Publications by authors named "Dennis Mook-Kanamori"

165 Publications

Genetic Studies of Metabolomics Change After a Liquid Meal Illuminate Novel Pathways for Glucose and Lipid Metabolism.

Diabetes 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Humans spend the greater part of the day in a postprandial state. However, the genetic basis of postprandial blood measures is relatively uncharted territory. We set out to examine the genetics of variation in concentrations of postprandial metabolites (t=150 min) in response to a liquid mixed meal through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) performed in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study (N=5,705). The metabolite response GWAS identified an association between glucose change and rs10830963:G in the melatonin receptor 1B (beta (SE): -0.23 (0.03), P-value: 2.15×10). In addition, locus led by rs458741:C showed strong associations to extremely large VLDL particle (XXLVLDL) response (with XXLVLDLC: beta (SE): 0.17 (0.03) P-value: 5.76×10 and with XXLVLDLCE: beta (SE): 0.17 (0.03), P-value: 9.74×10), which also revealed strong associations to body composition and diabetes in the UK Biobank (p-values<5×10). Furthermore, the associations between XXLVLDL response and insulinogenic index, HOMAβ, ISI matsuda index and HbA1c in the NEO study further implied the role of chylomicron synthesis in diabetes (with FDR corrected q-value<0.05). To conclude, genetic studies of metabolomics change after a liquid meal illuminate novel pathways for glucose and lipid metabolism. Further studies are warranted to corroborate biological pathways of locus underlying diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db21-0397DOI Listing
October 2021

Rare and low-frequency exonic variants and gene-by-smoking interactions in pulmonary function.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 29;11(1):19365. Epub 2021 Sep 29.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic variants associated with spirometric measures of pulmonary function, including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV), forced vital capacity, and their ratio. However, variants with lower minor allele frequencies are less explored. We conducted a large-scale gene-smoking interaction meta-analysis on exonic rare and low-frequency variants involving 44,429 individuals of European ancestry in the discovery stage and sought replication in the UK BiLEVE study with 45,133 European ancestry samples and UK Biobank study with 59,478 samples. We leveraged data on cigarette smoking, the major environmental risk factor for reduced lung function, by testing gene-by-smoking interaction effects only and simultaneously testing the genetic main effects and interaction effects. The most statistically significant signal that replicated was a previously reported low-frequency signal in GPR126, distinct from common variant associations in this gene. Although only nominal replication was obtained for a top rare variant signal rs142935352 in one of the two studies, interaction and joint tests for current smoking and PDE3B were significantly associated with FEV. This study investigates the utility of assessing gene-by-smoking interactions and underscores their effects on potential pulmonary function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-98120-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8481467PMC
September 2021

Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) as a drug target for cardiovascular disease.

Nat Commun 2021 09 24;12(1):5640. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Institute of Cardiovascular Science, Faculty of Population Health, University College London, London, UK.

Development of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors for coronary heart disease (CHD) has yet to deliver licensed medicines. To distinguish compound from drug target failure, we compared evidence from clinical trials and drug target Mendelian randomization of CETP protein concentration, comparing this to Mendelian randomization of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9). We show that previous failures of CETP inhibitors are likely compound related, as illustrated by significant degrees of between-compound heterogeneity in effects on lipids, blood pressure, and clinical outcomes observed in trials. On-target CETP inhibition, assessed through Mendelian randomization, is expected to reduce the risk of CHD, heart failure, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease, while increasing the risk of age-related macular degeneration. In contrast, lower PCSK9 concentration is anticipated to decrease the risk of CHD, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke, while potentially increasing the risk of Alzheimer's disease and asthma. Due to distinct effects on lipoprotein metabolite profiles, joint inhibition of CETP and PCSK9 may provide added benefit. In conclusion, we provide genetic evidence that CETP is an effective target for CHD prevention but with a potential on-target adverse effect on age-related macular degeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25703-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8463530PMC
September 2021

Associations of metabolomic profiles with circulating vitamin E and urinary vitamin E metabolites in middle-aged individuals.

Nutrition 2021 Jul 29;93:111440. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Vitamin E (α-tocopherol [α-TOH]) is transported in lipoprotein particles in blood, but little is known about the transportation of its oxidized metabolites. In the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study, we aimed to investigate the associations of 147 circulating metabolomic measures obtained through targeted nuclear magnetic resonance with serum α-TOH and its urinary enzymatic (α-CEHC) and oxidized (α-TLHQ) metabolites from 24-h urine quantified by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariable linear regression analyses, in which multiple testing was taken into account, were performed to assess associations between metabolomic measures (determinants; standardized to mean = 0, SD = 1) and vitamin E metabolites (outcomes), adjusted for demographic factors. We analyzed 474 individuals (55% women, 45% men) with a mean (SD) age of 55.7 (6.0) y. Out of 147 metabolomic measures, 106 were associated (P < 1.34 × 10) with serum α-TOH (median β [interquartile range] = 0.416 [0.383-0.466]), predominantly lipoproteins associated with higher α-TOH. The associations of metabolomic measures with urinary α-CEHC have directions similar to those with α-TOH, but effect sizes were smaller and non-significant (median β [interquartile range] = 0.065 [0.047-0.084]). However, associations of metabolomic measures with urinary α-TLHQ were markedly different from those with both serum α-TOH and urinary α-CEHC, with negative and small-to-null relations to most very-low-density lipoproteins and amino acids. Therefore, our results highlight the differences in the lipoproteins involved in the transportation of circulating α-TOH and oxidized vitamin E metabolites. This indicates that circulating α-TOH may be representative of the enzymatic but not the antioxidative function of vitamin E.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111440DOI Listing
July 2021

A tangled start: The link between childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, and relationships in adulthood.

Child Abuse Negl 2021 Nov 13;121:105228. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Institute of Clinical Psychology, Leiden University, the Netherlands.

Background: Adults with a history of childhood maltreatment are more likely to experience distrust, feel distant from others, and develop an insecure attachment style which may also affect relationship quality. Furthermore, childhood maltreatment has been linked to several mental health problems; including, depression, anxiety, and alcohol dependance severity, that are also known to relationship quality.

Objective: The current study was designed to investigate to what extent childhood maltreatment is associated with adult insecure attachment and intimate relationships and whether this association is mediated by psychopathology.

Participants And Method: In a study comprised of 2035 adults aged 18-65, we investigated whether childhood maltreatment was associated with insecure adult attachment styles and the quality of intimate relationships and whether this was mediated by depression, anxiety, and alcohol dependence severity (based on repeated assessments of the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self Report, Beck Anxiety Index, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test respectively).

Results: The path model showed an acceptable fit, RMSEA = 0.05, and suggested full mediation of the association of childhood maltreatment with quality of intimate relationships by depression severity and a) anxious attachment (β = -4.0 ∗ 10; 95% CI = -5.5 ∗ 10, -2.7 ∗ 10) and b) avoidant attachment (β = -7.2 ∗ 10; 95% CI = -9.6 ∗ 10, -4.9 ∗ 10). Anxiety and alcohol dependence severity were not significant mediators.

Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is associated with a lower quality of intimate relationships, which is fully mediated by depression severity and insecure attachment styles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105228DOI Listing
November 2021

Genetic insights into biological mechanisms governing human ovarian ageing.

Nature 2021 08 4;596(7872):393-397. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Genome Integrity and Instability Group, Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Reproductive longevity is essential for fertility and influences healthy ageing in women, but insights into its underlying biological mechanisms and treatments to preserve it are limited. Here we identify 290 genetic determinants of ovarian ageing, assessed using normal variation in age at natural menopause (ANM) in about 200,000 women of European ancestry. These common alleles were associated with clinical extremes of ANM; women in the top 1% of genetic susceptibility have an equivalent risk of premature ovarian insufficiency to those carrying monogenic FMR1 premutations. The identified loci implicate a broad range of DNA damage response (DDR) processes and include loss-of-function variants in key DDR-associated genes. Integration with experimental models demonstrates that these DDR processes act across the life-course to shape the ovarian reserve and its rate of depletion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that experimental manipulation of DDR pathways highlighted by human genetics increases fertility and extends reproductive life in mice. Causal inference analyses using the identified genetic variants indicate that extending reproductive life in women improves bone health and reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, but increases the risk of hormone-sensitive cancers. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that govern ovarian ageing, when they act, and how they might be targeted by therapeutic approaches to extend fertility and prevent disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03779-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7611832PMC
August 2021

Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption May Modify Associations Between Genetic Variants in the CHREBP (Carbohydrate Responsive Element Binding Protein) Locus and HDL-C (High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol) and Triglyceride Concentrations.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2021 Aug 16;14(4):e003288. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology (R.L.G., D.O.M.-K., F.R.R., R.dM.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.

Background: ChREBP (carbohydrate responsive element binding protein) is a transcription factor that responds to sugar consumption. Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and genetic variants in the locus have separately been linked to HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and triglyceride concentrations. We hypothesized that SSB consumption would modify the association between genetic variants in the locus and dyslipidemia.

Methods: Data from 11 cohorts from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium (N=63 599) and the UK Biobank (N=59 220) were used to quantify associations of SSB consumption, genetic variants, and their interaction on HDL-C and triglyceride concentrations using linear regression models. A total of 1606 single nucleotide polymorphisms within or near were considered. SSB consumption was estimated from validated questionnaires, and participants were grouped by their estimated intake.

Results: In a meta-analysis, rs71556729 was significantly associated with higher HDL-C concentrations only among the highest SSB consumers (β, 2.12 [95% CI, 1.16-3.07] mg/dL per allele; <0.0001), but not significantly among the lowest SSB consumers (=0.81; <0.0001). Similar results were observed for 2 additional variants (rs35709627 and rs71556736). For triglyceride, rs55673514 was positively associated with triglyceride concentrations only among the highest SSB consumers (β, 0.06 [95% CI, 0.02-0.09] ln-mg/dL per allele, =0.001) but not the lowest SSB consumers (=0.84; =0.0005).

Conclusions: Our results identified genetic variants in the locus that may protect against SSB-associated reductions in HDL-C and other variants that may exacerbate SSB-associated increases in triglyceride concentrations. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00005133, NCT00005121, NCT00005487, and NCT00000479.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8373451PMC
August 2021

The Relation Between Adult Weight Gain, Adipocyte Volume, and the Metabolic Profile at Middle Age.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Oct;106(11):e4438-e4447

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, 2300RC Leiden, the Netherlands.

Context: Weight gain during adulthood increases cardiometabolic disease risk, possibly through adipocyte hypertrophy.

Objective: We aimed to study the specific metabolomic profile of adult weight gain, and to examine its association with adipocyte volume.

Methods: Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics were measured in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study (n = 6347, discovery) and Oxford Biobank (n = 6317, replication). Adult weight gain was calculated as the absolute difference between body mass index (BMI) at middle age and recalled BMI at age 20 years. We performed linear regression analyses with both exposures BMI at age 20 years and weight gain, and separately with BMI at middle age in relation to 149 serum metabolomic measures, adjusted for age, sex, and multiple testing. Additionally, subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte biopsies were collected in a subset of the Oxford Biobank (n = 114) to estimate adipocyte volume.

Results: Mean (SD) weight gain was 4.5 (3.7) kg/m2 in the NEO study and 3.6 (3.7) kg/m2 in the Oxford Biobank. Weight gain, and not BMI at age 20 nor middle age, was associated with concentrations of 7 metabolomic measures after successful replication, which included polyunsaturated fatty acids, small to medium low-density lipoproteins, and total intermediate-density lipoprotein. One SD weight gain was associated with 386 μm3 (95% CI, 143-629) higher median adipocyte volume. Adipocyte volume was associated with lipoprotein particles specific for adult weight gain.

Conclusion: Adult weight gain is associated with specific metabolomic alterations of which the higher lipoprotein concentrations were likely contributed by larger adipocyte volumes, presumably linking weight gain to cardiometabolic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab477DOI Listing
October 2021

Association of measures of body fat with serum alpha-tocopherol and its metabolites in middle-aged individuals.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 07 18;31(8):2407-2415. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The accumulation of fat increases the formation of lipid peroxides, which are partly scavenged by alpha-tocopherol (α-TOH). Here, we aimed to investigate the associations between different measures of (abdominal) fat and levels of urinary α-TOH metabolites in middle-aged individuals.

Methods And Results: In this cross-sectional analysis in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study (N = 511, 53% women; mean [SD] age of 55 [6.1] years), serum α-TOH and α-TOH metabolites from 24-h urine were measured as alpha-tocopheronolactone hydroquinone (α-TLHQ, oxidized) and alpha-carboxymethyl-hydroxychroman (α-CEHC, enzymatically converted) using liquid-chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Body mass index and total body fat were measured, and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (aSAT and VAT) were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Using multivariable-adjusted linear regression analyses, we analysed the associations of BMI, TBF, aSAT and VAT with levels of urinary α-TOH metabolites, adjusted for confounders. We observed no evidence for associations between body fat measures and serum α-TOH. Higher BMI and TBF were associated with lower urinary levels of TLHQ (0.95 [95%CI: 0.90, 1.00] and 0.94 [0.88, 1.01] times per SD, respectively) and with lower TLHQ relative to CEHC (0.93 [0.90, 0.98] and 0.93 [0.87, 0.98] times per SD, respectively). We observed similar associations for VAT (TLHQ: 0.94 [0.89, 0.99] times per SD), but not for aSAT.

Conclusions: Opposite to our research hypothesis, higher abdominal adiposity was moderately associated with lower levels of oxidized α-TOH metabolites, which might reflect lower vitamin E antioxidative activity in individuals with higher abdominal fat instead.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.05.001DOI Listing
July 2021

Plasma Proteomics of Renal Function: A Trans-ethnic Meta-analysis and Mendelian Randomization Study.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

M Prunotto, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Studies on the relationship between renal function and the human plasma proteome have identified several potential biomarkers. However, investigations have been conducted largely in European populations, and causality of the associations between plasma proteins and kidney function has never been addressed.

Methods: A cross-sectional study of 993 plasma proteins among 2,882 participants in four studies of European and admixed ancestries (KORA, INTERVAL, HUNT, QMDiab) identified trans-ethnic associations between eGFR/CKD and proteomic biomarkers. For the replicated associations, two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) was used to investigate potential causal relationships. Publicly available datasets and transcriptomic data from independent studies were used to examine the association between gene expression in kidney tissue and eGFR .

Results: Fifty-seven plasma proteins were associated with eGFR, including one novel protein. Twenty-three of these were additionally associated with CKD. The strongest inferred causal effect was the positive effect of eGFR on testican-2, in line with the known biological role of this protein and the expression of its protein-coding gene (SPOCK2) in renal tissue. We also observed suggestive evidence of an effect of melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA), carbonic anhydrase III, and cystatin-M on eGFR.

Conclusions: In a discovery-replication setting, we identified 57 proteins trans-ethnically associated with eGFR. The revealed causal relationships are an important stepping-stone in establishing testican-2 as a clinically relevant physiological marker of kidney disease progression, and point to additional proteins warranting further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020071070DOI Listing
June 2021

Metabolomics dissection of depression heterogeneity and related cardiometabolic risk.

Psychol Med 2021 Jun 3:1-10. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit, The Netherlands.

Background: A recent hypothesis postulates the existence of an 'immune-metabolic depression' (IMD) dimension characterized by metabolic dysregulations. Combining data on metabolomics and depressive symptoms, we aimed to identify depressions associated with an increased risk of adverse metabolic alterations.

Method: Clustering data were from 1094 individuals with major depressive disorder in the last 6 months and measures of 149 metabolites from a 1H-NMR platform and 30 depressive symptoms (IDS-SR30). Canonical correlation analyses (CCA) were used to identify main independent metabolite-symptom axes of variance. Then, for the replication, we examined the association of the identified dimensions with metabolites from the same platform and cardiometabolic diseases in an independent population-based cohort (n = 6572).

Results: CCA identified an overall depression dimension and a dimension resembling IMD, in which symptoms such as sleeping too much, increased appetite, and low energy level had higher relative loading. In the independent sample, the overall depression dimension was associated with lower cardiometabolic risk, such as (i.e. per s.d.) HOMA-1B -0.06 (95% CI -0.09 - -0.04), and visceral adipose tissue -0.10 cm2 (95% CI -0.14 - -0.07). In contrast, the IMD dimension was associated with well-known cardiometabolic diseases such as higher visceral adipose tissue 0.08 cm2 (95% CI 0.04-0.12), HOMA-1B 0.06 (95% CI 0.04-0.09), and lower HDL-cholesterol levels -0.03 mmol/L (95% CI -0.05 - -0.01).

Conclusions: Combining metabolomics and clinical symptoms we identified a replicable depression dimension associated with adverse metabolic alterations, in line with the IMD hypothesis. Patients with IMD may be at higher cardiometabolic risk and may benefit from specific treatment targeting underlying metabolic dysregulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721001471DOI Listing
June 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

Agreement of aptamer proteomics with standard methods for measuring venous thrombosis biomarkers.

Res Pract Thromb Haemost 2021 May 4;5(4):e12526. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology Leiden University Medical Center Leiden The Netherlands.

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complex disease with an incidence rate of about 1 in 1000 per year. Despite the availability of validated biomarkers for VTE, unprovoked events account for 50% of first events. Therefore, emerging high-throughput proteomics are promising methods for the expansion of VTE biomarkers. One such promising high-throughput platform is SomaScan, which uses a large library of synthetic oligonucleotide ligands known as aptamers to measure thousands of proteins.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of the aptamer-based SomaScan platform for VTE studies by examining its agreement with standard laboratory methods.

Methods: We examined the agreement between eight established VTE biomarkers measured by SomaScan and standard laboratory immunoassay and viscosity-based instruments in 54 individuals (27 cases and 27 controls) from the Thrombophilia, Hypercoagulability and Environmental Risks in Venous Thromboembolism study. We performed the agreement analysis by using a regression model and predicting the estimates and the 95% prediction interval (PI) of the laboratory instrument values using SomaScan values.

Results: SomaScan measurements exhibited overall poor agreement, particularly for D-dimer (average fit, 492.7 ng/mL; 95% PI, 110.0-1998.2) and fibrinogen (average fit, 3.3 g/L; 95% PI, 2.0-4.7).

Conclusion: Our results indicate that SomaScan measurement had poor agreement with the standard laboratory measurements. These results may explain why some genome-wide association studies with VTE proteins measured by SomaScan did not confirm previously identified loci. Therefore, SomaScan should be considered with caution in VTE studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rth2.12526DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8110437PMC
May 2021

The effect of physical activity level and exercise training on the association between plasma branched-chain amino acids and intrahepatic lipid content in participants with obesity.

Int J Obes (Lond) 2021 07 2;45(7):1510-1520. Epub 2021 May 2.

Department of Nutrition and Movement Sciences, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Aims: To evaluate whether the association between plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and intrahepatic lipid (IHL) was affected by physical activity level. Furthermore, to investigate if a conventional exercise training program, a subcategory of physical activity, could lower plasma BCAA along with alterations in IHL content in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and people with nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL).

Methods: To investigate the effect of physical activity on the association between plasma BCAA and IHL content, linear regression analyses were performed in 1983 individuals from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) stratified by physical activity frequency. Furthermore, the effect of a 12-week supervised combined aerobic resistance-exercise program on plasma BCAA, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp), and IHL (proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H-MRS)) was investigated in seven patients with T2DM, seven individuals with NAFL and seven BMI-matched control participants (CON).

Results: We observed positive associations between plasma valine, isoleucine and leucine level, and IHL content (1.29 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.38), 1.52 (95% CI: 1.43, 1.61), and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.44, 1.64) times IHL, respectively, per standard deviation of plasma amino acid level). Similar associations were observed in less active versus more active individuals. Exercise training did not change plasma BCAA levels among groups, but reduced IHL content in NAFL (from 11.6 ± 3.0% pre-exercise to 8.1 ± 2.0% post exercise, p < 0.05) and CON (from 2.4 ± 0.6% pre-exercise to 1.6 ± 1.4% post exercise, p < 0.05), and improved peripheral insulin sensitivity in NAFL as well by ~23% (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: The association between plasma BCAA levels and IHL is not affected by physical activity level. Exercise training reduced IHL without affecting plasma BCAA levels in individuals with NAFL and CON. We conclude that exercise training-induced reduction in IHL content is not related to changes in plasma BCAA levels.

Trial Registration: Trial registry number: NCT01317576.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41366-021-00815-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8236400PMC
July 2021

Genetically Determined Serum Calcium Levels and Markers of Ventricular Repolarization: A Mendelian Randomization Study in the UK Biobank.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2021 Jun 22;14(3):e003231. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Internal Medicine (D.v.H., R.N.), Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands.

Background: ECG markers of ventricular depolarization and repolarization are associated with an increased risk of arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. Our prior work indicated lower serum calcium concentrations are associated with longer QT and JT intervals in the general population. Here, we investigate whether serum calcium is a causal risk factor for changes in ECG measures using Mendelian randomization (MR).

Methods: Independent lead variants from a newly performed genome-wide association study for serum calcium in >300 000 European-ancestry participants from UK Biobank were used as instrumental variables. Two-sample MR analyses were performed to approximate the causal effect of serum calcium on QT, JT, and QRS intervals using an inverse-weighted method in 76 226 participants not contributing to the serum calcium genome-wide association study. Sensitivity analyses including MR-Egger, weighted-median estimator, and MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier were performed to test for the presence of horizontal pleiotropy.

Results: Two hundred five independent lead calcium-associated variants were used as instrumental variables for MR. A decrease of 0.1 mmol/L serum calcium was associated with longer QT (3.01 ms [95% CI, 2.03 to 3.99]) and JT (2.89 ms [1.91 to 3.87]) intervals. A weak association was observed for QRS duration (secondary analyses only). Results were concordant in all sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: These analyses support a causal effect of serum calcium levels on ventricular repolarization, in a middle-aged population of European-ancestry where serum calcium concentrations are likely stable and chronic. Modulation of calcium concentration may, therefore, directly influence cardiovascular disease risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.120.003231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208093PMC
June 2021

Multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-sleep interactions identify novel loci for blood pressure.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Long and short sleep duration are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP), possibly through effects on molecular pathways that influence neuroendocrine and vascular systems. To gain new insights into the genetic basis of sleep-related BP variation, we performed genome-wide gene by short or long sleep duration interaction analyses on four BP traits (systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure) across five ancestry groups in two stages using 2 degree of freedom (df) joint test followed by 1df test of interaction effects. Primary multi-ancestry analysis in 62,969 individuals in stage 1 identified three novel gene by sleep interactions that were replicated in an additional 59,296 individuals in stage 2 (stage 1 + 2 P < 5 × 10), including rs7955964 (FIGNL2/ANKRD33) that increases BP among long sleepers, and rs73493041 (SNORA26/C9orf170) and rs10406644 (KCTD15/LSM14A) that increase BP among short sleepers (P < 5 × 10). Secondary ancestry-specific analysis identified another novel gene by long sleep interaction at rs111887471 (TRPC3/KIAA1109) in individuals of African ancestry (P = 2 × 10). Combined stage 1 and 2 analyses additionally identified significant gene by long sleep interactions at 10 loci including MKLN1 and RGL3/ELAVL3 previously associated with BP, and significant gene by short sleep interactions at 10 loci including C2orf43 previously associated with BP (P < 10). 2df test also identified novel loci for BP after modeling sleep that has known functions in sleep-wake regulation, nervous and cardiometabolic systems. This study indicates that sleep and primary mechanisms regulating BP may interact to elevate BP level, suggesting novel insights into sleep-related BP regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01087-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8517040PMC
April 2021

Investigating the relationships between unfavourable habitual sleep and metabolomic traits: evidence from multi-cohort multivariable regression and Mendelian randomization analyses.

BMC Med 2021 03 18;19(1):69. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Background: Sleep traits are associated with cardiometabolic disease risk, with evidence from Mendelian randomization (MR) suggesting that insomnia symptoms and shorter sleep duration increase coronary artery disease risk. We combined adjusted multivariable regression (AMV) and MR analyses of phenotypes of unfavourable sleep on 113 metabolomic traits to investigate possible biochemical mechanisms linking sleep to cardiovascular disease.

Methods: We used AMV (N = 17,368) combined with two-sample MR (N = 38,618) to examine effects of self-reported insomnia symptoms, total habitual sleep duration, and chronotype on 113 metabolomic traits. The AMV analyses were conducted on data from 10 cohorts of mostly Europeans, adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. For the MR analyses, we used summary results from published European-ancestry genome-wide association studies of self-reported sleep traits and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) serum metabolites. We used the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method and complemented this with sensitivity analyses to assess MR assumptions.

Results: We found consistent evidence from AMV and MR analyses for associations of usual vs. sometimes/rare/never insomnia symptoms with lower citrate (- 0.08 standard deviation (SD)[95% confidence interval (CI) - 0.12, - 0.03] in AMV and - 0.03SD [- 0.07, - 0.003] in MR), higher glycoprotein acetyls (0.08SD [95% CI 0.03, 0.12] in AMV and 0.06SD [0.03, 0.10) in MR]), lower total very large HDL particles (- 0.04SD [- 0.08, 0.00] in AMV and - 0.05SD [- 0.09, - 0.02] in MR), and lower phospholipids in very large HDL particles (- 0.04SD [- 0.08, 0.002] in AMV and - 0.05SD [- 0.08, - 0.02] in MR). Longer total sleep duration associated with higher creatinine concentrations using both methods (0.02SD per 1 h [0.01, 0.03] in AMV and 0.15SD [0.02, 0.29] in MR) and with isoleucine in MR analyses (0.22SD [0.08, 0.35]). No consistent evidence was observed for effects of chronotype on metabolomic measures.

Conclusions: Whilst our results suggested that unfavourable sleep traits may not cause widespread metabolic disruption, some notable effects were observed. The evidence for possible effects of insomnia symptoms on glycoprotein acetyls and citrate and longer total sleep duration on creatinine and isoleucine might explain some of the effects, found in MR analyses of these sleep traits on coronary heart disease, which warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-01939-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971964PMC
March 2021

Urinary oxidized, but not enzymatic vitamin E metabolites are inversely associated with measures of glucose homeostasis in middle-aged healthy individuals.

Clin Nutr 2021 06 3;40(6):4192-4200. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background & Aims: Damage induced by lipid peroxidation has been associated with impaired glucose homeostasis. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol, α-TOH) competitively reacts with lipid peroxyl radicals to mitigate oxidative damage, and forms oxidized vitamin E metabolites. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate the associations between α-TOH metabolites (oxidized and enzymatic) in both circulation and urine and measures of glucose homeostasis in the general middle-aged population.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was embedded in the population-based Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) Study. α-TOH metabolites in blood (α-TOH and α-CEHC-SO) and urine [sulfate (SO) and glucuronide (GLU) of both α-TLHQ (oxidized) and α-CEHC (enzymatic)] were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS). Measures of glucose homeostasis (HOMA-B, HOMA-IR, Insulinogenic index and Matsuda index) were obtained from fasting and postprandial blood samples. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to assess the associations of α-TOH metabolites and measures of glucose homeostasis.

Results: We included 498 participants (45% men) with mean (SD) age of 55.8 (6.1) years who did not use glucose-lowering medication. While blood α-TOH was not associated with measures of glucose homeostasis, urinary oxidized metabolites (α-TLHQ-SO/GLU) were associated with HOMA-IR and Matsuda index. For example, a one-SD higher α-TLHQ-SO was associated with 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87, 0.97) fold lower HOMA-IR and 1.06 (1.01, 1.11) fold higher Matsuda index, respectively. Similar results were obtained for the urinary α-TLHQ to α-CEHC ratio as a measure of oxidized-over-enzymatic conversion of α-TOH.

Conclusion: Higher urinary levels of oxidized α-TOH metabolites as well as higher oxidized-to-enzymatic α-TOH metabolite ratio, but not circulating α-TOH or enzymatic metabolites, were associated with lower insulin resistance. Rather than circulating α-TOH, estimates of the conversion of α-TOH might be informative in relation to health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2021.01.039DOI Listing
June 2021

Associations between Lifestyle Factors and Vitamin E Metabolites in the General Population.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Dec 15;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands.

The antioxidant vitamin E (α-tocopherol, α-TOH) protects lipids from oxidation by reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that lifestyle factors associate with vitamin E metabolism marked by urinary α-tocopheronolactone hydroquinone (α-TLHQ) and α-carboxymethyl-hydroxychroman (α-CEHC levels), as potential reflection of lipid oxidation. We conducted a cross-sectional study in the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity Study. Serum α-TOH, and urinary α-TLHQ and α-CEHC were quantified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Information on the lifestyle factors (sleep, physical activity (PA), smoking and alcohol) were collected through questionnaires. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between the lifestyle factors and α-TOH measures. A total of 530 participants (46% men) were included with mean (SD) age of 56 (6) years. Of the examined lifestyle factors, only poor sleep was associated with a higher serum α-TOH (mean difference: 4% (95% CI: 1, 7%)). Current smoking was associated with higher urinary α-CEHC (32%: (14%, 53%)), with evidence of a dose-response relationship with smoking intensity (low pack years, 24% (2, 52%); high pack years, 55% (25, 93%)). Moderate physical activity was associated with a lower α-TLHQ relative to α-CEHC (-17%: (-26, -6%), compared with low PA). Only specific lifestyle factors associate with vitamin E metabolism. Examining serum α-TOH does not provide complete insight in vitamin E antioxidant capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9121280DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765431PMC
December 2020

A Workflow for Missing Values Imputation of Untargeted Metabolomics Data.

Metabolites 2020 Nov 26;10(12). Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Postal Zone C7-P, PO Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.

Metabolomics studies have seen a steady growth due to the development and implementation of affordable and high-quality metabolomics platforms. In large metabolite panels, measurement values are frequently missing and, if neglected or sub-optimally imputed, can cause biased study results. We provided a publicly available, user-friendly script to streamline the imputation of missing endogenous, unannotated, and xenobiotic metabolites. We evaluated the multivariate imputation by chained equations (MICE) and k-nearest neighbors (kNN) analyses implemented in our script by simulations using measured metabolites data from the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO) study ( = 599). We simulated missing values in four unique metabolites from different pathways with different correlation structures in three sample sizes (599, 150, 50) with three missing percentages (15%, 30%, 60%), and using two missing mechanisms (completely at random and not at random). Based on the simulations, we found that for MICE, larger sample size was the primary factor decreasing bias and error. For kNN, the primary factor reducing bias and error was the metabolite correlation with its predictor metabolites. MICE provided consistently higher performance measures particularly for larger datasets ( > 50). In conclusion, we presented an imputation workflow in a publicly available script to impute untargeted metabolomics data. Our simulations provided insight into the effects of sample size, percentage missing, and correlation structure on the accuracy of the two imputation methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo10120486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761057PMC
November 2020

Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals.

Nat Genet 2020 12 23;52(12):1314-1332. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00713-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610439PMC
December 2020

Causes and consequences of the opioid epidemic in the Netherlands: a population-based cohort study.

Sci Rep 2020 09 17;10(1):15309. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Over the past decade opioid use has risen globally. The causes and consequences of this increase, especially in Europe, are poorly understood. We conducted a population-based cohort study using national statistics on analgesics prescriptions, opioid poisoning hospital admissions and deaths in the Netherlands from 2013 to 2017. Pain prevalence and severity was determined by using results of 2014-2017 Health Interview Surveys. Between 2013 and 2017 the proportion of residents receiving opioid prescription rose from 4.9% to 6.0%, and the proportion of those receiving NSAIDs decreased from 15.5% to 13.7%. Self-reported pain prevalence and severity remained constant, as 44.7% of 5,119 respondents reported no pain-impeded activities-of-daily-living in 2014 (aRR, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.95-1.06] in 2017 vs 2014). Over the observation period, the incidence of opioid poisoning hospitalization and death increased from 8.6 to 12.9 per 100,000 inhabitants. The incidence of severe outcomes related to opioid use increased, as 3.9% of 1,343 hospitalized for opioid poisoning died in 2013 and 4.6% of 2,055 in 2017. We demonstrated that NSAIDs prescription decreased and opioid prescription increased in the Netherlands since 2013, without an increase in pain prevalence and severity. Consequently, the incidence of severe outcomes related to opioids increased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72084-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499208PMC
September 2020

Genetic Studies of Leptin Concentrations Implicate Leptin in the Regulation of Early Adiposity.

Diabetes 2020 12 11;69(12):2806-2818. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Biostatistics, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA.

Leptin influences food intake by informing the brain about the status of body fat stores. Rare mutations associated with congenital leptin deficiency cause severe early-onset obesity that can be mitigated by administering leptin. However, the role of genetic regulation of leptin in polygenic obesity remains poorly understood. We performed an exome-based analysis in up to 57,232 individuals of diverse ancestries to identify genetic variants that influence adiposity-adjusted leptin concentrations. We identify five novel variants, including four missense variants, in , , , and , and one intergenic variant near The missense variant Val94Met (rs17151919) in was common in individuals of African ancestry only, and its association with lower leptin concentrations was specific to this ancestry ( = 2 × 10, = 3,901). Using in vitro analyses, we show that the Met94 allele decreases leptin secretion. We also show that the Met94 allele is associated with higher BMI in young African-ancestry children but not in adults, suggesting that leptin regulates early adiposity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db20-0070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7679778PMC
December 2020

Associations between outdoor temperature and bright sunlight with metabolites in two population-based European cohorts.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2020 11 28;30(12):2252-2261. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Section of Gerontology and Geriatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Outdoor temperature and bright sunlight may directly and/or indirectly modulate systemic metabolism. We assessed the associations between outdoor temperature and bright sunlight duration with metabolomics.

Methods And Results: Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken in non-diabetic individuals from the Oxford BioBank (OBB; N = 6368; mean age 47.0 years, males 44%) and the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity (NEO; N = 5916; mean age 55.6 years, males 43%) study. Data on mean outdoor bright sunlight and temperature were collected from local weather stations in the week prior to blood sampling. Fasting serum levels of 148 metabolites, including 14 lipoprotein subclasses, were measured using NMR spectroscopy. Linear regression analyses were performed to assess the associations between mean outdoor temperature and bright sunlight duration with metabolomics adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, season and either outdoor temperature or bright sunlight. A higher mean outdoor temperature was associated with increased serum concentrations of lipoprotein (sub)particles (β (SE) = 0.064 (0.018) SD per 5 °C, p = 5.03e) and certain amino acids such as phenylalanine (0.066 (0.016) SD, p = 6.44e) and leucine (0.111 (0.018) SD, p = 1.25e). In contrast, longer duration of bright sunlight was specifically associated with lower concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein (sub)particles (e.g., VLDL cholesterol (-0.024 (0.005) SD per 1-h bright sunlight, p = 8.06e)). The direction of effects was generally consistent between the OBB and NEO, although effect sizes were generally larger in the OBB.

Conclusions: Increased bright sunlight duration is associated with an improved metabolic profile whilst higher outdoor temperature may adversely impact cardiometabolic health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.07.030DOI Listing
November 2020

Genetic Determinants of Electrocardiographic P-Wave Duration and Relation to Atrial Fibrillation.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 10 21;13(5):387-395. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

DZHK (German Center for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Greifswald, Germany (A.T., U.V., M.D., S.B.F.).

Background: The P-wave duration (PWD) is an electrocardiographic measurement that represents cardiac conduction in the atria. Shortened or prolonged PWD is associated with atrial fibrillation (AF). We used exome-chip data to examine the associations between common and rare variants with PWD.

Methods: Fifteen studies comprising 64 440 individuals (56 943 European, 5681 African, 1186 Hispanic, 630 Asian) and ≈230 000 variants were used to examine associations with maximum PWD across the 12-lead ECG. Meta-analyses summarized association results for common variants; gene-based burden and sequence kernel association tests examined low-frequency variant-PWD associations. Additionally, we examined the associations between PWD loci and AF using previous AF genome-wide association studies.

Results: We identified 21 common and low-frequency genetic loci (14 novel) associated with maximum PWD, including several AF loci (, , , , , , , ). The top variants at known sarcomere genes () were associated with longer PWD and increased AF risk. However, top variants at other loci (eg, and ) were associated with longer PWD but lower AF risk.

Conclusions: Our results highlight multiple novel genetic loci associated with PWD, and underscore the shared mechanisms of atrial conduction and AF. Prolonged PWD may be an endophenotype for several different genetic mechanisms of AF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7578098PMC
October 2020

Effects of Technology Use on Ageing in Place: The iZi Pilots.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 07 14;17(14). Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Medical Center-Campus The Hague, Leiden University, Turfmarkt 99, 2511 DC The Hague, The Netherlands.

In the iZi study in The Hague, use and acceptance of commercially available technology by home-dwelling older citizens was studied, by comparing self-efficacy and perceived physical and mental Quality of Life (QoL)-related parameters on an intervention location of 279 households and a control location of 301 households. Technology adoption was clinically significantly associated with increased perceived physical QoL, as compared with control group, depending on the number of technology interventions that were used. A higher number of adopted technologies was associated with a stronger effect on perceived QoL. We tried to establish a way to measure clinical significance by using mixed methods, combining quantitative and qualitative evaluation and feeding results and feedback of participants directly back into our intervention. In general, this research is promising, since it shows that successful and effective adoption of technology by older people is feasible with commercially available products amongst home-dwelling older citizens. We think this way of working provides a better integration of scientific methods and clinical usability but demands a lot of communication and patience of researchers, citizens, and policymakers. A change in policy on how to target people for this kind of intervention might be warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399808PMC
July 2020

Genome-Wide Association Study of the Postprandial Triglyceride Response Yields Common Genetic Variation in LIPC (Hepatic Lipase).

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 08 30;13(4):e002693. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine (J.B.v.K., L.L.B., P.C.N.R., K.W.v.D.).

Background: The increase in serum triglyceride (TG) concentrations in response to a meal is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to elucidate the genetics of the postprandial TG response through genome-wide association studies (GWAS).

Methods: Participants of the NEO (Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity) study (n=5630) consumed a liquid mixed meal after an overnight fast. GWAS of fasting and postprandial serum TG at 150 minutes were performed. To identify genetic variation of postprandial TG independent of fasting TG, we calculated the TG response at 150 minutes by the residuals of a nonlinear regression that predicted TG at 150 minutes as a function of fasting TG. Association analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and principal components in a linear regression model. Next, using the identified variants as determinants, we performed linear regression analyses on the residuals of the postprandial response of 149 nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolite measures.

Results: GWAS of fasting TG and postprandial serum TG at 150 minutes resulted in completely overlapping loci, replicating previous GWAS. From GWAS of the TG response, we identified rs7350789-A (allele frequency=0.36), mapping to hepatic lipase (), to be associated with a smaller increase in TG concentrations at 150 minutes (β=-0.11; -value=5.1×10). Rs7350789-A was associated with responses of 33 metabolite measures (-value <1.34×10), mainly smaller increases of the TG-component in almost all HDL (high-density lipoprotein) subparticles (HDL-TG), a smaller decrease of HDL diameter and smaller increases of most components of VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) subparticles.

Conclusions: GWAS of the TG response identified a variant near as a main contributor to postprandial TG metabolism independent of fasting TG concentrations, resulting in smaller increases of HDL-TG and VLDL subparticles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002693DOI Listing
August 2020

Proteome-wide assessment of diabetes mellitus in Qatari identifies IGFBP-2 as a risk factor already with early glycaemic disturbances.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2020 08 22;689:108476. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands; Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, the Netherlands.

Background: Proteomics is expected to provide novel insights in the underlying pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we aimed to identify and biochemically characterize proteins associated with diabetes mellitus in a Qatari population.

Methods: In a diabetes case-control study (175 cases, 164 controls; Arab, South Asian and Philippine ethnicities), we conducted a discovery study to screen 1141 blood protein levels for associations with diabetes mellitus. Additional analyses were done in controls in relation to Hb1Ac, and biochemical characterization of the main findings was performed with metabolomics (501 metabolites). We performed two-sample Mendelian Randomization to provide evidence of potential causality using data from European descent of the DIAGRAM consortium (74,124 cases of diabetes mellitus and 824,006 controls) for the identified proteins for T2D and Hb1Ac.

Results: After accounting for multiple testing, 30 protein levels were different (p-values<8.6e) between cases and controls. Of these, a higher Hb1Ac in controls was associated with a lower IGFBP-2 level (p-value = 4.1e). IGFBP-2 protein level was found lower among cases compared with controls across all ethnicities. In controls, IGFBP-2 was associated with 21 metabolite levels, but specifically connected to the metabolite citrulline in network analyses. We observed no evidence, however, that the association between IGFBP-2 and diabetes mellitus was causal.

Conclusions: We specifically identified IGFBP-2 to be associated with diabetes mellitus, although with no evidence for causality, which was specifically connected to citrulline metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2020.108476DOI Listing
August 2020

Role of Rare and Low-Frequency Variants in Gene-Alcohol Interactions on Plasma Lipid Levels.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 08 8;13(4):e002772. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health (L.F.B., J.A.S., W.Z., S.L.R.K.), University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Background: Alcohol intake influences plasma lipid levels, and such effects may be moderated by genetic variants. We aimed to characterize the role of aggregated rare and low-frequency protein-coding variants in gene by alcohol consumption interactions associated with fasting plasma lipid levels.

Methods: In the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium, fasting plasma triglycerides and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured in 34 153 individuals with European ancestry from 5 discovery studies and 32 277 individuals from 6 replication studies. Rare and low-frequency functional protein-coding variants (minor allele frequency, ≤5%) measured by an exome array were aggregated by genes and evaluated by a gene-environment interaction test and a joint test of genetic main and gene-environment interaction effects. Two dichotomous self-reported alcohol consumption variables, current drinker, defined as any recurrent drinking behavior, and regular drinker, defined as the subset of current drinkers who consume at least 2 drinks per week, were considered.

Results: We discovered and replicated 21 gene-lipid associations at 13 known lipid loci through the joint test. Eight loci (, , , , , , , and ) remained significant after conditioning on the common index single-nucleotide polymorphism identified by previous genome-wide association studies, suggesting an independent role for rare and low-frequency variants at these loci. One significant gene-alcohol interaction on triglycerides in a novel locus was significantly discovered (=6.65×10 for the interaction test) and replicated at nominal significance level (=0.013) in .

Conclusions: In conclusion, this study applied new gene-based statistical approaches and suggested that rare and low-frequency genetic variants interacted with alcohol consumption on lipid levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7442680PMC
August 2020
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