Publications by authors named "Dennis M Maddox"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Mutation in Syne2 Causes Early Retinal Defects in Photoreceptors, Secondary Neurons, and Müller Glia.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015 Jun;56(6):3776-87

The Jackson Laboratory Bar Harbor, Maine, United States.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular basis and characterize the pathological consequences of a spontaneous mutation named cone photoreceptor function loss 8 (cpfl8) in a mouse model with a significantly reduced cone electroretinography (ERG) response.

Methods: The chromosomal position for the recessive cpfl8 mutation was determined by DNA pooling and by subsequent genotyping with simple sequence length polymorphic markers in an F2 intercross phenotyped by ERG. Genes within the candidate region of both mutants and controls were directly sequenced and compared. The effects of the mutation were examined in longitudinal studies by light microscopy, marker analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and ERG.

Results: The cpfl8 mutation was mapped to Chromosome 12, and a premature stop codon was identified in the spectrin repeat containing nuclear envelope 2 (Syne2) gene. The reduced cone ERG response was due to a significant reduction in cone photoreceptors. Longitudinal studies of the early postnatal retina indicated that the cone photoreceptors fail to develop properly, rod photoreceptors mislocalize to the inner nuclear layer, and both rods and cones undergo apoptosis prematurely. Moreover, we observed migration defects of secondary neurons and ectopic Müller cell bodies in the outer nuclear layer in early postnatal development.

Conclusions: SYNE2 is important for normal retinal development. We have determined that not only is photoreceptor nuclear migration affected, but also the positions of Müller glia and secondary neurons are disturbed early in retinal development. The cpfl8 mouse model will serve as an important resource for further examining the role of nuclear scaffolding and migration in the developing retina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.14-16047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4468423PMC
June 2015

A novel allele of Alx4 results in reduced Fgf10 expression and failure of eyelid fusion in mice.

Mamm Genome 2015 Apr 12;26(3-4):173-80. Epub 2015 Feb 12.

The Jackson Laboratory, 600 Main St., Bar Harbor, ME, 04609, USA.

Normal fusion of developing eyelids requires coordination of inductive signals from the eyelid mesenchyme with migration of the periderm cell layer and constriction of the eyelids across the eye. Failure of this process results in an eyelids open at birth (EOB) phenotype in mice. We have identified a novel spontaneous allele of Alx4 that displays EOB, in addition to polydactyly and cranial malformations. Alx4 is expressed in the eyelid mesenchyme prior to and during eyelid fusion in a domain overlapping the expression of genes that also play a role in normal eyelid development. We show that Alx4 mutant mice have reduced expression of Fgf10, a key factor expressed in the mesenchyme that is required for initiation of eyelid fusion by the periderm. This is accompanied by a reduced number of periderm cells expressing phosphorylated c-Jun, consistent with the incomplete ablation of Fgf10 expression. Together, these data demonstrate that eyelid fusion in mice requires the expression of Alx4, accompanied by the loss of normal expression of essential components of the eyelid fusion pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00335-015-9557-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4482110PMC
April 2015

An allele of microtubule-associated protein 1A (Mtap1a) reduces photoreceptor degeneration in Tulp1 and Tub Mutant Mice.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012 Mar 26;53(3):1663-9. Epub 2012 Mar 26.

Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA.

Purpose: To identify genes that modify photoreceptor cell loss in the retinas of homozygous Tulp1(tm1Pjn) and Tub(tub) mice, which exhibit juvenile retinitis pigmentosa.

Methods: Modifier loci were identified by genetic quantitative trait locus analysis. F2 Tulp1(tm1Pjn/tm1Pjn) mutant mice from a B6-Tulp1(tm1Pjn/tm1Pjn) × AKR/J intercross were genotyped with a panel of single nucleotide polymorphism markers and phenotyped by histology for photoreceptor nuclei remaining at 9 weeks of age. Genotype and phenotype data were correlated and examined with Pseudomarker 2.02 using 128 imputations to map modifier loci. Thresholds for the 63%, 10%, 5%, and 1% significance levels were obtained from 100 permutations. A significant, protective candidate modifier was identified by bioinformatic analysis and confirmed by crossing transgenic mice bearing a protective allele of this gene with Tulp1- and Tub-deficient mice.

Results: A significant, protective modifier locus on chromosome 2 and a suggestive locus on chromosome 13 that increases photoreceptor loss were identified in a B6-Tulp1(tm1Pjn/tm1Pjn) × AKR/J intercross. The chromosome 2 locus mapped near Mtap1a, which encodes a protein associated with microtubule-based intracellular transport and synapse function. The protective Mtap1a(129P2/OlaHsd) allele was shown to reduce photoreceptor loss in both Tulp1(tm1Pjn/tm1Pjn) and Tub(tub/tub) mice.

Conclusions: It was demonstrated that the gene Mtap1a, which modifies hearing loss in Tub(tub/tub) mice, also modifies retinal degeneration in Tub(tub/tub) and Tulp1(tm1Pjn/tm1Pjn) mice. These results suggest that functionally nonredundant members of the TULP family (TUB and TULP1) share a common functional interaction with MTAP1A.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.11-8871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3339923PMC
March 2012

An ENU-induced mutation in the Mertk gene (Mertknmf12) leads to a slow form of retinal degeneration.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011 Jul 1;52(7):4703-9. Epub 2011 Jul 1.

Nishina Laboratory, The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, Maine 04609, USA.

Purpose: To determine the basis and to characterize the phenotype of a chemically induced mutation in a mouse model of retinal degeneration.

Methods: Screening by indirect ophthalmoscopy identified a line of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenized mice demonstrating retinal patches. Longitudinal studies of retinal histologic sections showed photoreceptors in the peripheral retina undergoing slow, progressive degeneration. The mutation was named neuroscience mutagenesis facility 12 (nmf12), and mapping localized the critical region to Chromosome 2.

Results: Sequencing of nmf12 DNA revealed a point mutation in the c-mer tyrosine kinase gene, designated Mertk(nmf12). We detected elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor (Tnf, previously Tnfa) in retinas of Mertk(nmf12) homozygotes relative to wild-type controls and investigated whether the increase of TNF, an inflammatory cytokine produced by macrophages/monocytes that signals intracellularly to cause necrosis or apoptosis, could underlie the retinal degeneration observed in Mertk(nmf12) homozygotes. Mertk(nmf12) homozygous mice were mated to mice lacking the entire Tnf gene and partial coding sequences of the Lta (Tnfb) and Ltb (Tnfc) genes.(2) B6.129P2-Ltb/Tnf/Lta(tm1Dvk)/J homozygotes did not exhibit a retinal degeneration phenotype and will, hereafter, be referred to as Tnfabc(-/-) mice. Surprisingly, mice homozygous for both the Mertk(nmf12) and the Ltb/Tnf/Lta(tm1Dvk) allele (Tnfabc(-/-)) demonstrated an increase in the rate of retinal degeneration.

Conclusions: These findings illustrate that a mutation in the Mertk gene leads to a significantly slower progressive retinal degeneration compared with other alleles of Mertk. These results demonstrate that TNF family members play a role in protecting photoreceptors of Mertk(nmf12) homozygotes from cell death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-7077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3175976PMC
July 2011

Retina-specific GTPase accelerator RGS11/G beta 5S/R9AP is a constitutive heterotrimer selectively targeted to mGluR6 in ON-bipolar neurons.

J Neurosci 2009 Jul;29(29):9301-13

Department of Pharmacology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, USA.

Members of the R7 family of the regulators of G-protein signaling (R7 RGS) proteins form multi-subunit complexes that play crucial roles in processing the light responses of retinal neurons. The disruption of these complexes has been shown to lead to the loss of temporal resolution in retinal photoreceptors and deficient synaptic transmission to downstream neurons. Despite the well established role of one member of this family, RGS9-1, in controlling vertebrate phototransduction, the roles and organizational principles of other members in the retina are poorly understood. Here we investigate the composition, localization, and function of complexes containing RGS11, the closest homolog of RGS9-1. We find that RGS11 forms a novel obligatory trimeric complex with the short splice isoform of the type 5 G-protein beta subunit (G beta 5) and the RGS9 anchor protein (R9AP). The complex is expressed exclusively in the dendritic tips of ON-bipolar cells in which its localization is accomplished through a direct association with mGluR6, the glutamate receptor essential for the ON-bipolar light response. Although association with both R9AP and mGluR6 contributed to the proteolytic stabilization of the complex, postsynaptic targeting of RGS11 was not determined by its membrane anchor R9AP. Electrophysiological recordings of the light response in mouse rod ON-bipolar cells reveal that the genetic elimination of RGS11 has little effect on the deactivation of G alpha(o) in dark-adapted cells or during adaptation to background light. These results suggest that the deactivation of mGluR6 cascade during the light response may require the contribution of multiple GTPase activating proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1367-09.2009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2731308PMC
July 2009

Allelic variance between GRM6 mutants, Grm6nob3 and Grm6nob4 results in differences in retinal ganglion cell visual responses.

J Physiol 2008 Sep 7;586(18):4409-24. Epub 2008 Aug 7.

The Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME 04609, USA.

An electroretinogram (ERG) screen identified a mouse with a normal a-wave but lacking a b-wave, and as such it was designated no b-wave3 (nob3). The nob3 phenotype mapped to chromosome 11 in a region containing the metabotropic glutamate receptor 6 gene (Grm6). Sequence analyses of cDNA identified a splicing error in Grm6, introducing an insertion and an early stop codon into the mRNA of affected mice (designated Grm6(nob3)). Immunohistochemistry of the Grm6(nob3) retina showed that GRM6 was absent. The ERG and visual behaviour abnormalities of Grm6(nob3) mice are similar to Grm6(nob4) animals, and similar deficits were seen in compound heterozygotes (Grm6(nob4/nob3)), indicating that Grm6(nob3) is allelic to Grm6(nob4). Visual responses of Grm6(nob3) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to light onset were abnormal. Grm6(nob3) ON RGCs were rarely recorded, but when they were, had ill-defined receptive field (RF) centres and delayed onset latencies. When Grm6(nob3) OFF-centre RGC responses were evoked by full-field stimulation, significantly fewer converted that response to OFF/ON compared to Grm6(nob4) RGCs. Grm6(nob4/nob3) RGC responses verified the conclusion that the two mutants are allelic. We propose that Grm6(nob3) is a new model of human autosomal recessive congenital stationary night blindness. However, an allelic difference between Grm6(nob3) and Grm6(nob4) creates a disparity in inner retinal processing. Because the localization of GRM6 is limited to bipolar cells in the On pathway, the observed difference between RGCs in these mutants is likely to arise from differences in their inputs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2008.157289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2614010PMC
September 2008

The mouse vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter gene: expression during embryogenesis, analysis of its core promoter in neural stem cells and a reconsideration of its alternate splicing.

Gene 2005 May 9;351:39-49. Epub 2005 Apr 9.

Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, 30912, USA.

The vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter, VIAAT (also known as vesicular GABA transporter VGAT) transports GABA or glycine into synaptic vesicles. To initiate an analysis of the expression and regulation of VIAAT during neurogenesis we have cloned and characterized the mouse Viaat gene. We find that the mouse Viaat coding sequence is encoded by two exons spanning 5.3 kb. A survey of expression by whole mount in situ hybridization of mouse embryos indicates that Viaat is activated early in neuron differentiation and is expressed widely within the developing CNS; however, we did not detect expression in the superficial non-neural structures that express the GABA synthase Gad1. Analysis of the Viaat promoter indicates that a minimal promoter region containing a CG rich sequence is sufficient for efficient expression in neural stem and precursor cells. Our analysis of the Viaat sequence and splicing does not support the existence of two Viaat isoforms as previously proposed [Ebihara et al., Brain Res. Mol Brain Res. 110 (2003), 126-139]. Instead, the alternative isoform Viaat-a appears to be due to PCR artifacts that have occurred independently in multiple labs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2005.01.009DOI Listing
May 2005

Induction of cystine-glutamate transporter xc- by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transactivator protein tat in retinal pigment epithelium.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004 Sep;45(9):2906-14

Department of Biochemistry, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta 30912-9947, USA.

Purpose: The transactivator protein Tat encoded by the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) genome reduces glutathione levels in mammalian cells. Because the retina contains large amounts of glutathione, a study was undertaken to determine the influence of Tat on glutathione levels, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity, and the expression and activity of the cystine-glutamate transporter xc- in the human retinal pigment epithelial cell line ARPE-19 and in retina from Tat-transgenic mice.

Methods: The transport function of xc- was measured as glutamate uptake in the absence of Na+. mRNA levels for xCT and 4F2hc, the two subunits of system xc-, were monitored by RT-PCR and Northern blot and protein levels by Western blot. The expression pattern of xCT and 4F2hc in the mouse retina was analyzed by immunofluorescence.

Results: Expression of Tat in ARPE-19 cells led to a decrease in glutathione levels and an increase in gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. The transport function of xc- was upregulated, and this increase was accompanied by increases in the levels of mRNAs for xCT and 4F2hc and in corresponding protein levels. The influence of Tat on the expression of xc- was independent of the cellular status of glutathione. Most of these findings were confirmed in the retina of Tat-transgenic mice.

Conclusions: Expression of HIV-1 Tat in the retina decreases glutathione levels and increases gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity. Tat also upregulates the expression of system xc-. Glutathione levels may be decreased and the expression of xc- enhanced in the retina of patients with HIV-1 infection, leading to oxidative stress and excitotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.03-1355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735043PMC
September 2004

Osmoregulation of taurine transporter function and expression in retinal pigment epithelial, ganglion, and müller cells.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004 Feb;45(2):694-701

Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912-2000, USA.

Purpose: To determine whether taurine transporter (TauT) activity and expression are regulated by hyperosmolarity in RPE, ganglion, and Müller cells.

Methods: Uptake of taurine was measured in ARPE-19 cells cultured in DMEM-F12 medium without or with the addition of 50 mM NaCl or 100 mM mannitol. The kinetics of the transport were analyzed. RT-PCR and Northern and Western blot analyses were used to assess TauT mRNA and protein levels. The influence of hyperosmolarity on the uptake of taurine, myo-inositol, and gamma-aminobutyric acid GABA was studied in RPE, RGC-5, and rMC1 cells.

Results: TauT activity was abundant in RPE and was stimulated (3.5-fold) when the cells were exposed to hyperosmolar conditions (DMEM-F12 culture medium plus 50 mM NaCl or 100 mM mannitol). Peak stimulation of taurine uptake occurred after 17 hours of exposure to hyperosmolar medium. Kinetic analysis revealed that the hyperosmolarity-induced stimulation was associated with an increase in V(max) of TauT with no change in K(m). TauT mRNA and protein levels increased in RPE cells exposed to hyperosmolar conditions. Hyperosmolarity also stimulated the uptake of myo-inositol ( approximately 15-fold); GABA uptake was influenced less markedly. Immunofluorescence and functional studies showed that TauT is present in cultured RGC-5 and rMC1 cells. TauT activity was robust in these cells in normal osmolar conditions and increased by approximately twofold in hyperosmolar conditions.

Conclusions: These studies provide the first evidence that hyperosmolarity regulates TauT activity and expression in RPE and that TauT is present in ganglion and Müller cells and is regulated by hypertonicity. The data are relevant to diseases such as diabetes, macular degeneration, and neurodegeneration, in which retinal cell volumes may fluctuate dramatically.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3724466PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.03-0503DOI Listing
February 2004

Reduced-folate carrier (RFC) is expressed in placenta and yolk sac, as well as in cells of the developing forebrain, hindbrain, neural tube, craniofacial region, eye, limb buds and heart.

BMC Dev Biol 2003 Jul 29;3. Epub 2003 Jul 29.

Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, USA.

Background: Folate is essential for cellular proliferation and tissue regeneration. As mammalian cells cannot synthesize folates de novo, tightly regulated cellular uptake processes have evolved to sustain sufficient levels of intracellular tetrahydrofolate cofactors to support biosynthesis of purines, pyrimidines, and some amino acids (serine, methionine). Though reduced-folate carrier (RFC) is one of the major proteins mediating folate transport, knowledge of the developmental expression of RFC is lacking. We utilized in situ hybridization and immunolocalization to determine the developmental distribution of RFC message and protein, respectively.

Results: In the mouse, RFC transcripts and protein are expressed in the E10.0 placenta and yolk sac. In the E9.0 to E11.5 mouse embryo RFC is widely detectable, with intense signal localized to cell populations in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart. During early development, RFC is expressed throughout the eye, but by E12.5, RFC protein becomes localized to the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE).

Conclusions: Clinical studies show a statistical decrease in the number of neural tube defects, craniofacial abnormalities, cardiovascular defects and limb abnormalities detected in offspring of female patients given supplementary folate during pregnancy. The mechanism, however, by which folate supplementation ameliorates the occurrence of developmental defects is unclear. The present work demonstrates that RFC is present in placenta and yolk sac and provides the first evidence that it is expressed in the neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart during organogenesis. These findings suggest that rapidly dividing cells in the developing neural tube, craniofacial region, limb buds and heart may be particularly susceptible to folate deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-213X-3-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC184426PMC
July 2003

Human sodium-coupled citrate transporter, the orthologue of Drosophila Indy, as a novel target for lithium action.

Biochem J 2003 Aug;374(Pt 1):21-6

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA 30912, USA.

NaCT (sodium-coupled citrate transporter) is an Na(+)-coupled citrate transporter identified recently in mammals that mediates the cellular uptake of citrate. It is expressed predominantly in the liver. NaCT is structurally and functionally related to the product of the Indy (I'm not dead yet) gene in Drosophila, the dysfunction of which leads to lifespan extension. Here, we show that NaCT mediates the utilization of extracellular citrate for fat synthesis in human liver cells, and that the process is stimulated by lithium. The transport function of NaCT is enhanced by lithium at concentrations found in humans treated with lithium for bipolar disorders. Valproate and carbamazepine, two other drugs that are used for the treatment of bipolar disorder, do not affect the function of NaCT. The stimulatory effect of Li+ is specific for human NaCT, since NaCTs from other animal species are either inhibited or unaffected by Li+. The data also suggest that two of the four Na(+)-binding sites in human NaCT may become occupied by Li+ to produce the stimulatory effect. The stimulation of NaCT in humans by lithium at therapeutically relevant concentrations has potential clinical implications. We also show here that a single base mutation in codon-500 (TTT-->CTT) in the human NaCT gene, leading to the replacement of phenylalanine with leucine, stimulates the transport function and abolishes the stimulatory effect of lithium. This raises the possibility that genetic mutations in humans may lead to alterations in the constitutive activity of the transporter, with associated clinical consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20030827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1223593PMC
August 2003

Structure, function, and expression pattern of a novel sodium-coupled citrate transporter (NaCT) cloned from mammalian brain.

J Biol Chem 2002 Oct 11;277(42):39469-76. Epub 2002 Aug 11.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Georgia 30912, USA.

Citrate plays a pivotal role not only in the generation of metabolic energy but also in the synthesis of fatty acids, isoprenoids, and cholesterol in mammalian cells. Plasma levels of citrate are the highest ( approximately 135 microm) among the intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Here we report on the cloning and functional characterization of a plasma membrane transporter (NaCT for Na+ -coupled citrate transporter) from rat brain that mediates uphill cellular uptake of citrate coupled to an electrochemical Na+ gradient. NaCT consists of 572 amino acids and exhibits structural similarity to the members of the Na+-dicarboxylate cotransporter/Na+ -sulfate cotransporter (NaDC/NaSi) gene family including the recently identified Drosophila Indy. In rat, the expression of NaCT is restricted to liver, testis, and brain. When expressed heterologously in mammalian cells, rat NaCT mediates the transport of citrate with high affinity (Michaelis-Menten constant, approximately 20 microm) and with a Na+:citrate stoichiometry of 4:1. The transporter does interact with other dicarboxylates and tricarboxylates but with considerably lower affinity. In mouse brain, the expression of NaCT mRNA is evident in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and olfactory bulb. NaCT represents the first transporter to be identified in mammalian cells that shows preference for citrate over dicarboxylates. This transporter is likely to play an important role in the cellular utilization of citrate in blood for the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol (liver) and for the generation of energy (liver and brain). NaCT thus constitutes a potential therapeutic target for the control of body weight, cholesterol levels, and energy homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M207072200DOI Listing
October 2002