Publications by authors named "Dennis E Desjardin"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

New species and records of bioluminescent Mycena from Mexico.

Mycologia 2019 Mar-Apr;111(2):319-338. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

g Counter Culture Labs , 4799, Shattuck Avenue , Oakland , California 94609-2032.

Seven species of bioluminescent fungi are recorded from the cloud forests in Mexico. Six represent new species belonging to the genus Mycena, whereas Mycena globulispora is a new distribution record for the country. Descriptions, illustrations, photographs, and an identification key to bioluminescent fungi species from Mexico are provided. Sequences of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) region were generated for barcoding purposes and comparisons with similar species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00275514.2018.1554172DOI Listing
June 2019

Considerations and consequences of allowing DNA sequence data as types of fungal taxa.

IMA Fungus 2018 Jun 24;9(1):167-175. Epub 2018 May 24.

Museum of Evolution, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 16, 75236 Uppsala, Sweden.

Nomenclatural type definitions are one of the most important concepts in biological nomenclature. Being physical objects that can be re-studied by other researchers, types permanently link taxonomy (an artificial agreement to classify biological diversity) with nomenclature (an artificial agreement to name biological diversity). Two proposals to amend the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (ICN), allowing DNA sequences alone (of any region and extent) to serve as types of taxon names for voucherless fungi (mainly putative taxa from environmental DNA sequences), have been submitted to be voted on at the 11 International Mycological Congress (Puerto Rico, July 2018). We consider various genetic processes affecting the distribution of alleles among taxa and find that alleles may not consistently and uniquely represent the species within which they are contained. Should the proposals be accepted, the meaning of nomenclatural types would change in a fundamental way from physical objects as sources of data to the data themselves. Such changes are conducive to irreproducible science, the potential typification on artefactual data, and massive creation of names with low information content, ultimately causing nomenclatural instability and unnecessary work for future researchers that would stall future explorations of fungal diversity. We conclude that the acceptance of DNA sequences alone as types of names of taxa, under the terms used in the current proposals, is unnecessary and would not solve the problem of naming putative taxa known only from DNA sequences in a scientifically defensible way. As an alternative, we highlight the use of formulas for naming putative taxa (candidate taxa) that do not require any modification of the ICN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2018.09.01.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6048565PMC
June 2018

New luminescent mycenoid fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) from São Paulo State, Brazil.

Mycologia 2016 Nov/Dec;108(6):1165-1174

c Department of Fundamental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, SP 05508-000 Brazil.

Four species of mycenoid fungi are reported as luminescent (or putatively luminescent) on the basis of specimens collected from São Paulo State, Brazil. Two of them represent new species (Mycena oculisnymphae, Resinomycena petarensis), and two represent new reports of luminescence in previously described species (M. deformis, M. globulispora). Comprehensive descriptions, illustrations, photographs, and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. Sequences of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer regions were generated for barcoding purposes and for comparisons with similar species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/16-077DOI Listing
January 2018

New Porcini (Boletus sect. Boletus) from Australia and Thailand.

Mycologia 2014 Jul-Aug;106(4):830-4. Epub 2014 Jun 3.

Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3DS, UK.

Boletus albobrunnescens and B. austroedulis are described as new species in section Boletus from Thailand and Australia respectively. The former is easily characterized by the pure white basidiomata that stain brown. Boletus austroedulis has a gray-brown, slightly rugulose pileus with hymeniform pileipellis producing pileocystidia, and the stipe is only apically reticulate if at all. These new species represent ancient lineages inferred from prior molecular phylogenetic analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/13-340DOI Listing
October 2014

Four new bioluminescent taxa of Mycena sect. Calodontes from Peninsular Malaysia.

Mycologia 2014 Sep-Oct;106(5):976-88. Epub 2014 Jun 2.

Mushroom Research Centre, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Three new species and one new variety of bioluminescent Mycena collected from Peninsular Malaysia are described herein. All new species belong to Mycena sect. Calodontes in what is known as the Mycena pura complex. Comprehensive descriptions, photographs, illustrations and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. Molecular sequences data from the nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, including the 5.8S rRNA) were used to infer relationships within sect. Calodontes. Axenic cultures were obtained to provide data on culture morphology. This is the first published photographic documentation of bioluminescent basidiomes of members of Mycena sect. Calodontes. Also, this addition brings the total known bioluminescent fungi to 77 species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/13-274DOI Listing
May 2015

A ruby-colored Pseudobaeospora species is described as new from material collected on the island of Hawaii.

Mycologia 2014 May-Jun;106(3):456-63. Epub 2014 May 28.

Department of Biology, University of Hawaii at Hilo, 200 West Kawili Street, Hilo, Hawaii 96720.

Pseudobaeospora wipapatiae is described as new based on material collected in alien wet habitats on the island of Hawaii. Unique features of this beautiful species include deep ruby-colored basidiomes with two-spored basidia, amyloid cheilocystidia and a hymeniderm pileipellis with abundant pileocystidia that is initially deep ruby in KOH then changes to lilac gray. Phylogenetic analysis of nuclear large ribosomal subunit sequence data suggest a close relationship between Pseudobaeospora and Tricholoma. BLAST comparisons of internal transcribed spacer and 5.8S nuclear ribosomal subunit regions sequence data reveal greatest similarity with existing sequences of Pseudobaeospora species. A comprehensive description, color photograph, illustrations of salient micromorphological features and comparisons with phenetically similar taxa are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/13-030DOI Listing
September 2014

Cryptomarasmius gen. nov. established in the Physalacriaceae to accommodate members of Marasmius section Hygrometrici.

Mycologia 2014 Jan-Feb;106(1):86-94. Epub 2013 Aug 14.

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, California 94132.

Phylogenetic placement of the infrageneric section Hygrometrici (genus Marasmius sensu stricto) in prior molecular phylogenetic studies have been unresolved and problematical. Molecular analyses based on newly generated ribosomal nuc-LSU and 5.8S sequences resolve members of section Hygrometrici to the family Physalacriaceae. The new genus Cryptomarasmius is proposed to accommodate members of Marasmius section Hygrometrici. Fourteen species belonging to section Hygrometrici whose available type specimens bear morphological features corresponding to the new genus are formally combined in Cryptomarasmius. Taxonomic transfers are made only for taxa in which type specimens have been studied and/or representative material sequenced. Although other species placed in section Hygrometrici may belong in Cryptomarasmius, further transfers are not proposed until additional studies on type material are conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/11-309DOI Listing
April 2014

Taxonomic and phylogenetic re-evaluation of Mycena illuminans.

Mycologia 2013 Sep-Oct;105(5):1325-35. Epub 2013 May 26.

Mushroom Research Centre, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Mycena illuminans Henn. is described and re-evaluated based on recently collected material from peninsular Malaysia, providing comprehensive descriptions, illustrations and photographs. In addition to morphological data, axenic monokaryon and dikaryon cultures were established to provide data on culture morphology and the mating system of the species. Molecular sequences data from the nuclear large subunit (LSU) gene also are presented, confirming that M. illuminans is not a synonym of Mycena chlorophos.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/13-009DOI Listing
June 2014

Phylogenetic analyses of Coprinopsis sections Lanatuli and Atramentarii identify multiple species within morphologically defined taxa.

Mycologia 2013 Jan-Feb;105(1):112-24. Epub 2012 Oct 16.

Department of Microbiology, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

Sections Lanatuli and Atramentarii of the genus Coprinopsis contain some of the best known and most important agaric species, including C. cinerea and C. lagopus, yet a critical, phylogeny-based assessment of the species limits has not been carried out. Taxa have been characterized chiefly on the basis of morphological characters, which however show little discriminatory power and/or considerable overlap between several species pairs. We used ITS and LSU sequence data of 29 described taxa in Coprinopsis sections Lanatuli and Atramentarii to infer species limits and the correspondence between morphological characters and species lineages, as well as to examine the phylogenetic affinities of sections Lanatuli and Atramentarii. Our analyses recovered three large clades, implying a paraphyly for section Lanatuli. Based on morphology and clade structure, we estimate ca. 38 species in the two sections, including several potentially new taxa, three of which are described herein. Coprinopsis pachyderma, C. lagopus var. vacillans, C. acuminata, C. spelaiophila, Coprinus citrinovelatus and Cop. brunneistrangulatus were found to be synonymous with other, earlier described species. Congruent with previous mating studies, our analyses recovered multiple, morphologically indistinguishable lineages within C. lagopus, which included C. lagopus var. vacillans, an ephemeral, developmental variant. Morphological traits supporting the inferred clade structure are discussed. Three new taxa (C. fusispora, C. babosiae, C. villosa), and one new combination (C. mitraespora) are proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/12-136DOI Listing
March 2013

Evidence that a single bioluminescent system is shared by all known bioluminescent fungal lineages.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2012 May 12;11(5):848-52. Epub 2012 Apr 12.

Departamento de Genética e Evolução, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13500-900, Sorocaba, SP, Brazil.

Since the early 20th century, many researchers have attempted to determine how fungi are able to emit light. The first successful experiment was obtained using the classical luciferin-luciferase test that consists of mixing under controlled conditions hot (substrate/luciferin) and cold (enzyme/luciferase) water extracts prepared from bioluminescent fungi. Failures by other researchers to reproduce those experiments using different species of fungi lead to the hypothesis of a non-enzymatic luminescent pathway. Only recently, the involvement of a luciferase in this system was proven, thus confirming its enzymatic nature. Of the 100,000 described species in Kingdom Fungi, only 71 species are known to be luminescent and they are distributed unevenly amongst four distantly related lineages. The question we address is whether the mechanism of bioluminescence is the same in all four evolutionary lineages suggesting a single origin of luminescence in the Fungi, or whether each lineage has a unique mechanism for light emission implying independent origins. We prepared hot and cold extracts of numerous species representing the four bioluminescent fungal lineages and performed cross-reactions (luciferin × luciferase) in all possible combinations using closely related non-luminescent species as controls. All cross-reactions with extracts from luminescent species yielded positive results, independent of lineage, whereas no light was emitted in cross-reactions with extracts from non-luminescent species. These results support the hypothesis that all four lineages of luminescent fungi share the same type of luciferin and luciferase, that there is a single luminescent mechanism in the Fungi, and that fungal luciferin is not a ubiquitous molecule in fungal metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2pp25032bDOI Listing
May 2012

Neonothopanus gardneri: a new combination for a bioluminescent agaric from Brazil.

Mycologia 2011 Nov-Dec;103(6):1433-40. Epub 2011 Jun 23.

Núcleo de Pesquisa em Micologia, Instituto de Botânica, Caixa Postal 3005, 01031-970 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

The bioluminescent agaric, Agaricus gardneri Berk., was rediscovered recently in central Brazil. The new combination, Neonothopanus gardneri, is proposed for this long-forgotten taxon supported by morphological and molecular data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/11-097DOI Listing
January 2012

Agaricales of the Hawaiian Islands 9. Five new white-spored species from native montane wet forests.

Mycologia 2011 Nov-Dec;103(6):1441-50. Epub 2011 Jun 23.

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, California 94132, USA.

Five new species of white-spored agarics are described from native montane wet forests in the Hawaiian Islands as follows: Callistosporium vinosobrunneum, Marasmiellus hapuuarum, Marasmius koae, Mycena marasmielloides, Pleurocybella ohiae. Comprehensive descriptions, illustrations and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. An itemization of the 24 known putatively endemic agarics described from this unique habitat is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/11-114DOI Listing
January 2012

Spongiforma squarepantsii, a new species of gasteroid bolete from Borneo.

Mycologia 2011 Sep-Oct;103(5):1119-23. Epub 2011 May 10.

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94131, USA.

A gasteroid bolete collected recently in Sarawak on the island of Borneo is described as the new species Spongiforma squarepantsii. A comprehensive description, illustrations, phylogenetic placement and a comparison with a closely allied species are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/10-433DOI Listing
January 2012

Molecular phylogenetics of porcini mushrooms (Boletus section Boletus).

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2010 Dec 21;57(3):1276-92. Epub 2010 Oct 21.

Department of Plant Biology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.

Porcini (Boletus section Boletus: Boletaceae: Boletineae: Boletales) are a conspicuous group of wild, edible mushrooms characterized by fleshy fruiting bodies with a poroid hymenophore that is "stuffed" with white hyphae when young. Their reported distribution is with ectomycorrhizal plants throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Little progress has been made on the systematics of this group using modern molecular phylogenetic tools because sampling has been limited primarily to European species and the genes employed were insufficient to resolve the phylogeny. We examined the evolutionary history of porcini by using a global geographic sampling of most known species, new discoveries from little explored areas, and multiple genes. We used 78 sequences from the fast-evolving nuclear internal transcribed spacers and are able to recognize 18 reciprocally monophyletic species. To address whether or not porcini form a monophyletic group, we compiled a broadly sampled dataset of 41 taxa, including other members of the Boletineae, and used separate and combined phylogenetic analysis of sequences from the nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA, the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II, and the mitochondrial ATPase subunit six gene. Contrary to previous studies, our separate and combined phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of porcini. We also report the discovery of two taxa that expand the known distribution of porcini to Australia and Thailand and have ancient phylogenetic connections to the rest of the group. A relaxed molecular clock analysis with these new taxa dates the origin of porcini to between 42 and 54 million years ago, coinciding with the initial diversification of angiosperms, during the Eocene epoch when the climate was warm and humid. These results reveal an unexpected diversity, distribution, and ancient origin of a group of commercially valuable mushrooms that may provide an economic incentive for conservation and support the hypothesis of a tropical origin of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2010.10.004DOI Listing
December 2010

Luminescent Mycena: new and noteworthy species.

Mycologia 2010 Mar-Apr;102(2):459-77

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, California 94132, USA.

Seven species of Mycena are reported as luminescent, representing specimens collected in Belize, Brazil, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Japan (Bonin Islands), Malaysia (Borneo) and Puerto Rico. Four of them represent new species (Mycena luxaeterna, M. luxarboricola, M. luxperpetua, M. silvaelucens) and three represent new reports of luminescence in previously described species (M. aff. abieticola, M. aspratilis, M. margarita). Mycena subepipterygia is synonymized with M. margarita, and M. chlorinosma is proposed as a possible synonym. Comprehensive descriptions, illustrations, photographs and comparisons with phenetically similar species are provided. A redescription of M. chlorophos, based on analyses of type specimens and recently collected topotypical material, is provided. The addition of these seven new or newly reported luminescent species of Mycena brings the total to 71 known bioluminescent species of fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/09-197DOI Listing
May 2010

A new species of Phallus from São Tomé, Africa.

Mycologia 2009 Jul-Aug;101(4):545-7

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, California 94132, USA.

A new lignicolous species of phalloid fungi, discovered recently on the western African island of São Tomé, is described as Phallus drewesii. A comprehensive description, photographs and comparison with phenetically similar species are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/08-166DOI Listing
October 2009

Phylogenetic placement of an unusual coral mushroom challenges the classic hypothesis of strict coevolution in the apterostigma pilosum group ant-fungus mutualism.

Evolution 2009 Aug 27;63(8):2172-8. Epub 2009 Mar 27.

Plant Biology, 250 Biological Sciences Center, University of Minnesota, Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA.

The approximately 50 million-year-old fungus-farming ant mutualism is a classic example of coevolution, involving ants that subsist on asexual, fungal biomass, in turn propagating the fungus clonally through nest-to-nest transmission. Most mutualistic ants cultivate two closely related groups of gilled mushrooms, whereas one small group of ants in the genus Apterostigma cultivates a distantly related lineage comprised of the G2 and G4 groups. The G2 and G4 fungi were previously shown to form a monophyletic group sister to the thread-like coral mushroom family Pterulaceae. Here, we identify an enigmatic coral mushroom that produces both fertile and sterile fruiting structures as the closest free-living relative of the G4 fungi, challenging the monophyly of the Apterostigma-cultivated fungi for the first time. Both nonparametric bootstrap and Bayesian posterior probability support the node leading to the G4 cultivars and a free-living Pterula mushroom. These data suggest three scenarios that contradict the hypothesis of strict coevolution: (1) multiple domestications, (2) escape from domestication, (3) selection of single cultivar lineages from an ancestral mixed-fungus garden. These results illustrate how incomplete phylogenies for coevolved symbionts impede our understanding of the patterns and processes of coevolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2009.00697.xDOI Listing
August 2009

Durianella, a new gasteroid genus of boletes from Malaysia.

Mycologia 2008 Nov-Dec;100(6):956-61

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, California 94132, USA.

Hydnangium echinulatum, described originally from a single specimen collected in Malaysia, has been recollected, and based on morphological and molecular characters is recognized as representing a new gasteroid genus of boletes with affinities to the Boletineae, herein named Durianella. Diagnostic features include an epigeous, ovoid, pyramidal-warted, durian fruit-like basidiome with gelatinized glebal locules and a columella that turns indigo blue upon exposure, and subglobose basidiospores with long, curved, thin-walled and collapsible spines. A redescription, phylogenetic analysis and comparison with allied taxa are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/08-062DOI Listing
April 2009

Advances in the phylogenesis of Agaricales and its higher ranks and strategies for establishing phylogenetic hypotheses.

J Zhejiang Univ Sci B 2008 Oct;9(10):779-86

Faculty of Biology Conservation, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China.

We present an overview of previous research results on the molecular phylogenetic analyses in Agaricales and its higher ranks (Agaricomycetes/Agaricomycotina/Basidiomycota) along with the most recent treatments of taxonomic systems in these taxa. Establishing phylogenetic hypotheses using DNA sequences, from which an understanding of the natural evolutionary relationships amongst clades may be derived, requires a robust dataset. It has been recognized that single-gene phylogenies may not truly represent organismal phylogenies, but the concordant phylogenetic genealogies from multiple-gene datasets can resolve this problem. The genes commonly used in mushroom phylogenetic research are summarized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1631/jzus.B0860012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2565740PMC
October 2008

Influence of culture conditions on mycelial growth and bioluminescence of Gerronema viridilucens.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2008 May 18;282(1):132-9. Epub 2008 Mar 18.

Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Herein we describe a procedure for measuring the total light emission of the naturally bioluminescent tropical fungus Gerronema viridilucens and the optimization of culture conditions using multivariate factorial anova. Cultures growing on an agar surface in 35 mm Petri dishes at 90% humidity show optimal bioluminescence emission at 25 degrees C in the presence of 1.0% sugar cane molasses, 0.10% yeast extract and pH 6.0 (nonbuffered). Temperature and pH are the most important factors for both mycelial growth and bioluminescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2008.01118.xDOI Listing
May 2008

Fungi bioluminescence revisited.

Photochem Photobiol Sci 2008 Feb 24;7(2):170-82. Epub 2008 Jan 24.

San Francisco State University, Department of Biology, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco, CA 94132, USA.

A review of the research conducted during the past 30 years on the distribution, taxonomy, phylogeny, ecology, physiology and bioluminescence mechanisms of luminescent fungi is presented. We recognize 64 species of bioluminescent fungi belonging to at least three distinct evolutionary lineages, termed Omphalotus, Armillaria and mycenoid. An accounting of their currently accepted names, distributions, citations reporting luminescence and whether their mycelium and/or basidiomes emit light are provided. We address the physiological and ecological aspects of fungal bioluminescence and provide data on the mechanisms responsible for bioluminescence in the fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b713328fDOI Listing
February 2008

Ribosomal DNA phylogenies of Cyathus: is the current infrageneric classification appropriate?

Mycologia 2007 May-Jun;99(3):385-95

Faculty of Agricultural Technology, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Ladkrabang, Bangkok 10520, Thailand.

Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Cyathus (bird's nest fungi) were investigated with neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, weighted maximum parsimony and MrBayes analyses of ITS and LSU ribosomal DNA sequences datasets. Twenty-two taxa of Cyathus were used in the analyses based primarily on type and authentic specimens. The current infrageneric classification system of Brodie recognizes seven infrageneric groups based on morphological characters, including peridium plications and variations in peridium hair anatomy, peridiole structure and fruit-body color. These groups are not supported by molecular data. Instead the ITS and LSU datasets support recognition of three infrageneric groups herein named the ollum, pallidum and striatum groups. Morphological characters useful in distinguishing these groups include basidiospore size, fruit-body coloration and peridium anatomy. Cyathus africanus var. latisporus is considered a synonym of Cyathus jiayuguanensis, and a new combination Cyathus lanatus (Brodie) R.L. Zhao is proposed based on morphological and molecular data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/mycologia.99.3.385DOI Listing
October 2007

Mating studies, new species, and new reports of Marasmius from northern Thailand.

Mycol Res 2007 Aug 30;111(Pt 8):985-96. Epub 2007 Jun 30.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

The mating systems operating in seven species of Marasmius collected recently in northern Thailand were determined. Marasmius cremeus belonging to sect. Sicci subsect. Siccini ser. Leonini, and Marasmius straminiceps belonging to sect. Marasmius subsect. Sicciformes are described as new species. Five members of sect. Marasmius were tetrapolar (bifactorial), viz. M. apatelius, M. guyanensis, M. nigrobrunneus, M. ruforotula, and M. straminiceps. Two members of sect. Sicci were bipolar (unifactorial), viz., M. corneri (syn. M. incarnatus) and M. cremeus. Our data support the hypothesis that the mating system is consistent within infrageneric taxa. The seven species that are herein described, illustrated, and compared with phenetically similar species represent the first reports for this genus in Thailand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mycres.2007.06.013DOI Listing
August 2007

Bioluminescent Mycena species from São Paulo, Brazil.

Mycologia 2007 Mar-Apr;99(2):317-31

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94132, USA.

Six species of bioluminescent agarics are described and illustrated from a single site in primary Atlantic Forest habitat in the Parque Estadual Turistico do Alto Ribeira, Sao Paulo State, Brazil. These include two new taxa of Mycena, viz. M. asterina and M. lucentipes. Luminescence in Mycena fera, M. singeri and M. discobasis is reported for the first time. In addition an undeterminable luminescent Mycena species is described and additional specimens of Gerronema viridilucens are documented. An accounting of known bioluminescent species of Mycena and a discussion of why they luminesce are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/mycologia.99.2.317DOI Listing
September 2007

Major clades of Agaricales: a multilocus phylogenetic overview.

Mycologia 2006 Nov-Dec;98(6):982-95

Biology Department, Clark University, Worcester, Massachusetts 01610, USA.

An overview of the phylogeny of the Agaricales is presented based on a multilocus analysis of a six-gene region supermatrix. Bayesian analyses of 5611 nucleotide characters of rpb1, rpb1-intron 2, rpb2 and 18S, 25S, and 5.8S ribosomal RNA genes recovered six major clades, which are recognized informally and labeled the Agaricoid, Tricholomatoid, Marasmioid, Pluteoid, Hygrophoroid and Plicaturopsidoid clades. Each clade is discussed in terms of key morphological and ecological traits. At least 11 origins of the ectomycorrhizal habit appear to have evolved in the Agaricales, with possibly as many as nine origins in the Agaricoid plus Tricholomatoid clade alone. A family-based phylogenetic classification is sketched for the Agaricales, in which 30 families, four unplaced tribes and two informally named clades are recognized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/mycologia.98.6.982DOI Listing
October 2007

Phylogenetic relationships in the gymnopoid and marasmioid fungi (Basidiomycetes, euagarics clade).

Mycologia 2005 May-Jun;97(3):667-79

San Francisco State University, Department of Biology, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco, California 94132, USA.

Three distinct lineages of gymnopoid and marasmioid fungi are recognized in parsimony and Bayesian analyses of nLSU rDNA sequences. One lineage contains the genera Lentinula, Rhodocollybia, Tetrapyrgos, a resurrected and redefined Mycetinis, and two unresolved clades designated /marasmiellus and /gymnopus. /marasmiellus includes the type species of Marasmiellus and is dominated by members of Gymnopus sect. Vestipedes. /gymnopus includes the type species of Gymnopus, Micromphale and Setulipes, and members of Gymnopus sect. Levipedes. A second lineage includes the genera Marasmius s.s. and Crinipellis and represents a redefined /marasmiaceae. A third lineage includes the genera Cylindrobasidium, Flammulina, Gloiocephala, Physalacria, Strobilurus, Xerula and Marasmius sect. Epiphylli and represents /physalacriaceae. One new combination in Rhodocollybia and four new combinations in Mycetinis are proposed. A discussion of the taxonomic implications resulting from the phylogenetic reconstruction is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/mycologia.97.3.667DOI Listing
April 2006

Sparassis cystidiosa sp. nov. from Thailand is described using morphological and molecular data.

Mycologia 2004 Sep-Oct;96(5):1010-4

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco, California 94132.

Sparassis cystidiosa, collected recently from a primary montane cloud forest in northern Thailand is described as new. It is distinct from all others species in the genus because of the presence of hymenial cystidia, relatively large basidiospores and flabellae composed of six distinct layers of tissue. Analyses of a combined dataset of DNA sequences from three genes support its distinction and suggest that the S. cystidiosa lineage is the sister group of all other Sparassis.
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October 2012

A unique ballistosporic hypogeous sequestrate Lactarius from California.

Mycologia 2003 Jan-Feb;95(1):148-55

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco, California 94132.

Lactarius rubriviridis sp. nov., characterized by hypogeous, sequestrate basidiomes with red latex, green stains, and forcibly discharged, reticulate basidiospores is described and illustrated. During the Spring, the new species forms basidiomes associated with conifers at 1400-1800 m elevation in the Sierra Nevada, and is known from two specimens collected 19 yr apart. Comparisons with the putatively polyphyletic genera Arcangeliella and Zelleromyces, and an accounting of all known members of these genera are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15572536.2004.11833144DOI Listing
October 2012