesis of trans-3-(2-(4-((3-(3-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxadiazolyl))- phenyl)carboxamido)cyclohexyl)ethyl)-7-methylsulfonyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (SB-414796): a potent and selective dopamine D3 receptor antagonist.

J Med Chem 2003 11;46(23):4952-64

GlaxoSmithKline Pharmaceuticals, New Frontiers Science Park, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex, CM19 5AW, UK.

At their clinical doses, current antipsychotic agents share the property of both dopamine D(2) and D(3) receptor blockade. However, a major disadvantage of many current medications are the observed extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS), postulated to arise from D(2) receptor antagonism. Consequently, a selective dopamine D(3) receptor antagonist could offer an attractive antipsychotic therapy, devoid of the unwanted EPS. Using SAR information gained in two previously reported series of potent and selective D(3) receptor antagonists, as exemplified by the 2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine 10 and the 2,3-dihydro-1H-isoindoline 11, a range of 7-sulfonyloxy- and 7-sulfonylbenzazepines has been prepared. Compounds of this type combined a high level of D(3) affinity and selectivity vs D(2) with an excellent pharmacokinetic profile in the rat. Subsequent optimization of this series to improve selectivity over a range of receptors and reduce cytochrome P450 inhibitory potential gave trans-3-(2-(4-((3-(3-(5-methyl-1,2,4-oxidiazolyl))phenyl)carboxamido)cyclohexyl)ethyl)-7-methylsulfonyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine (58, SB-414796). This compound is a potent and selective dopamine D(3) receptor antagonist with high oral bioavailability and is CNS penetrant in the rat. Subsequent evaluation in the rat has shown that 58 preferentially reduces firing of dopaminergic cells in the ventral tegmental area (A10) compared to the substantia nigra (A9), an observation consistent with a prediction for atypical antipsychotic efficacy. In a separate study, 58 has been shown to block expression of the conditioned place preference (CPP) response to cocaine in male rats, suggesting that it may also have a role in the treatment of cue-induced relapse in drug-free cocaine addicts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm030817dDOI Listing
November 2003

SB-656104-A, a novel selective 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, modulates REM sleep in rats.

Br J Pharmacol 2003 Jun;139(4):705-14

Psychiatry Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park (North), Harlow, Essex.

1 (6-((R)-2-[2-[4-(4-Chloro-phenoxy)-piperidin-1-yl]-ethyl]-pyrrolidine-1-sulphonyl)-1H-indole hydrochloride) (SB-656104-A), a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT(7)) receptor antagonist, potently inhibited [(3)H]-SB-269970 binding to the human cloned 5-HT(7(a)) (pK(i) 8.7+/-0.1) and 5-HT(7(b)) (pK(i) 8.5+/-0.2) receptor variants and the rat native receptor (pK(i) 8.8+/-0.2). The compound displayed at least 30-fold selectivity for the human 5-HT(7(a)) receptor versus other human cloned 5-HT receptors apart from the 5-HT(1D) receptor ( approximately 10-fold selective). 2 SB-656104-A antagonised competitively the 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT)-induced accumulation of cyclic AMP in h5-HT(7(a))/HEK293 cells with a pA(2) of 8.5. 3 Following a constant rate iv infusion to steady state in rats, SB-656104 had a blood clearance (CL(b)) of 58+/-6 ml min(-1) kg(-1) and was CNS penetrant with a steady-state brain : blood ratio of 0.9 : 1. Following i.p. administration to rats (10 mg kg(-1)), the compound displayed a t(1/2) of 1.4 h with mean brain and blood concentrations (at 1 h after dosing) of 0.80 and 1.0 micro M, respectively. 4 SB-656104-A produced a significant reversal of the 5-CT-induced hypothermic effect in guinea pigs, a pharmacodynamic model of 5-HT(7) receptor interaction in vivo (ED(50) 2 mg kg(-1)). 5 SB-656104-A, administered to rats at the beginning of the sleep period (CT 0), significantly increased the latency to onset of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep at 30 mg kg(-1) i.p. (+93%) and reduced the total amount of REM sleep at 10 and 30 mg kg(-1) i.p. with no significant effect on the latency to, or amount of, non-REM sleep. SB-269970-A produced qualitatively similar effects in the same study. 6 In summary, SB-656104-A is a novel 5-HT(7) receptor antagonist which has been utilised in the present study to provide further evidence for a role for 5-HT(7) receptors in the modulation of REM sleep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjp.0705290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1573887PMC
June 2003

The discovery and development of 5-HT-terminal autoreceptor antagonists.

Prog Med Chem 2003 ;41:129-65

GlaxoSmithKline Research, Pinnacles, Harlow, Essex, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0079-6468(02)41004-1DOI Listing
June 2003

Dopamine D3 receptor antagonism inhibits cocaine-seeking and cocaine-enhanced brain reward in rats.

J Neurosci 2002 Nov;22(21):9595-603

Intramural Research Program, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, Maryland 21224, USA.

dopamine D3 receptor is preferentially localized to the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system and has been hypothesized to play a role in cocaine addiction. To study the involvement of the D3 receptor in brain mechanisms and behaviors commonly assumed to be involved in the addicting properties of cocaine, the potent and selective D3 receptor antagonist trans-N-[4-[2-(6-cyano-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl] cyclohexyl]-4-quinolininecarboxamide (SB-277011-A) was administered to laboratory rats, and the following measures were assessed: (1) cocaine-enhanced electrical brain-stimulation reward, (2) cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, and (3) cocaine-triggered reinstatement of cocaine seeking behavior. Systemic injections of SB-277011-A were found to (1) block enhancement of electrical brain stimulation reward by cocaine, (2) dose-dependently attenuate cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, and (3) dose-dependently attenuate cocaine-triggered reinstatement of cocaine seeking behavior. Thus, D3 receptor blockade attenuates both the rewarding effects of cocaine and cocaine-induced drug-seeking behavior. These data suggest an important role for D3 receptors in mediating the addictive properties of cocaine and suggest that blockade of dopamine D3 receptors may constitute a new and useful target for prospective pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6758043PMC
November 2002

Effect of acute and chronic administration of the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB-243213 on midbrain dopamine neurons in the rat: an in vivo extracellular single cell study.

Synapse 2002 Dec;46(3):129-39

GlaxoSmithKline, New Frontiers Science Park, Harlow, Essex, CM19 5AW, UK.

In this study, we examined the effect of the acute and chronic administration of the selective 5-HT2C receptor antagonist SB-243213 (SB) on the activity of spontaneously active dopamine (DA) cells in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) in anesthetized, albino, male Sprague-Dawley rats. This was accomplished using the technique of in vivo extracellular single cell recording. The acute i.v. administration of SB-243213 (0.025-3.2 mg/kg) did not significantly alter the basal firing rate or pattern of either spontaneously active SNC or VTA DA neurons compared to vehicle-treated controls. The acute i.p. administration of either 1 or 10 mg/kg of SB-243213 did not significantly alter the number of spontaneously active DA cells in the SNC or VTA compared to vehicle-treated controls, whereas the 3 mg/kg dose only significantly decreased the number of spontaneously active VTA DA neurons. Overall, the 1 mg/kg dose of SB-243213 did not significantly alter the firing pattern of either SNC or VTA DA neurons compared to vehicle-treated controls. In contrast, the 3 mg/kg dose significantly altered the firing pattern of SNC DA neurons, whereas the 10 mg/kg dose altered the firing pattern of DA neurons in both the SNC and VTA. The repeated i.p. administration (21 days) of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg of SB-243213 or 20 mg/kg of clozapine produced a significant decrease in the number of spontaneously active DA cells in the VTA compared to vehicle-treated controls. The decrease in the number of spontaneously active VTA DA cells was not reversed by the i.v. administration of (+)-apomorphine (50 microg/kg). The repeated administration of either 1 or 3 mg/kg of SB-243213 had minimal effects on the firing pattern of either SNC or VTA DA neurons. In contrast, the firing pattern of VTA DA neurons was significantly altered by 10 mg/kg dose of SB-243213. Overall, our results indicate that antagonism of the 5-HT2C receptor alters the activity of midbrain DA neurons in anesthetized rats and suggest that SB-243213 has an atypical antipsychotic profile following chronic administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/syn.10116DOI Listing
December 2002

Serotonergic targets in depression.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2002 Feb;2(1):18-22

Psychiatry Centre of Excellence for Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, Third Avenue, Harlow, Essex CM19 5AW, UK.

Serotonin reuptake inhibitors have proved to be a very effective treatment for depression and have strengthened the hypothesis that impaired 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) neurotransmission may contribute to the underlying cause of depressive disorders. Extensive research has been carried out to investigate other 5-HT targets associated with the disease and studies involving combination treatments with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and 5-HT(1A) receptor ligands are currently being carried out in the clinic. Whether other 5-HT receptor subtypes are involved in the aetiology of depression remains to be seen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1471-4892(01)00116-3DOI Listing
February 2002