Publications by authors named "Derek Chu"

58 Publications

How to use antihistamines.

CMAJ 2021 Apr;193(14):E478-E479

Division of Clinical Immunology and Allergy, Department of Medicine (Chu, Oykhman), and Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence & Impact (Chu), McMaster University and The Research Institute of St. Joe's Hamilton, Ont.; Division of Clinical Immunology & Allergy (Sussman), Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.201959DOI Listing
April 2021

Management of anaphylaxis due to COVID-19 vaccines in the elderly.

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Ioana Agache Hubert Blain Marek Jutel Maria Teresa Ventura Margitta Worm Stefano Del Giacco Athanasios Benetos M Beatrice Bilo Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Amir Hamzah Abdul Latiff Mona Al-Ahmad Elizabeth Angier Isabella Annesi-Maesano Marina Atanaskovic-Markovic Claus Bachert Annick Barbaud Anna Bedbrook Kazi S Bennoor Elena Camelia Berghea Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Sergio Bonini Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Knut Brockow Luisa Brussino Paulo Camargos G Walter Canonica Victoria Cardona Pedro Carreiro-Martins Ana Carriazo Thomas Casale Jean-Christoph Caubet Lorenzo Cecchi Antonio Cherubini George Christoff Derek K Chu Alvaro A Cruz Dejan Dokic Yehia El-Gamal Motohiro Ebisawa Bernadette Eberlein John Farrell Montserrat Fernandez-Rivas Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Yadong Gao Gaëtan Gavazzi Radolslaw Gawlik Asli Gelincik Bilun Gemicioğlu Maia Gotua Olivier Guérin Tari Haahtela Karin Hoffmann-Sommergruber Hans Jürgen Hoffmann Maja Hofmann Martin Hrubisko Madda lenaIllario Carla Irani Zhanat Ispayeva Juan Carlos Ivancevich Kaja Julge Igor Kaidashev Musa Khaitov Edward Knol Helga Kraxner Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Antti Lauerma Lan Tt Le Vincent Le Moing Michael Levin Renaud Louis Olga Lourenco Vera Mahler Finbarr C Martin Andrea Matucci Branislava Milenkovic Stéphanie Miot Emma Montella Mario Morais-Almeida Charlotte G Mortz Joaquim Mullol Leyla Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristof Nekam Marek Niedoszytko Mikaëla Odemyr Robyn E O'Hehir Yoshitaka Okamoto Markus Ollert Oscar Palomares Nikolaos G Papadopoulos Petr Panzner Gianni Passalacqua Vincenzo Patella Mirko Petrovic Oliver Pfaar Nhân Pham-Thi Davor Plavec Todor A Popov Marysia T Recto Frederico S Regateiro Jacques Reynes Regina E Roller-Winsberger Yves Rolland Antonino Romano Carmen Rondon Menachem Rottem Philip W Rouadi Nathalie Salles Boleslaw Samolinski Alexandra F Santos Faradiba Sarquis Serpa Joaquin Sastre Jos M G A Schols Nicola Scichilone Anna Sediva Mohamed H Shamji Aziz Sheikh Isabel Skypala Sylwia Smolinska Milena Sokolowska Bernardo Sousa-Pinto Milan Sova Rafael Stelmach Gunter Sturm Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Ana Maria Todo-Bom Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Maria Torres Eva Untersmayr Marilyn Urrutia Pereira Arunas Valiulis Joana Vitte Alessandra Vultaggio Dana Wallace Jolanta Walusiak-Skorupa De-Yun Wang Susan Waserman Arzu Yorgancioglu Osman M Yusuf Mario Zernotti Mihaela Zidarn Tomas Chivato Cezmi A Akdis Torsten Zuberbier Ludger Klimek

Allergy 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Universitätsmedizin Mainz, Mainz, and Center for Rhinology and Allergology, Wiesbaden, Germany.

Older adults, especially men and/or those with diabetes, hypertension and/or obesity, are prone to severe COVID-19. In some countries, older adults, particularly those residing in nursing homes, have been prioritised to receive COVID-19 vaccines due to high risk of death. In very rare instances,the COVID-19 vaccines can induce anaphylaxis, and the management of anaphylaxis in older people should be considered carefully. An ARIA-EAACI-EuGMS (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma, European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, and European Geriatric Medicine Society)Working Group has proposed some recommendations for older adults receiving the COVID-19 vaccines. Anaphylaxis to COVID-19 vaccines is extremely rare (from 1 per 100,000 to 5 per million injections). Symptoms are similar in younger and older adults but they tend to be more severe in the older patients. Adrenaline is the mainstay treatment and should be readily available. A flowchart is proposed to manage anaphylaxis in the older patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14838DOI Listing
April 2021

Differentiation of COVID-19 signs and symptoms from allergic rhinitis and common cold- An ARIA-EAACI-GA LENconsensus.

Authors:
Jan Hagemann Gabrielle L Onorato Marek Jutel Cezmi A Akdis Ioana Agache Torsten Zuberbier Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Joaquim Mullol Anna Bedbrook Claus Bachert Kazi S Bennoor Karl-Christian Bergmann Fulvio Braido Paulo Camargos Luis Caraballo Victoria Cardona Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Tomas Chivato Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Jaime Correia-de-Sousa Stefano Del Giacco Dejan Dokic Mark Dykewicz Motohiro Ebisawa Yehia El-Gamal Regina Emuzyte Jean-Luc Fauquert Alessandro Fiocchi Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Bilun Gemicioglu Maximiliano Gomez Gotua Maia Tari Haahtela Eckard Hamelmann Tomohisa Iinuma Juan Carlos Ivancevich Ewa Jassem Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Musa Khaitov Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Desiree E Larenas-Linnemann Brian Lipworth Michael Makris Jorge F Maspero Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Yousser Mohammad Stephen Montefort Mario Morais-Almeida Ralph Mösges Robert Naclerio Hugo Neffen Marek Niedoszytko Robyn E O'Hehir Ken Ohta Yoshitaka Okamoto Kimi Okubo Petr Panzner Nikolaos G Papadopoulos Giovanni Passalacqua Vincenzo Patella Ana Pereira Oliver Pfaar Davor Plavec Todor A Popov Emmanuel P Prokopakis Francesca Puggioni Filip Raciborski Jere Reijula Frederico S Regateiro Sietze Reitsma Antonino Romano Nelson Rosario Menachem Rottem Dermot Ryan Boleslaw Samolinski Joaquin Sastre Dirceu Solé Milan Sova Cristiana Stellato Charlotte Suppli-Ulrik Ioanna Tsiligianni Antonio Valero Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Tuula Vasankari Maria Teresa Ventura Dana Wallace De Yun Wang Iân Williams Arzu Yorgancioglu Osman M Yusuf Mario Zernotti Jean Bousquet Ludger Klimek

Allergy 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Universitätsmedizin Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

Background: Although there are many asymptomatic patients, one of the problems of COVID-19 is early recognition of the disease. COVID-19 symptoms are polymorphic and may include upper respiratory symptoms. However, COVID-19 symptoms may be mistaken withthe common cold or allergic rhinitis. An ARIA-EAACI study group attempted to differentiate upper respiratory symptoms betweenthe three diseases.

Methods: A modified Delphi process was used and ARIA members who were seeing COVID-19 patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire on the upper airway symptoms of COVID-19, common cold andallergic rhinitis.

Results: Among the 192 ARIA members who were invited to respond to the questionnaire, 89 responded. 87 questionnaires were analysed. The consensus was then reported.A two-way ANOVA analysis revealed significant differences inthe symptom intensity between the three diseases (p<0.001).

Conclusions: This modified Delphi approach enabled thedifferentiationof upper respiratory symptoms betweenCOVID-19, common cold and allergic rhinitis. An electronic algorithm will be devised using the questionnaire.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14815DOI Listing
March 2021

Fruit-Induced Anaphylaxis: Clinical Presentation and Management.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Background: Data are sparse regarding the clinical characteristics and management of fruit-induced anaphylaxis.

Objective: To assess clinical characteristics and management of patients with fruit-induced anaphylaxis and determine factors associated with severe reactions and epinephrine use.

Methods: Over 9 years, children and adults presenting with anaphylaxis to seven emergency departments in four Canadian provinces and patients requiring emergency medical services in Outaouais, Quebec were recruited as part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry. A standardized form documenting symptoms, triggers, and management was collected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with severe reactions and epinephrine treatment in the pre-hospital setting.

Results: We recruited 250 patients with fruit-induced anaphylaxis, median age 10.2 years (interquartile range, 3.6-23.4 years); 48.8% were male. The most common fruit triggers were kiwi (15.6%), banana (10.8%), and mango (9.2%). Twenty-three patients reported having eczema (9.3%). Epinephrine use was low in both the pre-hospital setting and the emergency department (28.4% and 40.8%, respectively). Severe reactions to fruit were more likely to occur in spring and among those with eczema (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.23; and 1.17, 95% CI, 1.03-1.34, respectively). Patients with moderate and severe reactions (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06-1.43) and those with a known food allergy (aOR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.24-1.54) were more likely to be treated with epinephrine in the pre-hospital setting.

Conclusions: Severe anaphylaxis to fruit is more frequent in spring. Cross-reactivity to pollens is a potential explanation that should be evaluated further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2021.02.055DOI Listing
March 2021

Peanut allergen reaction thresholds during controlled food challenges in 2 Canadian randomized studies (Canada-ARM1 and PISCES).

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada; The Research Institute of St. Joe's Hamilton, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2021.02.009DOI Listing
February 2021

Allergen immunotherapy: the growing role of observational and randomisedtrial "Real-World Evidence".

Allergy 2021 Feb 14. Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Personalized Medicine, Asthma and Allergy, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center IRCCS and Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Milan, Italy.

Although there is a considerable body of knowledge about allergen immunotherapy (AIT), there is a lack of data on the reliability of real-world evidence (RWE) in AIT and consequently, a lack of information on how AIT effectively works in real life. To address the current unmet need for an appraisal of the quality of RWE in AIT, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Methodology Committee recently initiated a systematic review of observational studies of AIT, which will usethe RELEVANT tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach (GRADE) to rate the quality of the evidence base as a whole. The next step will be to develop a broadly applicable, pragmatic "real-world" database using systematic data collection.Based on the current RWE base,and perspectives and recommendations of authorities and scientific societies, a hierarchy of RWE in AIT is proposed, which places pragmatic trials and registry data at the positions of highest level of evidence. There is a need to establish more AIT registries that collect data in a cohesive way, using standardised protocols. This will provide an essential source of real-world data that can be easily shared, promoting evidence-based research and quality improvement in study design and clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14773DOI Listing
February 2021

Interrupting reactivation of immunologic memory diverts the allergic response and prevents anaphylaxis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Apr 15;147(4):1381-1392. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

McMaster Immunology Research Centre, Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: IgE production against innocuous food antigens can result in anaphylaxis, a severe life-threatening consequence of allergic reactions. The maintenance of IgE immunity is primarily facilitated by IgG memory B cells, as IgE memory B cells and IgE plasma cells are extremely scarce and short-lived, respectively.

Objective: Our aim was to investigate the critical requirements for an IgE recall response in peanut allergy.

Methods: We used a novel human PBMC culture platform, a mouse model of peanut allergy, and various experimental readouts to assess the IgE recall response in the presence and absence of IL-4Rα blockade.

Results: In human PBMCs, we have demonstrated that blockade of IL-4/IL-13 signaling aborted IgE production after activation of a recall response and skewed the cytokine response away from a dominant type 2 signature. T2A cells, identified by single-cell RNA sequencing, expanded with peanut stimulation and maintained their pathogenic phenotype in spite of IL-4Rα blockade. In mice with allergy, anti-IL-4Rα provided long-lasting suppression of the IgE recall response beyond antibody treatment and fully protected against anaphylaxis.

Conclusion: The findings reported here advance our understanding of events mediating the regeneration of IgE in food allergy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.11.042DOI Listing
April 2021

Developing trustworthy recommendations as part of an urgent response (1-2 weeks): a GRADE concept paper.

J Clin Epidemiol 2021 Jan 30;129:1-11. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact, McMaster University, McMaster University Medical Centre, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to propose an approach for developing trustworthy recommendations as part of urgent responses (1-2 week) in the clinical, public health, and health systems fields.

Study Design And Setting: We conducted a review of the literature, outlined a draft approach, refined the concept through iterative discussions, a workshop by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Rapid Guidelines project group, and obtained feedback from the larger Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation working group.

Results: A request for developing recommendations within 2 week is the usual trigger for an urgent response. Although the approach builds on the general principles of trustworthy guideline development, we highlight the following steps: (1) assess the level of urgency; (2) assess feasibility; (3) set up the organizational logistics; (4) specify the question(s); (5) collect the information needed; (6) assess the adequacy of identified information; (7) develop the recommendations using one of the 4 potential approaches: adopt existing recommendations, adapt existing recommendations, develop new recommendations using existing adequate systematic review, or develop new recommendations using expert panel input; and (8) consider an updating plan.

Conclusion: An urgent response for developing recommendations requires building a cohesive, skilled, and highly motivated multidisciplinary team with the necessary clinical, scientific, and methodological expertise; adapting to shifting needs; complying with the principles of transparency; and properly managing conflicts of interest.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2020.09.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526592PMC
January 2021

Risk of peanut- and tree-nut-induced anaphylaxis during Halloween, Easter and other cultural holidays in Canadian children.

CMAJ 2020 Sep;192(38):E1084-E1092

Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (Leung, Gabrielli, Ben-Shoshan), Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Que.; Division of Rheumatology (Clarke, Shand), Department of Medicine, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alta.; Department of Emergency Medicine (Morris), Hôpital Sacré-Coeur; Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine (Gravel), Department of Pediatrics, Centre hospitalier universitaire Sainte-Justine, Montréal, Que.; Division of Pediatric Emergency Medicine (Lim), Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital at London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ont.; Divisions of Allergy and Immunology (Chan) and Emergency Medicine (Goldman, Enarson), Department of Pediatrics, BC Children's Hospital, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC; Department of Pediatrics (O'Keefe), Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University, St. John's, NL; Food Allergy Canada (Gerdts), Toronto, Ont.; Division of Clinical Immunology & Allergy (Chu), Department of Medicine, and Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence, and Impact (Chu), McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont.; Division of Immunology and Allergy (Upton), Department of Pediatrics, The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.; Centre for Outcomes Research and Evaluation (Zhang), Research Institute of McGill University Health Centre, Montréal, Que.

Background: It is not established whether the risk of anaphylaxis induced by peanuts or tree nuts in children increases at specific times of the year. We aimed to evaluate the risk of peanut-and tree-nut-induced anaphylaxis during certain cultural holidays in Canadian children.

Methods: We collected data on confirmed pediatric cases of anaphylaxis presenting to emergency departments in 4 Canadian provinces as part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry. We assessed the mean number of cases per day and incidence rate ratio (IRR) of anaphylaxis induced by unknown nuts, peanuts and tree nuts presenting during each of 6 holidays (Halloween, Christmas, Easter, Diwali, Chinese New Year and Eid al-Adha) versus the rest of the year. We estimated IRRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using Poisson regression.

Results: Data were collected for 1390 pediatric cases of anaphylaxis between 2011 and 2020. Their median age was 5.4 years, and 864 (62.2%) of the children were boys. During Halloween and Easter, there were higher rates of anaphylaxis to unknown nuts (IRR 1.66, 95% CI 1.13-2.43 and IRR 1.71, 95% CI 1.21-2.42, respectively) and peanuts (IRR 1.86, 95% CI 1.12-3.11 and IRR 1.57, 95% CI 0.94-2.63, respectively) compared to the rest of the year. No increased risk of peanut- or tree-nut-induced anaphylaxis was observed during Christmas, Diwali, Chinese New Year or Eid al-Adha. Anaphylaxis induced by unknown nuts, peanuts and tree nuts was more likely in children aged 6 years or older than in younger children.

Interpretation: We found an increased risk of anaphylaxis induced by unknown nuts and peanuts during Halloween and Easter among Canadian children. Educational tools are needed to increase awareness and vigilance in order to decrease the risk of anaphylaxis induced by peanuts and tree nuts in children during these holidays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.200034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532006PMC
September 2020

Peanut allergy diagnosis: A 2020 practice parameter update, systematic review, and GRADE analysis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 12 15;146(6):1302-1334. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Nova Southeastern University College of Allopathic Medicine, Fort Lauderdale, Fla.

Given the burden of disease and the consequences of a diagnosis of peanut allergy, it is important that peanut allergy be accurately diagnosed so that an appropriate treatment plan can be developed. However, a test that indicates there is peanut sensitization present (eg, a "positive" test) is not always associated with clinical reactivity. This practice parameter addresses the diagnosis of IgE-mediated peanut allergy, both in children and adults, as pertaining to 3 fundamental questions, and based on the systematic reviews and meta-analyses, makes recommendations for the clinician who is evaluating a patient for peanut allergy. These questions relate to when diagnostic tests should be completed, which diagnostic tests to utilize, and the utility (or lack thereof) of diagnostic testing to predict the severity of a future allergic reaction to peanut.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.07.031DOI Listing
December 2020

Use of facemasks during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Lancet Respir Med 2020 10 3;8(10):954-955. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada; Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30352-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7398656PMC
October 2020

Drug treatments for covid-19: living systematic review and network meta-analysis.

BMJ 2020 07 30;370:m2980. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

Objective: To compare the effects of treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19).

Design: Living systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Data Sources: WHO covid-19 database, a comprehensive multilingual source of global covid-19 literature, up to 3 December 2020 and six additional Chinese databases up to 12 November 2020.

Study Selection: Randomised clinical trials in which people with suspected, probable, or confirmed covid-19 were randomised to drug treatment or to standard care or placebo. Pairs of reviewers independently screened potentially eligible articles.

Methods: After duplicate data abstraction, a bayesian random effects network meta-analysis was conducted. Risk of bias of the included studies was assessed using a modification of the Cochrane risk of bias 2.0 tool, and the certainty of the evidence using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) approach. For each outcome, interventions were classified in groups from the most to the least beneficial or harmful following GRADE guidance.

Results: 85 trials enrolling 41 669 patients met inclusion criteria as of 21 October 2020; 50 (58.8%) trials and 25 081 (60.2%) patients are new from the previous iteration; 43 (50.6%) trials evaluating treatments with at least 100 patients or 20 events met the threshold for inclusion in the analyses. Compared with standard care, corticosteroids probably reduce death (risk difference 17 fewer per 1000 patients, 95% credible interval 34 fewer to 1 more, moderate certainty), mechanical ventilation (29 fewer per 1000 patients, 54 fewer to 1 more, moderate certainty), and days free from mechanical ventilation (2.6 fewer, 0.2 fewer to 5.0 fewer, moderate certainty). The impact of remdesivir on mortality, mechanical ventilation, length of hospital stay, and duration of symptoms is uncertain, but it probably does not substantially increase adverse effects leading to drug discontinuation (0 more per 1000, 9 fewer to 40 more, moderate certainty). Azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, interferon-beta, and tocilizumab may not reduce risk of death or have an effect on any other patient-important outcome. The certainty in effects for all other interventions was low or very low.

Conclusion: Corticosteroids probably reduce mortality and mechanical ventilation in patients with covid-19 compared with standard care, whereas azithromycin, hydroxychloroquine, interferon-beta, and tocilizumab may not reduce either. Whether or not remdesivir confers any patient-important benefit remains uncertain.

Systematic Review Registration: This review was not registered. The protocol is included as a supplement.

Readers' Note: This article is a living systematic review that will be updated to reflect emerging evidence. Updates may occur for up to two years from the date of original publication. This version is the second update of the original article published on 30 July 2020 (BMJ 2020;370:m2980), and previous versions can be found as data supplements. When citing this paper please consider adding the version number and date of access for clarity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7390912PMC
July 2020

ARIA digital anamorphosis: Digital transformation of health and care in airway diseases from research to practice.

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Tari Haahtela Torsten Zuberbier Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Anna Bedbrook Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich G Walter Canonica Victoria Cardona Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Marina Erhola Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Maddalena Illario Juan-Carlos Ivancevich Marek Jutel Ludger Klimek Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Ltt Le Désirée E Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Olga M Lourenço Erik Melén Joaquim Mullol Marek Niedoszytko Mikaëla Odemyr Yoshitaka Okamoto Nikos G Papadopoulos Vincenzo Patella Oliver Pfaar Nhân Pham-Thi Christine Rolland Boleslaw Samolinski Aziz Sheikh Mikhail Sofiev Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Ana Todo-Bom Peter-Valentin Tomazic Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Sian Williams Arzu Yorgancioglu Ioana Agache Cezmi A Akdis Rute Almeida Ignacio J Ansotegui Isabella Annesi-Maesano Sylvie Arnavielhe Xavier Basagaña Eric D Bateman Annabelle Bédard Martin Bedolla-Barajas Sven Becker Kazi S Bennoor Samuel Benveniste Karl C Bergmann Michael Bewick Slawomir Bialek Nils E Billo Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Leif Bjermer Hubert Blain Matteo Bonini Philippe Bonniaud Isabelle Bosse Jacques Bouchard Louis-Philippe Boulet Rodolphe Bourret Koen Boussery Fluvio Braido Vitalis Briedis Andrew Briggs Christopher E Brightling Jan Brozek Guy Brusselle Luisa Brussino Roland Buhl Roland Buonaiuto Moises A Calderon Paulo Camargos Thierry Camuzat Luis Caraballo Ana-Maria Carriazo Warner Carr Christine Cartier Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Niels H Chavannes Ekaterine Chkhartishvili Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Jaime Correia de Sousa David J Costa Anne-Lise Courbis Adnan Custovic Biljana Cvetkosvki Gennaro D'Amato Jane da Silva Carina Dantas Dejan Dokic Yves Dauvilliers Giulia De Feo Govert De Vries Philippe Devillier Stefania Di Capua Gerard Dray Ruta Dubakiene Stephen R Durham Mark Dykewicz Motohiro Ebisawa Mina Gaga Yehia El-Gamal Enrico Heffler Regina Emuzyte John Farrell Jean-Luc Fauquert Alessandro Fiocchi Antje Fink-Wagner Jean-François Fontaine José M Fuentes Perez Bilun Gemicioğlu Amiran Gamkrelidze Judith Garcia-Aymerich Philippe Gevaert René Maximiliano Gomez Sandra González Diaz Maia Gotua Nick A Guldemond Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Jawad Hajjam Yunuen R Huerta Villalobos Marc Humbert Guido Iaccarino Despo Ierodiakonou Tomohisa Iinuma Ewa Jassem Guy Joos Ki-Suck Jung Igor Kaidashev Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Thomas Keil Musa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Jorg Kleine-Tebbe Rostislav Kouznetsov Marek L Kowalski Vicky Kritikos Inger Kull Stefania La Grutta Lisa Leonardini Henrik Ljungberg Philip Lieberman Brian Lipworth Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Catarina Lopes-Pereira Claudia C Loureiro Renaud Louis Alpana Mair Bassam Mahboub Michaël Makris Joao Malva Patrick Manning Gailen D Marshall Mohamed R Masjedi Jorge F Maspero Pedro Carreiro-Martins Mika Makela Eve Mathieu-Dupas Marcus Maurer Esteban De Manuel Keenoy Elisabete Melo-Gomes Eli O Meltzer Enrica Menditto Jacques Mercier Yann Micheli Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Dimitirios I Mitsias Giuliana Moda Maria-Dolores Mogica-Martinez Yousser Mohammad Steve Montefort Ricardo Monti Mario Morais-Almeida Ralph Mösges Lars Münter Antonella Muraro Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Luigi Napoli Leyla Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristoff Nekam Angelo Neou Björn Nordlund Ettore Novellino Dieudonné Nyembue Robyn O'Hehir Ken Ohta Kimi Okubo Gabrielle L Onorato Valentina Orlando Solange Ouedraogo Julia Palamarchuk Isabella Pali-Schöll Peter Panzner Hae-Sim Park Gianni Passalacqua Jean-Louis Pépin Ema Paulino Ruby Pawankar Jim Phillips Robert Picard Hilary Pinnock Davor Plavec Todor A Popov Fabienne Portejoie David Price Emmanuel P Prokopakis Fotis Psarros Benoit Pugin Francesca Puggioni Pablo Quinones-Delgado Filip Raciborski Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Frederico S Regateiro Sietze Reitsma Daniela Rivero-Yeverino Graham Roberts Nicolas Roche Erendira Rodriguez-Zagal Christine Rolland Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Nelson Rosario Antonino Romano Menachem Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Mario M Sanchez-Borges Joaquin Sastre Glenis K Scadding Sophie Scheire Peter Schmid-Grendelmeier Holger J Schünemann Faradiba Sarquis Serpa Mohamed Shamji Juan-Carlos Sisul Mikhail Sofiev Dirceu Solé David Somekh Talant Sooronbaev Milan Sova François Spertini Otto Spranger Cristiana Stellato Rafael Stelmach Michel Thibaudon Teresa To Mondher Toumi Omar Usmani Antonio A Valero Rudolph Valenta Marylin Valentin-Rostan Marilyn Urrutia Pereira Rianne van der Kleij Michiel Van Eerd Olivier Vandenplas Tuula Vasankari Antonio Vaz Carneiro Giorgio Vezzani Frédéric Viart Giovanni Viegi Dana Wallace Martin Wagenmann De Yun Wang Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Dennis M Williams Gary Wong Piotr Wroczynski Panayiotis K Yiallouros Osman M Yusuf Heather J Zar Stéphane Zeng Mario E Zernotti Luo Zhang Nan Shan Zhong Mihaela Zidarn

Allergy 2021 01 23;76(1):168-190. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Digital anamorphosis is used to define a distorted image of health and care that may be viewed correctly using digital tools and strategies. MASK digital anamorphosis represents the process used by MASK to develop the digital transformation of health and care in rhinitis. It strengthens the ARIA change management strategy in the prevention and management of airway disease. The MASK strategy is based on validated digital tools. Using the MASK digital tool and the CARAT online enhanced clinical framework, solutions for practical steps of digital enhancement of care are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14422DOI Listing
January 2021

Physical distancing, face masks, and eye protection to prevent person-to-person transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Lancet 2020 06 1;395(10242):1973-1987. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Michael G DeGroote Cochrane Canada and GRADE Centres, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes COVID-19 and is spread person-to-person through close contact. We aimed to investigate the effects of physical distance, face masks, and eye protection on virus transmission in health-care and non-health-care (eg, community) settings.

Methods: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the optimum distance for avoiding person-to-person virus transmission and to assess the use of face masks and eye protection to prevent transmission of viruses. We obtained data for SARS-CoV-2 and the betacoronaviruses that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome, and Middle East respiratory syndrome from 21 standard WHO-specific and COVID-19-specific sources. We searched these data sources from database inception to May 3, 2020, with no restriction by language, for comparative studies and for contextual factors of acceptability, feasibility, resource use, and equity. We screened records, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in duplicate. We did frequentist and Bayesian meta-analyses and random-effects meta-regressions. We rated the certainty of evidence according to Cochrane methods and the GRADE approach. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020177047.

Findings: Our search identified 172 observational studies across 16 countries and six continents, with no randomised controlled trials and 44 relevant comparative studies in health-care and non-health-care settings (n=25 697 patients). Transmission of viruses was lower with physical distancing of 1 m or more, compared with a distance of less than 1 m (n=10 736, pooled adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·18, 95% CI 0·09 to 0·38; risk difference [RD] -10·2%, 95% CI -11·5 to -7·5; moderate certainty); protection was increased as distance was lengthened (change in relative risk [RR] 2·02 per m; p=0·041; moderate certainty). Face mask use could result in a large reduction in risk of infection (n=2647; aOR 0·15, 95% CI 0·07 to 0·34, RD -14·3%, -15·9 to -10·7; low certainty), with stronger associations with N95 or similar respirators compared with disposable surgical masks or similar (eg, reusable 12-16-layer cotton masks; p=0·090; posterior probability >95%, low certainty). Eye protection also was associated with less infection (n=3713; aOR 0·22, 95% CI 0·12 to 0·39, RD -10·6%, 95% CI -12·5 to -7·7; low certainty). Unadjusted studies and subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed similar findings.

Interpretation: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis support physical distancing of 1 m or more and provide quantitative estimates for models and contact tracing to inform policy. Optimum use of face masks, respirators, and eye protection in public and health-care settings should be informed by these findings and contextual factors. Robust randomised trials are needed to better inform the evidence for these interventions, but this systematic appraisal of currently best available evidence might inform interim guidance.

Funding: World Health Organization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31142-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263814PMC
June 2020

EAACI Biologicals Guidelines-Recommendations for severe asthma.

Allergy 2021 01 10;76(1):14-44. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Clinical Immunology, University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland.

Severe asthma imposes a significant burden on patients, families and healthcare systems. Management is difficult, due to disease heterogeneity, co-morbidities, complexity in care pathways and differences between national or regional healthcare systems. Better understanding of the mechanisms has enabled a stratified approach to the management of severe asthma, supporting the use of targeted treatments with biologicals. However, there are still many issues that require further clarification. These include selection of a certain biological (as they all target overlapping disease phenotypes), the definition of response, strategies to enhance the responder rate, the duration of treatment and its regimen (in the clinic or home-based) and its cost-effectiveness. The EAACI Guidelines on the use of biologicals in severe asthma follow the GRADE approach in formulating recommendations for each biological and each outcome. In addition, a management algorithm for the use of biologicals in the clinic is proposed, together with future approaches and research priorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14425DOI Listing
January 2021

Ventilation Techniques and Risk for Transmission of Coronavirus Disease, Including COVID-19: A Living Systematic Review of Multiple Streams of Evidence.

Ann Intern Med 2020 08 22;173(3):204-216. Epub 2020 May 22.

American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon (J.K., A.E., F.C., L.H., R.E., S.Y., Z.S., I.B.A., E.A.A.).

Background: Mechanical ventilation is used to treat respiratory failure in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

Purpose: To review multiple streams of evidence regarding the benefits and harms of ventilation techniques for coronavirus infections, including that causing COVID-19.

Data Sources: 21 standard, World Health Organization-specific and COVID-19-specific databases, without language restrictions, until 1 May 2020.

Study Selection: Studies of any design and language comparing different oxygenation approaches in patients with coronavirus infections, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) or Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), or with hypoxemic respiratory failure. Animal, mechanistic, laboratory, and preclinical evidence was gathered regarding aerosol dispersion of coronavirus. Studies evaluating risk for virus transmission to health care workers from aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs) were included.

Data Extraction: Independent and duplicate screening, data abstraction, and risk-of-bias assessment (GRADE for certainty of evidence and AMSTAR 2 for included systematic reviews).

Data Synthesis: 123 studies were eligible (45 on COVID-19, 70 on SARS, 8 on MERS), but only 5 studies (1 on COVID-19, 3 on SARS, 1 on MERS) adjusted for important confounders. A study in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 reported slightly higher mortality with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) than with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), but 2 opposing studies, 1 in patients with MERS and 1 in patients with SARS, suggest a reduction in mortality with NIV (very-low-certainty evidence). Two studies in patients with SARS report a reduction in mortality with NIV compared with no mechanical ventilation (low-certainty evidence). Two systematic reviews suggest a large reduction in mortality with NIV compared with conventional oxygen therapy. Other included studies suggest increased odds of transmission from AGPs.

Limitation: Direct studies in COVID-19 are limited and poorly reported.

Conclusion: Indirect and low-certainty evidence suggests that use of NIV, similar to IMV, probably reduces mortality but may increase the risk for transmission of COVID-19 to health care workers.

Primary Funding Source: World Health Organization. (PROSPERO: CRD42020178187).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M20-2306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7281716PMC
August 2020

Safe management of bodies of deceased persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19: a rapid systematic review.

BMJ Glob Health 2020 05;5(5)

Clinical Research Institute, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon

Introduction: Proper strategies to minimise the risk of infection in individuals handling the bodies of deceased persons infected with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) are urgently needed. The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature to scope and assess the effects of specific strategies for the management of the bodies.

Methods: We searched five general, three Chinese and four coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-specific electronic databases. We searched registries of clinical trials, websites of governmental and other relevant organisations, reference lists of the included papers and relevant systematic reviews, and Epistemonikos for relevant systematic reviews. We included guidance documents providing practical advice on the handling of bodies of deceased persons with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Then, we sought primary evidence of any study design reporting on the efficacy and safety of the identified strategies in coronaviruses. We included evidence relevant to contextual factors (ie, acceptability). A single reviewer extracted data using a pilot-tested form and graded the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. A second reviewer verified the data and assessments.

Results: We identified one study proposing an uncommon strategy for autopsies for patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome. The study provided very low-certainty evidence that it reduced the risk of transmission. We identified 23 guidance documents providing practical advice on the steps of handling the bodies: preparation, packing, and others and advice related to both the handling of the dead bodies and the use of personal protective equipment by individuals handling them. We did not identify COVID-19 evidence relevant to any of these steps.

Conclusion: While a substantive number of guidance documents propose specific strategies, we identified no study providing direct evidence for the effects of any of those strategies. While this review highlights major research gaps, it allows interested entities to build their own guidance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-002650DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7234869PMC
May 2020

Anaphylaxis as a presenting symptom of food allergy in children with no known food allergy.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 09 26;8(8):2811-2813.e2. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, Montreal Children's Hospital, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.04.033DOI Listing
September 2020

Making the GRADE in anaphylaxis management: Toward recommendations integrating values, preferences, context, and shared decision making.

Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2020 06 19;124(6):526-535.e2. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Division of Allergy and Immunology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.

Objective: To review GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) methods and discuss the clinical application of conditional recommendations in clinical guidelines, specifically in the context of anaphylaxis.

Data Sources: Articles that described GRADE, evidence synthesis, evidence to recommendation frameworks, and shared decision making were used to discuss conditional recommendations of the 2020 Anaphylaxis GRADE guideline.

Study Selections: A narrative review detailing concepts of GRADE and approaches to translate conditional recommendations to individualized and contextualized patient care.

Results: GRADE methods encourage a nuanced relationship between certainty of evidence and strength of recommendations. Strength of recommendation must incorporate key factors, including the balance between benefits and harms, patient values and preferences, and resource allocation (costs), with equity, feasibility, and acceptability also often included as considerations. GRADE guidelines provide recommendations that are characterized by directionality (for or against) and strength (strong or conditional). A conditional recommendation is tailored to context and primarily applied through a lens of patient preferences related to the likelihood of outcomes of importance and a shared decision-making approach. Although the 2020 Anaphylaxis GRADE guideline better informs the practice of anaphylaxis prevention through (1) identification and mitigation of risk factors for biphasic anaphylaxis and (2) evaluation of the use of glucocorticoid and/or antihistamine pretreatment, all GRADE recommendations, although directional, are conditional and as such should not be universally applied to every circumstance.

Conclusion: Clinical guidelines provide an important opportunity to critically appraise evidence and translate evidence to practice. Patients, practitioners, and policy makers should appreciate the strength of recommendation and certainty of evidence and understand how this affects guideline applicability and implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anai.2020.03.009DOI Listing
June 2020

Microbial Regulation of Enteric Eosinophils and Its Impact on Tissue Remodeling and Th2 Immunity.

Front Immunol 2020 13;11:155. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Pathology & Molecular Medicine, McMaster Immunology Research Centre (MIRC), McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Eosinophils have emerged as multifaceted cells that contribute to tissue homeostasis. However, the impact of the microbiota on their frequency and function at mucosal sites remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of the microbiota in the regulation of enteric eosinophils. We found that small intestinal (SI) eosinophilia was significantly greater in germ-free (GF) mice compared to specific pathogen free (SPF) controls. This was associated with changes in the production of enteric signals that regulate eosinophil attraction and survival, and was fully reversed by complex colonization. Additionally, SI eosinophils of GF mice exhibited more cytoplasmic protrusions and less granule content than SPF controls. Lastly, we generated a novel strain of eosinophil-deficient GF mice. These mice displayed intestinal fibrosis and were less prone to allergic sensitization as compared to GF controls. Overall, our study demonstrates that commensal microbes regulate intestinal eosinophil frequency and function, which impacts tissue repair and allergic sensitization to food antigens. These data support a critical interplay between the commensal microbiota and intestinal eosinophils in shaping homeostatic, innate, and adaptive immune processes in health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.00155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7033414PMC
March 2021

Perception of severity of adverse events in oral immunotherapy - Authors' reply.

Lancet 2020 02;395(10222):415-416

Department of Medicine, St Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, ON, Canada; Department of Health Research Methods, Evidence and Impact, St Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, ON, Canada; McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S 4K1, Canada; Michael G DeGroote Cochrane Canada Centre, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32567-XDOI Listing
February 2020

Anaphylaxis for Internists: Definition, Evaluation, and Management, with a Focus on Commonly Encountered Problems.

Med Clin North Am 2020 Jan;104(1):25-44

Department of Medicine, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, HSC-3V49, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 3Z5, Canada. Electronic address:

Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic allergic reaction that can be life threatening. In adults, the most common causes of anaphylaxis are foods, drugs, and insect stings. This article reviews the definition, classification, evaluation, differential diagnosis, prognosis, complications, and management of anaphylaxis. Tailored for internists, the article focuses on anaphylactic medication allergies. It provides a guide to optimally evaluate and manage patients with antibiotic allergy using a simple, rapid risk stratification technique, graded antibiotic challenge (test dose), and/or allergist-guided drug desensitization. It also reviews other causes of anaphylaxis that internists are likely to encounter, and an approach to their management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcna.2019.08.007DOI Listing
January 2020

When and how pediatric anaphylaxis cases reach the emergency department: Findings from the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 04 31;8(4):1406-1409.e2. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Division of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.10.009DOI Listing
April 2020

Next-generation care pathways for allergic rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity: a model for multimorbid non-communicable diseases-Meeting Report (Part 2).

J Thorac Dis 2019 Sep;11(9):4072-4084

Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Uniersität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy-Centre, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Member of GA2LEN, Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2019.09.38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790426PMC
September 2019

Next-generation Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) guidelines for allergic rhinitis based on Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and real-world evidence.

Authors:
Jean Bousquet Holger J Schünemann Akdis Togias Claus Bachert Martina Erhola Peter W Hellings Ludger Klimek Oliver Pfaar Dana Wallace Ignacio Ansotegui Ioana Agache Anna Bedbrook Karl-Christian Bergmann Mike Bewick Philippe Bonniaud Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Isabelle Bossé Jacques Bouchard Louis-Philippe Boulet Jan Brozek Guy Brusselle Moises A Calderon Walter G Canonica Luis Caraballo Vicky Cardona Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Derek K Chu Elisio M Costa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Gennaro D'Amato Philippe Devillier Mark Dykewicz Motohiro Ebisawa Jean-Louis Fauquert Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Jean-François Fontaine Bilun Gemicioglu Roy Gerth van Wijk Tari Haahtela Susanne Halken Despo Ierodiakonou Tomohisa Iinuma Juan-Carlos Ivancevich Marek Jutel Igor Kaidashev Musa Khaitov Omer Kalayci Jorg Kleine Tebbe Marek L Kowalski Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene Stefania La Grutta Désirée Larenas-Linnemann Susanne Lau Daniel Laune Lan Le Philipp Lieberman Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Olga Lourenço Gert Marien Pedro Carreiro-Martins Erik Melén Enrica Menditto Hugo Neffen Gregoire Mercier Ralph Mosgues Joaquim Mullol Antonella Muraro Leyla Namazova Ettore Novellino Robyn O'Hehir Yoshitaka Okamoto Ken Ohta Hae Sim Park Petr Panzner Giovanni Passalacqua Nhan Pham-Thi David Price Graham Roberts Nicolas Roche Christine Rolland Nelson Rosario Dermot Ryan Boleslaw Samolinski Mario Sanchez-Borges Glenis K Scadding Mohamed H Shamji Aziz Sheikh Ana-Maria Todo Bom Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioana Tsiligianni Marylin Valentin-Rostan Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Susan Waserman Arzu Yorgancioglu Torsten Zuberbier

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 01 15;145(1):70-80.e3. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Uniersität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy-Centre, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, member of GA(2)LEN, Berlin, Germany.

The selection of pharmacotherapy for patients with allergic rhinitis aims to control the disease and depends on many factors. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines have considerably improved the treatment of allergic rhinitis. However, there is an increasing trend toward use of real-world evidence to inform clinical practice, especially because randomized controlled trials are often limited with regard to the applicability of results. The Contre les Maladies Chroniques pour un Vieillissement Actif (MACVIA) algorithm has proposed an allergic rhinitis treatment by a consensus group. This simple algorithm can be used to step up or step down allergic rhinitis treatment. Next-generation guidelines for the pharmacologic treatment of allergic rhinitis were developed by using existing GRADE-based guidelines for the disease, real-world evidence provided by mobile technology, and additive studies (allergen chamber studies) to refine the MACVIA algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.06.049DOI Listing
January 2020

Next-generation care pathways for allergic rhinitis and asthma multimorbidity: a model for multimorbid non-communicable diseases-Meeting Report (Part 1).

J Thorac Dis 2019 Aug;11(8):3633-3642

Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Uniersität zu Berlin and Berlin Institute of Health, Comprehensive Allergy-Centre, Department of Dermatology and Allergy, Member of GA2LEN, Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jtd.2019.08.64DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6753463PMC
August 2019

Web Exclusive. Annals for Hospitalists Inpatient Notes - Rethinking Oxygen Therapy for Hospitalized Patients.

Ann Intern Med 2019 Sep;171(6):HO2-HO3

McMaster University and St. Joseph's Healthcare Hamilton, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (L.H.K., D.K.C., W.A.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.7326/M19-2502DOI Listing
September 2019

Benefits and harms of aspirin desensitization for aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2019 12 13;9(12):1409-1419. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Aspirin desensitization is increasingly recommended for the treatment of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD). The objective of this study is to systematically review the efficacy and safety of aspirin desensitization in patients with AERD.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform from inception to January 5, 2019. We included randomized trials and comparative observational studies in any language. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment were performed in duplicate independently.

Results: Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolled 233 patients with AERD. Compared to placebo, aspirin desensitization (mean daily dose 800 mg) improved quality of life (risk ratio [RR] 2.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31 to 3.06; heterogeneity measure [I ] = 0%; risk difference [RD] +24%; 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test [SNOT-22] scale [0 to 110, higher worse]; mean difference [MD] -10.27 [95% CI, -6.39 to -14.15]; moderate-certainty); and respiratory symptoms (RR 2.20 [95% CI, 1.55 to 2.73], I = 34%, RD +36%; American Academy of Otolaryngology (AAO) scale [0 to 20, higher worse]; MD -2.56 [95% CI,-1.12 to -3.92]; high-certainty). Aspirin desensitization increased adverse events severe enough to cause treatment discontinuation (major bleeding, gastritis, asthma exacerbation, or rash causing drug discontinuation, RR 4.39 [95% CI, 1.43 to 13.50], I = 0%, RD +11%, moderate-certainty), and gastritis (RR 3.84 [95% CI, 1.12 to 13.19], I = 0%, RD +9%, low-certainty). Findings were robust to sensitivity analyses. Two available observational studies were not informative because they lacked adjustment for confounders and/or contemporaneous controls.

Conclusion: In patients with AERD, moderate-certainty and high-certainty evidence shows that aspirin desensitization meaningfully reduces symptoms of rhinosinusitis and improves quality of life, but results in a significant increase in adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alr.22428DOI Listing
December 2019

Next-generation ARIA care pathways for rhinitis and asthma: a model for multimorbid chronic diseases.

Authors:
J Jean Bousquet Holger J Schünemann Alkis Togias Marina Erhola Peter W Hellings Torsten Zuberbier Ioana Agache Ignacio J Ansotegui Josep M Anto Claus Bachert Sven Becker Martin Bedolla-Barajas Michael Bewick Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich Isabelle Bosse Louis P Boulet Jean Marc Bourrez Guy Brusselle Niels Chavannes Elisio Costa Alvaro A Cruz Wienczyslawa Czarlewski Wytske J Fokkens Joao A Fonseca Mina Gaga Tari Haahtela Maddalena Illario Ludger Klimek Piotr Kuna Violeta Kvedariene L T T Le Desiree Larenas-Linnemann Daniel Laune Olga M Lourenço Enrica Menditto Joaquin Mullol Yashitaka Okamoto Nikos Papadopoulos Nhân Pham-Thi Robert Picard Hilary Pinnock Nicolas Roche Regina E Roller-Wirnsberger Christine Rolland Boleslaw Samolinski Aziz Sheikh Sanna Toppila-Salmi Ioanna Tsiligianni Arunas Valiulis Erkka Valovirta Tuula Vasankari Maria-Teresa Ventura Samantha Walker Sian Williams Cezmi A Akdis Isabella Annesi-Maesano Sylvie Arnavielhe Xavier Basagana Eric Bateman Anna Bedbrook K S Bennoor Samuel Benveniste Karl C Bergmann Slawomir Bialek Nils Billo Carsten Bindslev-Jensen Leif Bjermer Hubert Blain Mateo Bonini Philippe Bonniaud Jacques Bouchard Vitalis Briedis Christofer E Brightling Jan Brozek Roland Buhl Roland Buonaiuto Giorgo W Canonica Victoria Cardona Ana M Carriazo Warner Carr Christine Cartier Thomas Casale Lorenzo Cecchi Alfonso M Cepeda Sarabia Eka Chkhartishvili Derek K Chu Cemal Cingi Elaine Colgan Jaime Correia de Sousa Anne Lise Courbis Adnan Custovic Biljana Cvetkosvki Gennaro D'Amato Jane da Silva Carina Dantas Dejand Dokic Yves Dauvilliers Antoni Dedeu Giulia De Feo Philippe Devillier Stefania Di Capua Marc Dykewickz Ruta Dubakiene Motohiro Ebisawa Yaya El-Gamal Esben Eller Regina Emuzyte John Farrell Antjie Fink-Wagner Alessandro Fiocchi Jean F Fontaine Bilun Gemicioğlu Peter Schmid-Grendelmeir Amiran Gamkrelidze Judith Garcia-Aymerich Maximiliano Gomez Sandra González Diaz Maia Gotua Nick A Guldemond Maria-Antonieta Guzmán Jawad Hajjam John O'B Hourihane Marc Humbert Guido Iaccarino Despo Ierodiakonou Maddalena Illario Juan C Ivancevich Guy Joos Ki-Suck Jung Marek Jutel Igor Kaidashev Omer Kalayci Przemyslaw Kardas Thomas Keil Mussa Khaitov Nikolai Khaltaev Jorg Kleine-Tebbe Marek L Kowalski Vicky Kritikos Inger Kull Lisa Leonardini Philip Lieberman Brian Lipworth Karin C Lodrup Carlsen Claudia C Loureiro Renaud Louis Alpana Mair Gert Marien Bassam Mahboub Joao Malva Patrick Manning Esteban De Manuel Keenoy Gailen D Marshall Mohamed R Masjedi Jorge F Maspero Eve Mathieu-Dupas Poalo M Matricardi Eric Melén Elisabete Melo-Gomes Eli O Meltzer Enrica Menditto Jacques Mercier Neven Miculinic Florin Mihaltan Branislava Milenkovic Giuliana Moda Maria-Dolores Mogica-Martinez Yousser Mohammad Steve Montefort Ricardo Monti Mario Morais-Almeida Ralf Mösges Lars Münter Antonella Muraro Ruth Murray Robert Naclerio Luigi Napoli Leila Namazova-Baranova Hugo Neffen Kristoff Nekam Angelo Neou Enrico Novellino Dieudonné Nyembue Robin O'Hehir Ken Ohta Kimi Okubo Gabrielle Onorato Solange Ouedraogo Isabella Pali-Schöll Susanna Palkonen Peter Panzner Hae-Sim Park Jean-Louis Pépin Ana-Maria Pereira Oliver Pfaar Ema Paulino Jim Phillips Robert Picard Davor Plavec Ted A Popov Fabienne Portejoie David Price Emmanuel P Prokopakis Benoit Pugin Filip Raciborski Rojin Rajabian-Söderlund Sietze Reitsma Xavier Rodo Antonino Romano Nelson Rosario Menahenm Rottem Dermot Ryan Johanna Salimäki Mario M Sanchez-Borges Juan-Carlos Sisul Dirceu Solé David Somekh Talant Sooronbaev Milan Sova Otto Spranger Cristina Stellato Rafael Stelmach Charlotte Suppli Ulrik Michel Thibaudon Teresa To Ana Todo-Bom Peter V Tomazic Antonio A Valero Rudolph Valenta Marylin Valentin-Rostan Rianne van der Kleij Olivier Vandenplas Giorgio Vezzani Frédéric Viart Giovanni Viegi Dana Wallace Martin Wagenmann De Y Wang Susan Waserman Magnus Wickman Dennis M Williams Gary Wong Piotr Wroczynski Panayiotis K Yiallouros Arzu Yorgancioglu Osman M Yusuf Heahter J Zar Stéphane Zeng Mario Zernotti Luo Zhang Nan S Zhong Mihaela Zidarn

Clin Transl Allergy 2019 9;9:44. Epub 2019 Sep 9.

260University Clinic of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, Golnik, Slovenia.

Background: In all societies, the burden and cost of allergic and chronic respiratory diseases are increasing rapidly. Most economies are struggling to deliver modern health care effectively. There is a need to support the transformation of the health care system into integrated care with organizational health literacy.

Main Body: As an example for chronic disease care, MASK (Mobile Airways Sentinel NetworK), a new project of the ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma) initiative, and POLLAR (Impact of Air POLLution on Asthma and Rhinitis, EIT Health), in collaboration with professional and patient organizations in the field of allergy and airway diseases, are proposing real-life ICPs centred around the patient with rhinitis, and using mHealth to monitor environmental exposure. Three aspects of care pathways are being developed: (i) Patient participation, health literacy and self-care through technology-assisted "patient activation", (ii) Implementation of care pathways by pharmacists and (iii) Next-generation guidelines assessing the recommendations of GRADE guidelines in rhinitis and asthma using real-world evidence (RWE) obtained through mobile technology. The EU and global political agendas are of great importance in supporting the digital transformation of health and care, and MASK has been recognized by DG Santé as a Good Practice in the field of digitally-enabled, integrated, person-centred care.

Conclusion: In 20 years, ARIA has considerably evolved from the first multimorbidity guideline in respiratory diseases to the digital transformation of health and care with a strong political involvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13601-019-0279-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734297PMC
September 2019

Refractory urticaria and the importance of diagnosing Schnitzler's syndrome.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Apr 29;12(4). Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

A 52-year-old man presented with chronic urticaria that was refractory to standard chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) treatment. Over time, he developed systemic symptoms including fatigue, weight loss, arthralgia and bone pain. His laboratory investigations also became significant for microcytic anaemia, neutrophilia and elevated C reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and IgE levels, in addition to an IgM monoclonal protein. He achieved only partial remission with typical medications for CSU including omalizumab, cyclosporine and cetirizine. After 6 years, his worsening symptoms and abnormal investigations led to a rare diagnosis of Schnitzler's syndrome and a trial of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, which caused a rapid and complete resolution of his symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2018-228546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6505991PMC
April 2019