Publications by authors named "Derek J Rosario"

63 Publications

Embedding supervised exercise training for men on androgen deprivation therapy into standard prostate cancer care: a feasibility and acceptability study (the STAMINA trial).

Sci Rep 2021 06 14;11(1):12470. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Allied Health Professionals, Radiotherapy and Oncology, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.

Lifestyle interventions involving exercise training offset the adverse effects of androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer. Yet provision of integrated exercise pathways in cancer care is sparse. This study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of an embedded supervised exercise training intervention into standard prostate cancer care in a single-arm, multicentre prospective cohort study. Feasibility included recruitment, retention, adherence, fidelity and safety. Acceptability of behaviourally informed healthcare and exercise professional training was assessed qualitatively. Despite the imposition of lockdown for the COVID-19 pandemic, referral rates into and adherence to, the intervention was high. Of the 45 men eligible for participation, 79% (n = 36) received the intervention and 47% (n = 21) completed the intervention before a government mandated national lockdown was enforced in the United Kingdom. Patients completed a mean of 27 min of aerobic exercise per session (SD = 3.48), at 77% heart rate maximum (92% of target dose), and 3 sets of 10 reps of 3 resistance exercises twice weekly for 12 weeks, without serious adverse event. The intervention was delivered by 26 healthcare professionals and 16 exercise trainers with moderate to high fidelity, and the intervention was deemed highly acceptable to patients. The impact of societal changes due to the pandemic on the delivery of this face-to-face intervention remain uncertain but positive impacts of embedding exercise provision into prostate cancer care warrant long-term investigation.
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June 2021

The development of a theory and evidence-based intervention to aid implementation of exercise into the prostate cancer care pathway with a focus on healthcare professional behaviour, the STAMINA trial.

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Mar 25;21(1):273. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Institute for Population Health Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, London, UK.

Background: Twice-weekly supervised aerobic and resistance exercise for 12 weeks reduces fatigue and improves quality of life in men on Androgen Deprivation Therapy for prostate cancer. Despite the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) proposing this as standard of care, it does not routinely take place in practice. Healthcare professionals are in a prime position to deliver and integrate these recommendations. A change in the behaviour of clinical teams is therefore required. In this paper, we describe the development of a training package for healthcare professionals using theory and evidence to promote delivery of such recommendations as standard care.

Methods: The intervention development process was guided by the Medical Research Council guidance for complex interventions and the Behaviour Change Wheel. Target behaviours were identified from the literature and thirty-five prostate cancer care healthcare professionals (including oncologists, consultant urologists, clinical nurse specialists, physiotherapists, general practitioners and commissioners) were interviewed to understand influences on these behaviours. The Theoretical Domains Framework was used to identify theoretical constructs for change. Behaviour change techniques were selected based on theory and evidence and were translated into intervention content. The intervention was refined with the input of stakeholders including healthcare professionals, patients, and exercise professionals in the form of rehearsal deliveries, focus groups and a workshop.

Results: Seven modifiable healthcare professional target behaviours were identified to support the delivery of the NICE recommendations including identifying eligible patients suitable for exercise, recommending exercise, providing information, exercise referral, providing support and interpret and feedback on progress. Ten domains from the Theoretical Domain's Framework were identified as necessary for change, including improving knowledge and skills, addressing beliefs about consequences, and targeting social influences. These were targeted through twenty-two behaviour change techniques delivered in a half-day, interactive training package. Based on initial feedback from stakeholders, the intervention was refined in preparation for evaluation.

Conclusions: We designed an intervention based on theory, evidence, and stakeholder feedback to promote and support the delivery of NICE recommendations. Future work will aim to test this training package in a multi-centre randomised trial. If proven effective, the development and training package will provide a template for replication in other clinical populations, where exercise has proven efficacy but is insufficiently implemented.
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March 2021

Towards implementing exercise into the prostate cancer care pathway: development of a theory and evidence-based intervention to train community-based exercise professionals to support change in patient exercise behaviour (The STAMINA trial).

BMC Health Serv Res 2021 Mar 22;21(1):264. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Institute for Population Health Sciences, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Background: The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) recommend that men on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer should receive supervised exercise to manage the side-effects of treatment. However, these recommendations are rarely implemented into practice. Community-based exercise professionals (CBEPs) represent an important target group to deliver the recommendations nationally, yet their standard training does not address the core competencies required to work with clinical populations, highlighting a need for further professional training. This paper describes the development of a training package to support CBEPs to deliver NICE recommendations.

Methods: Development of the intervention was guided by the Medical Research Council guidance for complex interventions and the Behaviour Change Wheel. In step one, target behaviours, together with their barriers and facilitators were identified from a literature review and focus groups with CBEPs (n = 22) and men on androgen deprivation therapy (n = 26). Focus group outputs were mapped onto the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) to identify theoretical constructs for change. In step two, behaviour change techniques and their mode of delivery were selected based on psychological theories and evidence to inform intervention content. In step three, the intervention was refined following delivery and subsequent feedback from intervention recipients and stakeholders.

Results: Six modifiable CBEPs target behaviours were identified to support the delivery of the NICE recommendations. Nine domains of the TDF were identified as key determinants of change, including: improving knowledge and skills and changing beliefs about consequences. To target the domains, we included 20 BCTs across 8 training modules and took a blended learning approach to accommodate different learning styles and preferences. Following test delivery to 11 CBEPs and feedback from 28 stakeholders, the training package was refined.

Conclusion: Established intervention development approaches provided a structured and transparent guide to intervention development. A training package for CBEPs was developed and should increase trust amongst patients and health care professionals when implementing exercise into prostate cancer care. Furthermore, if proven effective, the development and approach taken may provide a blueprint for replication in other clinical populations where exercise has proven efficacy but is insufficiently implemented.
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March 2021

False Positive Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Phenotypes in the Biopsy-naïve Prostate: Are They Distinct from Significant Cancer-associated Lesions? Lessons from PROMIS.

Eur Urol 2021 01 10;79(1):20-29. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

UCL Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK; Department of Urology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: False positive multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) phenotypes prompt unnecessary biopsies. The Prostate MRI Imaging Study (PROMIS) provides a unique opportunity to explore such phenotypes in biopsy-naïve men with raised prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and suspected cancer.

Objective: To compare mpMRI lesions in men with/without significant cancer on transperineal mapping biopsy (TPM).

Design, Setting, And Participants: PROMIS participants (n=235) underwent mpMRI followed by a combined biopsy procedure at University College London Hospital, including 5-mm TPM as the reference standard. Patients were divided into four mutually exclusive groups according to TPM findings: (1) no cancer, (2) insignificant cancer, (3) definition 2 significant cancer (Gleason ≥3+4 of any length and/or maximum cancer core length ≥4mm of any grade), and (4) definition 1 significant cancer (Gleason ≥4+3 of any length and/or maximum cancer core length ≥6mm of any grade).

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Index and/or additional lesions present in 178 participants were compared between TPM groups in terms of number, conspicuity, volume, location, and radiological characteristics.

Results And Limitations: Most lesions were located in the peripheral zone. More men with significant cancer had two or more lesions than those without significant disease (67% vs 37%; p< 0.001). In the former group, index lesions were larger (mean volume 0.68 vs 0.50 ml; p< 0.001, Wilcoxon test), more conspicuous (Likert 4-5: 79% vs 22%; p< 0.001), and diffusion restricted (mean apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]: 0.73 vs 0.86; p< 0.001, Wilcoxon test). In men with Likert 3 index lesions, logPSA density and index lesion ADC were significant predictors of definition 1/2 disease in a logistic regression model (mean cross-validated area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve: 0.77 [95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.87]).

Conclusions: Significant cancer-associated MRI lesions in biopsy-naïve men have clinical-radiological differences, with lesions seen in prostates without significant disease. MRI-calculated PSA density and ADC could predict significant cancer in those with indeterminate MRI phenotypes.

Patient Summary: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) lesions that mimic prostate cancer but are, in fact, benign prompt unnecessary biopsies in thousands of men with raised prostate-specific antigen. In this study we found that, on closer look, such false positive lesions have different features from cancerous ones. This means that doctors could potentially develop better tools to identify cancer on MRI and spare some patients from unnecessary biopsies.
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January 2021

The ProtecT randomised trial cost-effectiveness analysis comparing active monitoring, surgery, or radiotherapy for prostate cancer.

Br J Cancer 2020 09 16;123(7):1063-1070. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Background: There is limited evidence relating to the cost-effectiveness of treatments for localised prostate cancer.

Methods: The cost-effectiveness of active monitoring, surgery, and radiotherapy was evaluated within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial from a UK NHS perspective at 10 years' median follow-up. Prostate cancer resource-use collected from hospital records and trial participants was valued using UK reference-costs. QALYs (quality-adjusted-life-years) were calculated from patient-reported EQ-5D-3L measurements. Adjusted mean costs, QALYs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated; cost-effectiveness acceptability curves and sensitivity analyses addressed uncertainty; subgroup analyses considered age and disease-risk.

Results: Adjusted mean QALYs were similar between groups: 6.89 (active monitoring), 7.09 (radiotherapy), and 6.91 (surgery). Active monitoring had lower adjusted mean costs (£5913) than radiotherapy (£7361) and surgery (£7519). Radiotherapy was the most likely (58% probability) cost-effective option at the UK NICE willingness-to-pay threshold (£20,000 per QALY). Subgroup analyses confirmed radiotherapy was cost-effective for older men and intermediate/high-risk disease groups; active monitoring was more likely to be the cost-effective option for younger men and low-risk groups.

Conclusions: Longer follow-up and modelling are required to determine the most cost-effective treatment for localised prostate cancer over a man's lifetime.

Trial Registration: Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN20141297: (14/10/2002); number, NCT02044172: (23/01/2014).
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September 2020

The Impact of Centralised Services on Metric Reflecting High-quality Performance: Outcomes from 1110 Consecutive Radical Cystectomies at a Single Centre.

Eur Urol Focus 2021 May 21;7(3):554-565. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; Department of Urology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK. Electronic address:

Background: The 2002 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidance on centralisation of radical cystectomy (RC) coincided with changes in practice: use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND), and RC for high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (HR-NMIBC).

Objective: To report the outcomes of RC at a single centre and to compare trends in survival with respect to centralisation and change in RC practice.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Data were collected retrospectively between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2016. Patients with urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) were selected. Outcomes from 1994 to 2007 (before centralisation, era 1) were compared with those from 2008 to 2016 (after centralisation, era 2).

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: The primary outcome was disease-specific mortality. Secondary outcomes were survival and use of NAC and PLND.

Results And Limitations: Overall, 1100 RCs (era 1, 316; era 2, 794) were performed for UCC. Median (interquartile range [IQR]) follow-up was 28.5 (11.9-57.4) mo. RC for NMIBC was 36.2% versus 51.3% (p<0.001), NAC use was 2.2% versus 31.6% (p<0.001), and PLND use was 59.7% versus 76.4% (p<0.001) in era 1 versus era 2. The 30-d (1.6% [era 1] vs 0.8% [era 2], p=0.21) and 90-d (4.1% vs 2.6%, p=0.2) mortality rates did not differ with respect to RC year. Five-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 56.0% in era 1 versus 79.0% in era 2 (p<0.001). RC for patients aged ≥75 yr was 13.9% versus 28.1% (p<0.001) and 30-d mortality in this group was 4.5% versus 0% (p=0.001) in era 1 versus era 2. The study is limited by its retrospective design.

Conclusions: Centralisation was associated with higher rates of NAC and PLND use, and increased RC performed for older patients and patients with HR-NMIBC. DSS was higher and RC appeared to be safer for older patients (fewer postoperative mortalities) after centralisation.

Patient Summary: We looked at outcomes from bladder removal for bladder cancer. Survival outcomes improved following centralisation of services. Surgery appeared to be safer for older patients, as there were fewer postoperative mortalities after centralisation. Centralisation of radical cystectomy (RC) services was associated with higher rates of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and pelvic lymph node dissection use, and increased usage of RC for older patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Survival outcomes from RC were superior after centralisation and safer for older patients undergoing RC (fewer postoperative mortalities).
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May 2021

What Type of Prostate Cancer Is Systematically Overlooked by Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging? An Analysis from the PROMIS Cohort.

Eur Urol 2020 08 1;78(2):163-170. Epub 2020 May 1.

UCL Division of Surgery & Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK; Department of Urology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: All risk stratification strategies in cancer overlook a spectrum of disease. The Prostate MR Imaging Study (PROMIS) provides a unique opportunity to explore cancers that are overlooked by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI).

Objective: To summarise attributes of cancers that are systematically overlooked by mpMRI.

Design, Setting, And Participants: PROMIS tested performance of mpMRI and transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsy, using 5 mm template mapping (TPM) biopsy as the reference standard.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Outcomes were overall and maximum Gleason scores, maximum cancer core length (MCCL), and prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD). Cancer attributes were compared between cancers that were overlooked and those that were detected.

Results And Limitations: Of men with cancer, 7% (17/230; 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.4-12%) had significant disease overlooked by mpMRI according to definition 1 (Gleason ≥ 4 + 3 of any length or MCCL ≥ 6 mm of any grade) and 13% (44/331; 95% CI 9.8-17%) according to definition 2 (Gleason ≥ 3 + 4 of any length or MCCL ≥ 4 mm). In comparison, TRUS-guided biopsy overlooked 52% (119/230; 95% CI 45-58%) of significant disease by definition 1 and 40% (132/331; 95% CI 35-45%) by definition 2. Prostate cancers undetected by mpMRI had significantly lower overall and maximum Gleason scores (p = 0.0007; p < 0.0001) and shorter MCCL (median difference: 3 mm [5 vs 8 mm], p < 0.0001; 95% CI 1-3) than cancers that were detected. No tumours with overall Gleason score > 3 + 4 (Gleason Grade Groups 3-5; 95% CI 0-6.4%) or maximum Gleason score > 4 + 3 (Gleason Grade Groups 4-5; 95% CI 0-8.0%) on TPM biopsy were undetected by mpMRI. Application of a PSAD threshold of 0.15 reduced the proportion of men with undetected cancer to 5% (12/230; 95% CI 2.7-8.9%) for definition 1 and 9% (30/331; 95% CI 6.2-13%) for definition 2. Application of a PSAD threshold of 0.10 reduced the proportion of men with undetected disease to 3% (6/230; 95% CI 1.0-5.6%) for definition 1 cancer and to 3% (11/331; 95% CI 1.7-5.9%) for definition 2 cancer. Limitations were post hoc analysis and uncertain significance of undetected lesions.

Conclusions: Overall, a small proportion of cancers are overlooked by mpMRI, with estimates ranging from 4.4% (lower boundary of 95% CI for definition 1) to 17% (upper boundary of 95% CI for definition 2). Prostate cancers undetected by mpMRI are of lower grade and shorter length than cancers that are detected.

Patient Summary: Prostate cancers that are undetected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are smaller and less aggressive than those that are detected, and none of the most aggressive cancers are overlooked by MRI.
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August 2020

The ProtecT trial: analysis of the patient cohort, baseline risk stratification and disease progression.

BJU Int 2020 04 12;125(4):506-514. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that the baseline clinico-pathological features of the men with localized prostate cancer (PCa) included in the ProtecT (Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment) trial who progressed (n = 198) at a 10-year median follow-up were different from those of men with stable disease (n = 1409).

Patients And Methods: We stratified the study participants at baseline according to risk of progression using clinical disease stage, pathological grade and PSA level, using Cox proportional hazard models.

Results: The findings showed that 34% of participants (n = 505) had intermediate- or high-risk PCa, and 66% (n = 973) had low-risk PCa. Of 198 participants who progressed, 101 (51%) had baseline International Society of Urological Pathology Grade Group 1, 59 (30%) Grade Group 2, and 38 (19%) Grade Group 3 PCa, compared with 79%, 17% and 5%, respectively, for 1409 participants without progression (P < 0.001). In participants with progression, 38% and 62% had baseline low- and intermediate-/high-risk disease, compared with 69% and 31% of participants with stable disease (P < 0.001). Treatment received, age (65-69 vs 50-64 years), PSA level, Grade Group, clinical stage, risk group, number of positive cores, tumour length and perineural invasion were associated with time to progression (P ≤ 0.005). Men progressing after surgery (n = 19) were more likely to have a higher Grade Group and pathological stage at surgery, larger tumours, lymph node involvement and positive margins.

Conclusions: We demonstrate that one-third of the ProtecT cohort consists of people with intermediate-/high-risk disease, and the outcomes data at an average of 10 years' follow-up are generalizable beyond men with low-risk PCa.
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April 2020

Ten-year Mortality, Disease Progression, and Treatment-related Side Effects in Men with Localised Prostate Cancer from the ProtecT Randomised Controlled Trial According to Treatment Received.

Eur Urol 2020 03 24;77(3):320-330. Epub 2019 Nov 24.

Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: The ProtecT trial reported intention-to-treat analysis of men with localised prostate cancer (PCa) randomly allocated to active monitoring (AM), radical prostatectomy, and external beam radiotherapy.

Objective: To determine report outcomes according to treatment received in men in randomised and treatment choice cohorts.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This study focuses on secondary care. Men with clinically localised prostate cancer at one of nine UK centres were invited to participate in the treatment trial comparing AM, radical prostatectomy, and radiotherapy.

Intervention: Two cohorts included 1643 men who agreed to be randomised; 997 declined randomisation and chose treatment.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Health-related quality of life impacts on urinary, bowel, and sexual function were assessed using patient-reported outcome measures. Analysis was carried out based on treatment received for each cohort and on pooled estimates using meta-analysis. Differences were estimated with adjustment for known prognostic factors using propensity scores.

Results And Limitations: According to treatment received, more men receiving AM died of PCa (AM 1.85%, surgery 0.67%, radiotherapy 0.73%), whilst this difference remained consistent with chance in the randomised cohort (p=0.08); stronger evidence was found in the exploratory analyses (randomised plus choice cohort) when AM was compared with the combined radical treatment group (p=0.003). There was also strong evidence that metastasis (AM 5.6%, surgery 2.4%, radiotherapy 2.7%) and disease progression (AM 20.35%, surgery 5.87%, radiotherapy 6.62%) were more common in the AM group. Compared with AM, there were higher risks of sexual dysfunction (95% at 6mo) and urinary incontinence (55% at 6mo) after surgery, and of sexual dysfunction (88% at 6mo) and bowel dysfunction (5% at 6mo) after radiotherapy. The key limitations are the potential for bias when comparing groups defined by treatment received and outdating of the interventions being evaluated during the lengthy follow-up required in trials of screen-detected PCa.

Conclusions: Analyses according to treatment received showed increased rates of disease-related events and lower rates of patient-reported harms in men managed by AM compared with men managed by radical treatment, and stronger evidence of greater PCa mortality in the AM group.

Patient Summary: More than 90 out of every 100 men with localised prostate cancer do not die of prostate cancer within 10yr, irrespective of whether treatment is by means of monitoring, surgery, or radiotherapy. Side effects on sexual and bladder function are much better after active monitoring, but the risks of spreading of prostate cancer are more common.
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March 2020

Prescription switching: Rationales and risks.

Int J Clin Pract 2020 Jan 7;74(1):e13429. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK.

Background: Therapeutic drug switching is commonplace across a broad range of indications and, within a drug class, is often facilitated by the availability of multiple drugs considered equivalent. Such treatment changes are often considered to improve outcomes via better efficacy or fewer side effects, or to be more cost-effective. Drug switching can be both appropriate and beneficial for several reasons; however, switching can also be associated with negative consequences.

Aim: To consider the impact of switching in two situations: the use of statins as a well-studied example of within-class drug switching, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-targeting drug switching as an example of cross-class switching.

Results: With the example of statins, within-class switching may be justified to reduce side effects, although the decision to switch is often also driven by the lower cost of generic formulations. With the example of GnRH agonists/antagonists, switching often occurs without the realisation that these drugs belong to different classes, with potential clinical implications.

Conclusion: Lessons emerging from these examples will help inform healthcare practitioners who may be considering switching drug prescriptions.
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January 2020

Interim Results from the IMPACT Study: Evidence for Prostate-specific Antigen Screening in BRCA2 Mutation Carriers.

Eur Urol 2019 12 16;76(6):831-842. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

International Hereditary Cancer Center, Department of Genetics and Pathology, Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Szczecin, Poland.

Background: Mutations in BRCA2 cause a higher risk of early-onset aggressive prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating targeted PrCa screening using prostate-specific-antigen (PSA) in men with germline BRCA1/2 mutations.

Objective: To report the utility of PSA screening, PrCa incidence, positive predictive value of PSA, biopsy, and tumour characteristics after 3 yr of screening, by BRCA status.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Men aged 40-69 yr with a germline pathogenic BRCA1/2 mutation and male controls testing negative for a familial BRCA1/2 mutation were recruited. Participants underwent PSA screening for 3 yr, and if PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, men were offered prostate biopsy.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: PSA levels, PrCa incidence, and tumour characteristics were evaluated. Statistical analyses included Poisson regression offset by person-year follow-up, chi-square tests for proportion t tests for means, and Kruskal-Wallis for medians.

Results And Limitations: A total of 3027 patients (2932 unique individuals) were recruited (919 BRCA1 carriers, 709 BRCA1 noncarriers, 902 BRCA2 carriers, and 497 BRCA2 noncarriers). After 3 yr of screening, 527 men had PSA > 3.0 ng/ml, 357 biopsies were performed, and 112 PrCa cases were diagnosed (31 BRCA1 carriers, 19 BRCA1 noncarriers, 47 BRCA2 carriers, and 15 BRCA2 noncarriers). Higher compliance with biopsy was observed in BRCA2 carriers compared with noncarriers (73% vs 60%). Cancer incidence rate per 1000 person years was higher in BRCA2 carriers than in noncarriers (19.4 vs 12.0; p =  0.03); BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed at a younger age (61 vs 64 yr; p =  0.04) and were more likely to have clinically significant disease than BRCA2 noncarriers (77% vs 40%; p =  0.01). No differences in age or tumour characteristics were detected between BRCA1 carriers and BRCA1 noncarriers. The 4 kallikrein marker model discriminated better (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.73) for clinically significant cancer at biopsy than PSA alone (AUC = 0.65).

Conclusions: After 3 yr of screening, compared with noncarriers, BRCA2 mutation carriers were associated with a higher incidence of PrCa, younger age of diagnosis, and clinically significant tumours. Therefore, systematic PSA screening is indicated for men with a BRCA2 mutation. Further follow-up is required to assess the role of screening in BRCA1 mutation carriers.

Patient Summary: We demonstrate that after 3 yr of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, we detect more serious prostate cancers in men with BRCA2 mutations than in those without these mutations. We recommend that male BRCA2 carriers are offered systematic PSA screening.
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December 2019

Cardiovascular Disease and the Androgen Receptor: Here We Go Again?

Eur Urol 2020 02 28;77(2):167-169. Epub 2019 Aug 28.

Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.

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February 2020

In-bore Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging Targeted Biopsy: As Good as it Gets?

Eur Urol 2019 04 15;75(4):579-581. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Department of Radiology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Sheffield, UK.

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April 2019

Interventions for promoting habitual exercise in people living with and beyond cancer.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 09 19;9:CD010192. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Centre for Sport and Exercise Science, Sheffield Hallam University, A124 Collegiate Hall, Collegiate Crescent, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, UK, S10 2BP.

Background: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in the Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9. Despite good evidence for the health benefits of regular exercise for people living with or beyond cancer, understanding how to promote sustainable exercise behaviour change in sedentary cancer survivors, particularly over the long term, is not as well understood. A large majority of people living with or recovering from cancer do not meet current exercise recommendations. Hence, reviewing the evidence on how to promote and sustain exercise behaviour is important for understanding the most effective strategies to ensure benefit in the patient population and identify research gaps.

Objectives: To assess the effects of interventions designed to promote exercise behaviour in sedentary people living with and beyond cancer and to address the following secondary questions: Which interventions are most effective in improving aerobic fitness and skeletal muscle strength and endurance? Which interventions are most effective in improving exercise behaviour amongst patients with different cancers? Which interventions are most likely to promote long-term (12 months or longer) exercise behaviour? What frequency of contact with exercise professionals and/or healthcare professionals is associated with increased exercise behaviour? What theoretical basis is most often associated with better behavioural outcomes? What behaviour change techniques (BCTs) are most often associated with increased exercise behaviour? What adverse effects are attributed to different exercise interventions?

Search Methods: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We updated our 2013 Cochrane systematic review by updating the searches of the following electronic databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, CINAHL, PsycLIT/PsycINFO, SportDiscus and PEDro up to May 2018. We also searched the grey literature, trial registries, wrote to leading experts in the field and searched reference lists of included studies and other related recent systematic reviews.

Selection Criteria: We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared an exercise intervention with usual care or 'waiting list' control in sedentary people over the age of 18 with a homogenous primary cancer diagnosis.

Data Collection And Analysis: In the update, review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts to identify studies that might meet the inclusion criteria, or that could not be safely excluded without assessment of the full text (e.g. when no abstract is available). We extracted data from all eligible papers with at least two members of the author team working independently (RT, LS and RG). We coded BCTs according to the CALO-RE taxonomy. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane's tool for assessing risk of bias. When possible, and if appropriate, we performed a fixed-effect meta-analysis of study outcomes. If statistical heterogeneity was noted, a meta-analysis was performed using a random-effects model. For continuous outcomes (e.g. cardiorespiratory fitness), we extracted the final value, the standard deviation (SD) of the outcome of interest and the number of participants assessed at follow-up in each treatment arm, to estimate the standardised mean difference (SMD) between treatment arms. SMD was used, as investigators used heterogeneous methods to assess individual outcomes. If a meta-analysis was not possible or was not appropriate, we narratively synthesised studies. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach with the GRADE profiler.

Main Results: We included 23 studies in this review, involving a total of 1372 participants (an addition of 10 studies, 724 participants from the original review); 227 full texts were screened in the update and 377 full texts were screened in the original review leaving 35 publications from a total of 23 unique studies included in the review. We planned to include all cancers, but only studies involving breast, prostate, colorectal and lung cancer met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies incorporated a target level of exercise that could meet current recommendations for moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (i.e.150 minutes per week); or resistance exercise (i.e. strength training exercises at least two days per week).Adherence to exercise interventions, which is crucial for understanding treatment dose, is still reported inconsistently. Eight studies reported intervention adherence of 75% or greater to an exercise prescription that met current guidelines. These studies all included a component of supervision: in our analysis of BCTs we designated these studies as 'Tier 1 trials'. Six studies reported intervention adherence of 75% or greater to an aerobic exercise goal that was less than the current guideline recommendations: in our analysis of BCTs we designated these studies as 'Tier 2 trials.' A hierarchy of BCTs was developed for Tier 1 and Tier 2 trials, with programme goal setting, setting of graded tasks and instruction of how to perform behaviour being amongst the most frequent BCTs. Despite the uncertainty surrounding adherence in some of the included studies, interventions resulted in improvements in aerobic exercise tolerance at eight to 12 weeks (SMD 0.54, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.70; 604 participants, 10 studies; low-quality evidence) versus usual care. At six months, aerobic exercise tolerance was also improved (SMD 0.56, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.72; 591 participants; 7 studies; low-quality evidence).

Authors' Conclusions: Since the last version of this review, none of the new relevant studies have provided additional information to change the conclusions. We have found some improved understanding of how to encourage previously inactive cancer survivors to achieve international physical activity guidelines. Goal setting, setting of graded tasks and instruction of how to perform behaviour, feature in interventions that meet recommendations targets and report adherence of 75% or more. However, long-term follow-up data are still limited, and the majority of studies are in white women with breast cancer. There are still a considerable number of published studies with numerous and varied issues related to high risk of bias and poor reporting standards. Additionally, the meta-analyses were often graded as consisting of low- to very low-certainty evidence. A very small number of serious adverse effects were reported amongst the studies, providing reassurance exercise is safe for this population.
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September 2018

Supportive interventions to improve physiological and psychological health outcomes among patients undergoing cystectomy: a systematic review.

BMC Urol 2018 Aug 24;18(1):71. Epub 2018 Aug 24.

Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK.

Background: Our understanding of effective perioperative supportive interventions for patients undergoing cystectomy procedures and how these may affect short and long-term health outcomes is limited.

Methods: Randomised controlled trials involving any non-surgical, perioperative interventions designed to support or improve the patient experience for patients undergoing cystectomy procedures were reviewed. Comparison groups included those exposed to usual clinical care or standard procedure. Studies were excluded if they involved surgical procedure only, involved bowel preparation only or involved an alternative therapy such as aromatherapy. Any short and long-term outcomes reflecting the patient experience or related urological health outcomes were considered.

Results: Nineteen articles (representing 15 individual studies) were included for review. Heterogeneity in interventions and outcomes across studies meant meta-analyses were not possible. Participants were all patients with bladder cancer and interventions were delivered over different stages of the perioperative period. The overall quality of evidence and reporting was low and outcomes were predominantly measured in the short-term. However, the findings show potential for exercise therapy, pharmaceuticals, ERAS protocols, psychological/educational programmes, chewing gum and nutrition to benefit a broad range of physiological and psychological health outcomes.

Conclusions: Supportive interventions to date have taken many different forms with a range of potentially meaningful physiological and psychological health outcomes for cystectomy patients. Questions remain as to what magnitude of short-term health improvements would lead to clinically relevant changes in the overall patient experience of surgery and long-term recovery.
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August 2018

Multiparametric MRI to improve detection of prostate cancer compared with transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy alone: the PROMIS study.

Health Technol Assess 2018 07;22(39):1-176

Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Men with suspected prostate cancer usually undergo transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy. TRUS-guided biopsy can cause side effects and has relatively poor diagnostic accuracy. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) used as a triage test might allow men to avoid unnecessary TRUS-guided biopsy and improve diagnostic accuracy.

Objectives: To (1) assess the ability of mpMRI to identify men who can safely avoid unnecessary biopsy, (2) assess the ability of the mpMRI-based pathway to improve the rate of detection of clinically significant (CS) cancer compared with TRUS-guided biopsy and (3) estimate the cost-effectiveness of a mpMRI-based diagnostic pathway.

Design: A validating paired-cohort study and an economic evaluation using a decision-analytic model.

Setting: Eleven NHS hospitals in England.

Participants: Men at risk of prostate cancer undergoing a first prostate biopsy.

Interventions: Participants underwent three tests: (1) mpMRI (the index test), (2) TRUS-guided biopsy (the current standard) and (3) template prostate mapping (TPM) biopsy (the reference test).

Main Outcome Measures: Diagnostic accuracy of mpMRI, TRUS-guided biopsy and TPM-biopsy measured by sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) using primary and secondary definitions of CS cancer. The percentage of negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans was used to identify men who might be able to avoid biopsy.

Results: Diagnostic study - a total of 740 men were registered and 576 underwent all three tests. According to TPM-biopsy, the prevalence of any cancer was 71% [95% confidence interval (CI) 67% to 75%]. The prevalence of CS cancer according to the primary definition (a Gleason score of ≥ 4 + 3 and/or cancer core length of ≥ 6 mm) was 40% (95% CI 36% to 44%). For CS cancer, TRUS-guided biopsy showed a sensitivity of 48% (95% CI 42% to 55%), specificity of 96% (95% CI 94% to 98%), PPV of 90% (95% CI 83% to 94%) and NPV of 74% (95% CI 69% to 78%). The sensitivity of mpMRI was 93% (95% CI 88% to 96%), specificity was 41% (95% CI 36% to 46%), PPV was 51% (95% CI 46% to 56%) and NPV was 89% (95% CI 83% to 94%). A negative mpMRI scan was recorded for 158 men (27%). Of these, 17 were found to have CS cancer on TPM-biopsy. Economic evaluation - the most cost-effective strategy involved testing all men with mpMRI, followed by MRI-guided TRUS-guided biopsy in those patients with suspected CS cancer, followed by rebiopsy if CS cancer was not detected. This strategy is cost-effective at the TRUS-guided biopsy definition 2 (any Gleason pattern of ≥ 4 and/or cancer core length of ≥ 4 mm), mpMRI definition 2 (lesion volume of ≥ 0.2 ml and/or Gleason score of ≥ 3 + 4) and cut-off point 2 (likely to be benign) and detects 95% (95% CI 92% to 98%) of CS cancers. The main drivers of cost-effectiveness were the unit costs of tests, the improvement in sensitivity of MRI-guided TRUS-guided biopsy compared with blind TRUS-guided biopsy and the longer-term costs and outcomes of men with cancer.

Limitations: The PROstate Magnetic resonance Imaging Study (PROMIS) was carried out in a selected group and excluded men with a prostate volume of > 100 ml, who are less likely to have cancer. The limitations in the economic modelling arise from the limited evidence on the long-term outcomes of men with prostate cancer and on the sensitivity of MRI-targeted repeat biopsy.

Conclusions: Incorporating mpMRI into the diagnostic pathway as an initial test prior to prostate biopsy may (1) reduce the proportion of men having unnecessary biopsies, (2) improve the detection of CS prostate cancer and (3) increase the cost-effectiveness of the prostate cancer diagnostic and therapeutic pathway. The PROMIS data set will be used for future research; this is likely to include modelling prognostic factors for CS cancer, optimising MRI scan sequencing and biomarker or translational research analyses using the blood and urine samples collected. Better-quality evidence on long-term outcomes in prostate cancer under the various management strategies is required to better assess cost-effectiveness. The value-of-information analysis should be developed further to assess new research to commission.

Trial Registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16082556 and NCT01292291.

Funding: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in ; Vol. 22, No. 39. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information. This project was also supported and partially funded by the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre at University College London (UCL) Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust and UCL and by The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust and The Institute of Cancer Research Biomedical Research Centre and was co-ordinated by the Medical Research Council's Clinical Trials Unit at UCL (grant code MC_UU_12023/28). It was sponsored by UCL. Funding for the additional collection of blood and urine samples for translational research was provided by Prostate Cancer UK.
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July 2018

A multi-centre investigation of delivering national guidelines on exercise training for men with advanced prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy in the UK NHS.

PLoS One 2018 5;13(7):e0197606. Epub 2018 Jul 5.

Department of Oncology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield United Kingdom.

Background: National guidelines (NICE-CG175) recommended 12 weeks of supervised exercise training for men treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for prostate cancer to counter debilitating adverse effects of castration. As with other chronic conditions where exercise is indicated, it is uncertain if these services are being delivered in the health services. The aim of this multi-centre investigation was to examine what exercise referral is currently available for men on ADT as provided by the NHS and if a supervised, individually-tailored exercise training package (as per the national NICE guidelines CG175) is embedded within prostate cancer care.

Methods: A multi-centre investigation of current National Health Service (NHS) care involving a web-based survey of NHS prostate cancer care, five focus groups involving 26 men on ADT and 37 semi-structured interviews with healthcare professionals (HCPs) involved in the management of prostate cancer. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis evaluated quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Qualitative methods followed COREQ standards.

Results: HCPs and men on ADT asserted that medical castration has a serious and debilitating impact on many features of men's quality of life. There is support for exercise training programmes as part of cancer care and patients would support their initiation soon after diagnosis. Involving the Multidisciplinary Team (MDT) is proposed as key to this. Critically, traditional values in oncology would need to be overcome for widespread acceptance. Specialist further training for HCPs around behaviour change support could encourage this. Given that these schemes are seen as a fundamental part of cancer care, it is felt the NHS should commission and support provision. 79 representatives of 154 NHS trusts (51%) provided survey data on current delivery: only 17% could provide supervised exercise as per CG175.

Conclusions: Evidence-based national exercise guidelines are not being delivered to men on ADT as intended. Traditional values in oncology and the need for NHS financial support are seen as major barriers to provision of current best practice guidelines. Despite this both HCPs and men on ADT are in favour of such programmes being a fundamental part of their cancer care.
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December 2018

Treatment in the STAMPEDE era for castrate resistant prostate cancer in the UK: ongoing challenges and underappreciated clinical problems.

BMC Cancer 2018 Jun 19;18(1):667. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

The Department of Oncology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield, UK.

Background: This study aimed to explore the opinions of healthcare professionals regarding the management of men with advanced prostate cancer with particular emphasis on treatment timing and sequencing; treatment adverse-effects and exercise a supportive therapy.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews with a purposively selected group of healthcare professionals involved in prostate cancer care within the NHS, conducted over the phone or face to face. A total of 37 healthcare professionals participated in the interviews including urologists, clinical oncologists, medical oncologists, clinical nurse specialists, general practitioners, physiotherapists, exercise specialists, service managers, clinical commissioners and primary care physicians.

Results: The availability of newer treatments for advanced prostate cancer as well as results from the STAMPEDE and CHAARTED trials has resulted in new challenges for patients and HCPs. This includes the impact of an increased workload on oncologists, a potential lack of clinical continuity between urology and oncology and uncertainties regarding optimal selection, timing and sequencing of chemotherapy and second-line treatment. Fitness for treatment in advanced prostate cancer populations remains a significant barrier to accessing therapies for patients with a poor performance status. Among this, muscle wastage can significantly affect performance status and consequentially compromise cancer therapy. Exercise was regarded as a potential therapy to mitigate the adverse-effects of treatment including the prevention or reduction in muscle wastage.

Conclusions: There is a lack of data guiding clinicians in this post STAMPEDE and CHAARTED era, work is needed to reassess and optimize the prostate cancer care pathway as it evolves. Exercise should be explored as a therapeutic option to mitigate the effects of long term ADT. Further study from a wider cohort of both prostate cancer care specialists and patients will aid in establishing a highly functioning pathway with optimal individualised care.

Trial Registration: Sustained exercise TrAining for Men wIth prostate caNcer on Androgen deprivation: the STAMINA programme (RP-DG-1213-10,010). REC Reference: 15/SW/0260 IRAS Project ID: 178340 Hospital ID: STH 18391 approved on 24/08/2015.
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June 2018

Psychosocial impact of undergoing prostate cancer screening for men with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations.

BJU Int 2019 02 22;123(2):284-292. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Division of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: To report the baseline results of a longitudinal psychosocial study that forms part of the IMPACT study, a multi-national investigation of targeted prostate cancer (PCa) screening among men with a known pathogenic germline mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.

Particpants And Methods: Men enrolled in the IMPACT study were invited to complete a questionnaire at collaborating sites prior to each annual screening visit. The questionnaire included sociodemographic characteristics and the following measures: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Impact of Event Scale (IES), 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36), Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer, Cancer Worry Scale-Revised, risk perception and knowledge. The results of the baseline questionnaire are presented.

Results: A total of 432 men completed questionnaires: 98 and 160 had mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, respectively, and 174 were controls (familial mutation negative). Participants' perception of PCa risk was influenced by genetic status. Knowledge levels were high and unrelated to genetic status. Mean scores for the HADS and SF-36 were within reported general population norms and mean IES scores were within normal range. IES mean intrusion and avoidance scores were significantly higher in BRCA1/BRCA2 carriers than in controls and were higher in men with increased PCa risk perception. At the multivariate level, risk perception contributed more significantly to variance in IES scores than genetic status.

Conclusion: This is the first study to report the psychosocial profile of men with BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations undergoing PCa screening. No clinically concerning levels of general or cancer-specific distress or poor quality of life were detected in the cohort as a whole. A small subset of participants reported higher levels of distress, suggesting the need for healthcare professionals offering PCa screening to identify these risk factors and offer additional information and support to men seeking PCa screening.
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February 2019

Prostate-specific antigen velocity in a prospective prostate cancer screening study of men with genetic predisposition.

Br J Cancer 2018 01 4;118(2):266-276. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam 3015 CE, The Netherlands.

Background: Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and PSA-velocity (PSAV) have been used to identify men at risk of prostate cancer (PrCa). The IMPACT study is evaluating PSA screening in men with a known genetic predisposition to PrCa due to BRCA1/2 mutations. This analysis evaluates the utility of PSA and PSAV for identifying PrCa and high-grade disease in this cohort.

Methods: PSAV was calculated using logistic regression to determine if PSA or PSAV predicted the result of prostate biopsy (PB) in men with elevated PSA values. Cox regression was used to determine whether PSA or PSAV predicted PSA elevation in men with low PSAs. Interaction terms were included in the models to determine whether BRCA status influenced the predictiveness of PSA or PSAV.

Results: 1634 participants had ⩾3 PSA readings of whom 174 underwent PB and 45 PrCas diagnosed. In men with PSA >3.0 ng ml, PSAV was not significantly associated with presence of cancer or high-grade disease. PSAV did not add to PSA for predicting time to an elevated PSA. When comparing BRCA1/2 carriers to non-carriers, we found a significant interaction between BRCA status and last PSA before biopsy (P=0.031) and BRCA2 status and PSAV (P=0.024). However, PSAV was not predictive of biopsy outcome in BRCA2 carriers.

Conclusions: PSA is more strongly predictive of PrCa in BRCA carriers than non-carriers. We did not find evidence that PSAV aids decision-making for BRCA carriers over absolute PSA value alone.
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January 2018

Long-term Outcomes from Re-resection for High-risk Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: A Potential to Rationalize Use.

Eur Urol Focus 2019 Jul 28;5(4):650-657. Epub 2017 Oct 28.

Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Guidelines advocate early re-resection for these cancers, although the benefits are unclear and the uniform need is questioned. Here, we compare the outcomes using a large single-center cohort.

Objectives: To compare the outcomes of patients with high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (BC) who underwent and who did not undergo re-resection following their initial treatment.

Design, Setting, And Participants: We identified all eligible patients with a new diagnosis treated between 1994 and 2009 in Sheffield. We annotated these with hospital and registry records.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Primary outcomes were disease-specific and overall survival. Secondary outcomes were the findings at re-resection, rates of muscle invasion, and radical treatment. Statistical tests were two tailed and significance defined as p<0.05.

Results And Limitations: We identified 932 eligible patients, including 229(25%) who underwent re-resection within 12 wk and 234 (25%) within 3-6 mo after diagnosis. Clinicopathological criteria were similar in patients with and without re-resection. Histological findings on re-resection were no residual cancer in 91 (20%) and BC in 138 (30%: 15 low-grade and 85 high-grade non-muscle-invasive cancers, and 38 muscle-invasive cancers). Patients with re-resection were more frequently diagnosed with muscle invasion (126 [27%] vs 49 [11%], chi-square p<0.001) and more commonly underwent radical treatment (127 [27%] vs 35 [8%], p<0.001) than those without re-resection. A total of 207 patients died from BC, including 46 (22%) with and 161 (78%) without re-resection. Patients who underwent re-resection within 3 mo had significantly higher disease-specific (log rank p=0.009) and overall survival (p<0.001) survival compared with those who did not. Differences were present only for patients with pT1 cancer at diagnosis.

Conclusions: Patients undergoing re-resection within 3 mo of diagnosis were more likely to have histologically identified muscle invasion, were more likely to undergo radical treatment, and had a higher survival rate. The differences were greatest in patients with lamina propria invasion, suggesting the potential to avoid in others. Limitations of our work include retrospective design and selection bias.

Patient Summary: Patients undergoing re-resection after a diagnosis of high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer had higher disease-specific and overall survival rates due to more accurate diagnosis and appropriate subsequent radical treatment. Re-resection carries greatest benefit to patients with lamina propria invasion at diagnosis.
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July 2019

Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: Preservation of Quality of Life and Well-being.

Eur Urol Focus 2016 Dec 14;2(5):472-475. Epub 2016 Sep 14.

Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, UK. Electronic address:

Managing optimal health in castrate-resistant prostate cancer is a complex clinical challenge. Quality of life should be assessed with disease-specific validated tools and can be used in clinical practice to assist in considering management options.
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December 2016

Evaluation of a short RNA within Prostate Cancer Gene 3 in the predictive role for future cancer using non-malignant prostate biopsies.

PLoS One 2017 5;12(4):e0175070. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Academic Urology Unit and Academic Unit of Molecular Oncology, Department of Oncology and Human Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom.

Background: Prostate Cancer 3 (PCA3) is a long non-coding RNA (ncRNA) upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa). We recently identified a short ncRNA expressed from intron 1 of PCA3. Here we test the ability of this ncRNA to predict the presence of cancer in men with a biopsy without PCa.

Methods: We selected men whose initial biopsy did not identify PCa and selected matched cohorts whose subsequent biopsies revealed PCa or benign tissue. We extracted RNA from the initial biopsy and measured PCA3-shRNA2, PCA3 and PSA (qRT-PCR).

Results: We identified 116 men with and 94 men without an eventual diagnosis of PCa in 2-5 biopsies (mean 26 months), collected from 2002-2008. The cohorts were similar for age, PSA and surveillance period. We detected PSA and PCA3-shRNA2 RNA in all samples, and PCA3 RNA in 90% of biopsies. The expression of PCA3 and PCA3-shRNA2 were correlated (Pearson's r = 0.37, p<0.01). There was upregulation of PCA3 (2.1-fold, t-test p = 0.02) and PCA3-shRNA2 (1.5-fold) in men with PCa on subsequent biopsy, although this was not significant for the latter RNA (p = 0.2). PCA3 was associated with the future detection of PCa (C-index 0.61, p = 0.01). This was not the case for PCA3-shRNA2 (C-index 0.55, p = 0.2).

Conclusions: PCA3 and PCA3-shRNA2 expression are detectable in historic biopsies and their expression is correlated suggesting co-expression. PCA3 expression was upregulated in men with PCa diagnosed at a future date, the same did not hold for PCA3-shRNA2. Futures studies should explore expression in urine and look at a time course between biopsy and PCa detection.
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September 2017

The modern role of androgen deprivation therapy in the management of localised and locally advanced prostate cancer.

J Clin Urol 2016 Dec 1;9(2 Suppl):24-29. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Introduction: Approximately 50% of men diagnosed with prostate cancer will be exposed to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) at some stage. The role of ADT in the management of metastatic disease has long been recognised, and its place in the management of localised and locally advanced disease has become clearer in the past few years. Nevertheless, concerns remain that some men might not benefit from ADT in earlier-stage disease. The purpose of the current article is to provide a brief narrative review of the role of ADT as part of a strategy of treatment with curative intent, concentrating mainly on key recent developments in the area.

Methods: Narrative literature review of key publications in the English language relating to ADT in the management of localised and locally advanced prostate cancer.

Results: In locally advanced and high-risk localised prostate cancer, the use of ADT in combination with radiotherapy improves disease-specific and overall survival. There is no evidence to support the use of ADT in the treatment of low-risk localised prostate cancer. There appears to be an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists, particularly in men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, but the relevance of this in the adjuvant/neoadjuvant setting is currently unclear.

Conclusions: Future studies should focus on identification of men who are at risk from cardiovascular complications associated with ADT and on the comparison of radiotherapy with ADT surgery in the management of localised and locally advanced prostate cancer, particularly with regards to men with pre-existing comorbidities.
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December 2016

Padeliporfin vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy versus active surveillance in men with low-risk prostate cancer (CLIN1001 PCM301): an open-label, phase 3, randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Oncol 2017 Feb 20;18(2):181-191. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy, a novel tissue-preserving treatment for low-risk prostate cancer, has shown favourable safety and efficacy results in single-arm phase 1 and 2 studies. We compared this treatment with the standard of care, active surveillance, in men with low-risk prostate cancer in a phase 3 trial.

Methods: This randomised controlled trial was done in 47 European university centres and community hospitals. Men with low-risk, localised prostate cancer (Gleason pattern 3) who had received no previous treatment were randomly assigned (1:1) to vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy (4 mg/kg padeliporfin intravenously over 10 min and optical fibres inserted into the prostate to cover the desired treatment zone and subsequent activation by laser light 753 nm with a fixed power of 150 mW/cm for 22 min 15 s) or active surveillance. Randomisation was done by a web-based allocation system stratified by centre with balanced blocks of two or four patients. Best practice for active surveillance at the time of study design was followed (ie, biopsy at 12-month intervals and prostate-specific antigen measurement and digital rectal examination at 3-month intervals). The co-primary endpoints were treatment failure (histological progression of cancer from low to moderate or high risk or death during 24 months' follow-up) and absence of definite cancer (absence of any histology result definitely positive for cancer at month 24). Analysis was by intention to treat. Treatment was open-label, but investigators assessing primary efficacy outcomes were masked to treatment allocation. This trial is registered with, number NCT01310894.

Findings: Between March 8, 2011, and April 30, 2013, we randomly assigned 206 patients to vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy and 207 patients to active surveillance. Median follow-up was 24 months (IQR 24-25). The proportion of participants who had disease progression at month 24 was 58 (28%) of 206 in the vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy group compared with 120 (58%) of 207 in the active surveillance group (adjusted hazard ratio 0·34, 95% CI 0·24-0·46; p<0·0001). 101 (49%) men in the vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy group had a negative prostate biopsy result at 24 months post treatment compared with 28 (14%) men in the active surveillance group (adjusted risk ratio 3·67, 95% CI 2·53-5·33; p<0·0001). Vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy was well tolerated. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were prostatitis (three [2%] in the vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy group vs one [<1%] in the active surveillance group), acute urinary retention (three [2%] vs one [<1%]) and erectile dysfunction (two [1%] vs three [1%]). The most common serious adverse event in the vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy group was retention of urine (15 patients; severe in three); this event resolved within 2 months in all patients. The most common serious adverse event in the active surveillance group was myocardial infarction (three patients).

Interpretation: Padeliporfin vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy is a safe, effective treatment for low-risk, localised prostate cancer. This treatment might allow more men to consider a tissue-preserving approach and defer or avoid radical therapy.

Funding: Steba Biotech.
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February 2017

10-Year Outcomes after Monitoring, Surgery, or Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2016 10 14;375(15):1415-1424. Epub 2016 Sep 14.

From the Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford (F.C.H., P.H., D.E.N.), the School of Social and Community Medicine (J.L.D., J.A.L., C.M., M.D., E.L.T., R.M.M., E.W.), the Bristol Randomized Trials Collaboration (J.A.L., C.M.), and School of Clinical Sciences (T.J.P.), University of Bristol, the National Institute for Health Research Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care West, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust (J.L.D.), the Department of Cellular Pathology, North Bristol NHS Trust (J.O.), and the Department of Urology, Southmead Hospital and Bristol Urological Institute (D.G., E.R.), Bristol, the School of Medicine (M.M.) and Division of Cancer and Genetics, School of Medicine (J.S.), Cardiff University, and the Department of Urology, Cardiff and Vale University Health Board (H.K.), Cardiff, the Department of Cellular Pathology, Royal Victoria Infirmary (M.R.), and the Department of Urology, Freeman Hospital (P.P.), Newcastle-upon-Tyne, the Department of Urology and Surgery, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (P.B.), the Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield (J.C., D.J.R.), the Department of Urology, Addenbrooke's Hospital (A. Doble), and the Academic Urology Group, University of Cambridge (D.E.N.), Cambridge, the Department of Urology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham (A. Doherty), the Department of Urology, University Hospitals of Leicester, Leicester (R.K.), and the Department of Urology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (A.P., S.P.) - all in the United Kingdom.

Background: The comparative effectiveness of treatments for prostate cancer that is detected by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing remains uncertain.

Methods: We compared active monitoring, radical prostatectomy, and external-beam radiotherapy for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. Between 1999 and 2009, a total of 82,429 men 50 to 69 years of age received a PSA test; 2664 received a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer, and 1643 agreed to undergo randomization to active monitoring (545 men), surgery (553), or radiotherapy (545). The primary outcome was prostate-cancer mortality at a median of 10 years of follow-up. Secondary outcomes included the rates of disease progression, metastases, and all-cause deaths.

Results: There were 17 prostate-cancer-specific deaths overall: 8 in the active-monitoring group (1.5 deaths per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 3.0), 5 in the surgery group (0.9 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 0.4 to 2.2), and 4 in the radiotherapy group (0.7 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 0.3 to 2.0); the difference among the groups was not significant (P=0.48 for the overall comparison). In addition, no significant difference was seen among the groups in the number of deaths from any cause (169 deaths overall; P=0.87 for the comparison among the three groups). Metastases developed in more men in the active-monitoring group (33 men; 6.3 events per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 4.5 to 8.8) than in the surgery group (13 men; 2.4 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.2) or the radiotherapy group (16 men; 3.0 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 1.9 to 4.9) (P=0.004 for the overall comparison). Higher rates of disease progression were seen in the active-monitoring group (112 men; 22.9 events per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 19.0 to 27.5) than in the surgery group (46 men; 8.9 events per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 6.7 to 11.9) or the radiotherapy group (46 men; 9.0 events per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 6.7 to 12.0) (P<0.001 for the overall comparison).

Conclusions: At a median of 10 years, prostate-cancer-specific mortality was low irrespective of the treatment assigned, with no significant difference among treatments. Surgery and radiotherapy were associated with lower incidences of disease progression and metastases than was active monitoring. (Funded by the National Institute for Health Research; ProtecT Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN20141297 ; number, NCT02044172 .).
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October 2016

The role of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonists in the treatment of patients with advanced hormone-dependent prostate cancer in the UK.

World J Urol 2016 Dec 20;34(12):1601-1609. Epub 2016 Apr 20.

University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, UK.

Purpose: Comparing gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists and agonists as androgen deprivation therapy for advanced prostate cancer (PC).

Methods: This article stems from a round-table meeting in December 2014 to compare the properties of GnRH agonists and antagonists in the published literature in order to identify the patient groups most likely to benefit from GnRH antagonist therapy. A broad PubMed and congress abstract search was carried out in preparation for the meeting to ensure that the latest data and opinion were available for the discussions.

Results: In randomised, controlled trials, GnRH antagonist therapy provides more rapid suppression of luteinising hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone than GnRH agonist treatment. Compared with the GnRH agonist, there is evidence of improved disease control by a GnRH antagonist, with longer interval to prostate-specific antigen progression and greater reduction of serum alkaline phosphatase. In a post hoc analysis of six randomised trials, the risk of cardiac events within 1 year of initiating therapy was significantly lower among men receiving GnRH antagonist than agonist. Pre-clinical laboratory data suggest a number of mechanisms whereby GnRH antagonist therapy may benefit men with pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD), the most plausible hypothesis being that, unlike GnRH agonists, GnRH antagonists do not activate T lymphocytes, which act to increase atherosclerotic plaque rupture.

Conclusion: When making treatment decisions, clinicians should consider comorbidities, particularly CVD, in addition to effects on PC. GnRH antagonists may be appropriate in patients with significant CV risk, existing osteopenia, lower urinary tract symptoms and significant metastatic disease.
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December 2016