Publications by authors named "Denise Rodrigues"

74 Publications

IgG Subclass Analysis in Patients with Chagas Disease 4 Years After Benznidazole Treatment.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Jun 11. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Institute of Biological and Natural Sciences, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro. Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Background: In humans, Trypanosoma cruzi infection is controlled by a complex immune response. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is important for opsonizing blood trypomastigotes, activating the classic complement pathway, and reducing parasitemia. The trypanocidal activity of benznidazole is recognized, but its effects on the prevention and progression of Chagas disease is not well understood OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the levels of total IgG and cross-specific IgG subclasses in patients with chronic Chagas disease of different clinical forms before and after 4 years of benznidazole treatment.

Methods: Eight individuals with the indeterminate form and nine with the cardiac form who completed the treatment protocol were evaluated. The levels of total IgG and IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4 isotypes were quantified in the serum of each individual using the fluorescent immunosorbent assay. The results are expressed as relative fluorescence unit.

Results: Patients with chronic Chagas disease presented decreased levels of total IgG at 48 months after benznidazole treatment. Increased IgG1 and decreased IgG3 levels were observed in patients with the cardiac form and those with exacerbated clinical forms. In addition, a decrease in the IgG3/IgG1 ratio was observed in individuals with the cardiac form of Chagas disease.

Conclusions: Benznidazole administration in the chronic phase differentially changes IgG subclasses in patients with cardiac and indeterminate forms, and monitoring the IgG3 level may indicate the possible prognosis to the cardiac form or worsening of the already established clinical form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-021-00430-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Overexpression of HIF-1α and Morphological Alterations in the Tongue of Rats Exposed To Secondhand Smoke.

Braz Dent J 2020 Jun 13;31(3):281-289. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Cefores, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

Smoking is a risk factor for serious health problems and is associated with several changes in the tissues of the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the collagen percentage, mast cells density, intensity of immunolabeled cells by anti-HIF-1α in the musculature lingual of rats exposed to secondhand smoke. Twenty-seven female Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups: rats not exposed to tobacco smoke inhalation (Control group) (n=7); rats exposed to smoke inhalation for 30 days (TAB 30) (n=10); and rats exposed to smoke inhalation for 45 days (TAB 45) (n=10). Subsequently, the animals were submitted to euthanasia and removal of the tongue for histological and immunohistochemistry processing and analysis. In the groups TAB 30 and TAB 45 there were a lower percentage of collagen, a higher density of mast cells and a greater intensity of anti-HIF-1α immunolabeled cells compared to Control group. There was also a positive and significant correlation between the percentage of collagen and mast cell density. There was not significative difference between TAB 30 e TAB 45 in any of the parameters evaluated. Therefore, the exposure of rats to secondhand smoke for 45 days causes decrease in perimysial collagen fibers, increase in the number of mast cells and increase in the immunolabeling for HIF-1α in lingual muscle cells. The present study was the first to evaluate the percentage of collagen, mast cell density and immunostaining for HIF-1α in rat tongues exposed to tobacco smoke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440202002898DOI Listing
June 2020

Cecal microbiome composition and metabolic function in probiotic treated broilers.

PLoS One 2020 3;15(6):e0225921. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

Probiotics have become increasingly popular in the poultry industry as a promising nutritional intervention to promote the modulation of intestinal microbial communities and their metabolic activities as a means of improving health and performance. This study aimed to determine the influence of different probiotic formulations on the taxonomic and metabolic profiling of cecal microbial communities, as well as to define associations between cecal microbiota and growth parameters in 21 and 42-day-old broilers. Probiotics investigated included a synbiotic (SYNBIO), a yeast-based probiotic (YEAST), and three single-strain formulations of spore-forming Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (SINGLE1), B. subtilis (SINGLE2) and B. licheniformis (SINGLE3). Dietary inclusion of SYNBIO, YEAST, SINGLE2, and SINGLE3 into the diets supported a significant stimulation of BW and BWG by 7 days of age. Besides, SYNBIO reduced the overall mortality rate by 42d (p<0.05). No significant variation was observed among different probiotic-based formulations for cecal microbiota composition. However, there was a treatment-specific effect on the metabolic profiles, with a particular beneficial metabolic adaptation by the microbiota when supplemented by SYNBIO and SINGLE2. Furthermore, the population of Lactobacillales was identified to be strongly associated with lower Enterobacteriales colonization, higher BW means, and lower mortality rate of growing broilers. Overall, the results emphasize that probiotic supplementation may enhance the microbial energy metabolism in the ceca of young broilers.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225921PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7269258PMC
August 2020

Comparative effectiveness of probiotic-based formulations on cecal microbiota modulation in broilers.

PLoS One 2020 5;15(5):e0225871. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

The potential of probiotics to manipulate the intestinal microbial ecosystem toward commensal bacteria growth offers great opportunity for enhancing health and performance in poultry. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of five probiotic-based formulations in modulating cecal microbiota in broilers at 21 and 42 days of age. Probiotics investigated included a synbiotic (SYNBIO), a yeast (YEAST), and three single-strain formulations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (SINGLE1), B. subtilis (SINGLE2) and B. licheniformis (SINGLE3). Alpha-diversity analyses showed that cecal microbiota of SINGLE1, SINGLE2, and YEAST had low diversity compared to the control diet with no feed additive (CON) at 21d. At the same age, weighted Unifrac distance measure showed significant differences between samples from SYNBIO and CON (P = 0.02). However, by analyzing principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) with unweighted Unifrac, there was no evidence of clustering between CON and probiotic treatments. By 42d, there were no differences in alpha or beta-diversity in the microbiota of probiotic treatments compared to CON. Similarly, taxonomic microbial profiling did not show major changes in cecal microbial taxa. In conclusion, not all probiotic-based formulations tested had a core benefit on the modulation of microbiota. However, based on the quantitative beta diversity results, SYNBIO greatly influenced the cecal microbial community structure attributable to transient variations in relative taxon abundance.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0225871PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199926PMC
September 2020

Drug-associated adverse events in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

Lancet Respir Med 2020 04 17;8(4):383-394. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Centre Research Institute, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis requires long-term therapy with a combination of multiple second-line drugs. These drugs are associated with numerous adverse events that can cause severe morbidity, such as deafness, and in some instances can lead to death. Our aim was to estimate the absolute and relative frequency of adverse events associated with different tuberculosis drugs to provide useful information for clinicians and tuberculosis programmes in selecting optimal treatment regimens.

Methods: We did a meta-analysis using individual-level patient data that were obtained from studies that reported adverse events that resulted in permanent discontinuation of anti-tuberculosis medications. We used a database created for our previous meta-analysis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment and outcomes, for which we did a systematic review of literature published between Jan 1, 2009, and Aug 31, 2015 (updated April 15, 2016), and requested individual patient-level information from authors. We also considered for this analysis studies contributing patient-level data in response to a public call made by WHO in 2018. Meta-analysis for proportions and arm-based network meta-analysis were done to estimate the incidence of adverse events for each tuberculosis drug.

Findings: 58 studies were identified, including 50 studies from the updated individual patient data meta-analysis for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis treatment. 35 of these studies, with 9178 patients, were included in our analysis. Using meta-analysis of proportions, drugs with low risks of adverse event occurrence leading to permanent discontinuation included levofloxacin (1·3% [95% CI 0·3-5·0]), moxifloxacin (2·9% [1·6-5·0]), bedaquiline (1·7% [0·7-4·2]), and clofazimine (1·6% [0·5-5·3]). Relatively high incidence of adverse events leading to permanent discontinuation was seen with three second-line injectable drugs (amikacin: 10·2% [6·3-16·0]; kanamycin: 7·5% [4·6-11·9]; capreomycin: 8·2% [6·3-10·7]), aminosalicylic acid (11·6% [7·1-18·3]), and linezolid (14·1% [9·9-19·6]). Risk of bias in selection of studies was judged to be low because there were no important differences between included and excluded studies. Variability between studies was significant for most outcomes analysed.

Interpretation: Fluoroquinolones, clofazimine, and bedaquiline had the lowest incidence of adverse events leading to permanent drug discontinuation, whereas second-line injectable drugs, aminosalicylic acid, and linezolid had the highest incidence. These results suggest that close monitoring of adverse events is important for patients being treated for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Our results also underscore the urgent need for safer and better-tolerated drugs to reduce morbidity from treatment itself for patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.

Funding: Canadian Institutes of Health Research, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (USA), American Thoracic Society, European Respiratory Society, and Infectious Diseases Society of America.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30047-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384398PMC
April 2020

Although with intact mucosa at colonoscopy, chagasic megacolons have an overexpression of Gal-3.

Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2020 6;18:eAO5105. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Universidade de Uberaba , Uberaba , MG , Brazil .

Objective: To evaluate the density of anti-galectin-3-immunostained cells, collagen percentage, mast cell density and presence of pathological processes in intestinal muscle biopsies of patients.

Methods: Thirty-five patients who underwent intestinal biopsy were selected from 1997 to 2015. Patients were divided into three groups: chagasic patients with mucosal lesion (n=13), chagasic patients with intact mucosa (n=12) and non-chagasic patients with no mucosal lesion (n=10). Histological processing of the biopsied fragments and immunohistochemistry for galectin-3 were performed. Additional sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to evaluate the general pathological processes, picrosirius for evaluation of collagen and toluidine blue to evaluate the mast cell density.

Results: Patients of mucosal lesion group had a significantly higher frequency of ganglionitis and myositis when compared to the chagasic patients with intact mucosa and non-chagasic group. The density of anti-galectin-3-immunostained cells was significantly higher in the chagasic patients with intact mucosa group when compared to the non-chagasic group. The group of chagasic patients with intact mucosa presented a higher percentage of collagen in relation to the patients with mucosal lesion and to the non-chagasic group, with a significant difference. There was no significant difference in mast cell density among the three groups.

Conclusion: The higher density of anti-galectin-3-immunostained cells in patients in the chagasic patients with intact mucosa group suggested the need for greater attention in clinical evaluation of these patients, since this protein is associated with neoplastic transformation and progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31744/einstein_journal/2020AO5105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7046340PMC
April 2020

Intestinal Pioneer Colonizers as Drivers of Ileal Microbial Composition and Diversity of Broiler Chickens.

Front Microbiol 2019 9;10:2858. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Animal Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, United States.

Given that recent advances in metagenomics have highlighted the importance of intestinal microbes for poultry health, there has been a corresponding search for early manipulation strategies of intestinal microbiota in order to advance immune system development and optimize functional properties of growth. In this study, we used the technique as an experimental model to address how early bacterial intestinal colonization could affect the development and establishment of the mature ileal microbiota. Inoculations containing one of the following: 0.2 mL of 0.9% sterile saline (S), approximately 10 cells of (CF), species (C2) or lactic acid bacteria mixture (L) were administered via into the amnion. Results showed that abundance was negatively correlated with aging, although its high population at day of hatch affected the microbiota composition, delaying mature microbiota establishment. L treatment increased colonization of butyrate-producing bacteria by 3 and 10 days, and segmented filamentous bacteria in the lower ileum by 10 days. On the other hand, L-probiotic decreased the population of . In addition, L and C2 microbial communities were less diverse at 10 than 3 days of age in the upper ileum. Importantly, these findings provide a valuable resource for a potential study model for interactions between microbial colonization and associated immune responses. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that intestinal pioneer colonizers play a critical role in driving the course of microbial community composition and diversity over time, in which early life exposure to L-based probiotic supported selection alongside greater colonization of symbiotic populations in the ileum of young broilers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.02858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6962117PMC
January 2020

Lingual salivary gland hypertrophy and decreased acinar density in chagasic patients without megaesophagus.

Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2019 20;61:e67. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Although the salivary glands present several functions, there are few studies evaluating these glands in Chagas disease (CD). This study aimed to compare the percentage of collagen, the presence of inflammation, the density of chimase and tryptase mast cells, the area and density of lingual salivary gland acini in autopsied individuals with and without (CD). We analyzed 400 autopsy reports performed in a tertiary public hospital from 1999 to 2015 and selected all the cases in which tongue fragments were collected (27 cases), 12 with chronic CD without megaesophagus (CH) and 15 without CD (non-chagasic - NC). The histological sections of the tongue were stained by Picrosirius red for collagen evaluation and Hematoxylin-eosin for morphometric evaluation of salivary gland acini and inflammation. Anti-chimase and anti-tryptase antibodies were used for the immunohistochemical evaluation of mast cells. The chagasic patients presented higher volume and lower density of salivary glands acini. There was no difference in the collagen percentage, inflammation and density of mast cell chymase and tryptase between the groups. Although we did not observe a significant difference between the groups regarding the collagen percentage, inflammatory process and mast cell density, our results suggest that even without megaesophagus, chagasic patients present hypertrophy of the lingual salivary glands and lower acinar density probably due to mechanisms independent of the esophagus-glandular stimulus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1678-9946201961067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6907416PMC
February 2020

Arginase-1 and Treg Profile Appear to Modulate Inflammatory Process in Patients with Chronic Gastritis: May Be the Alarm Cytokine in -Positive Patients.

Mediators Inflamm 2019 20;2019:2536781. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Laboratory of Biopathology and Molecular Biology, University of Uberaba (UNIUBE), Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

() is a highly prevalent bacterium in our environment, directly involved in various upper digestive tract diseases, such as gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Several molecules activating the immune system have been reported to be involved in containing infection. This study is aimed at analyzing the mRNA expression of the cytokines , , , , , , , and ; transcription factors , , and ; enzymes , , and ; and neuropeptides and and their respective receptors and in the stomach lining of patients with severe digestive disorders. One hundred and twenty six patients have been evaluated, presenting with symptoms in the upper digestive tract, with the clinical indication for an Upper Digestive Endoscopy exam. Two fragments of the mucosa of the gastric body and antrum have been collected for anatomopathological examination and to analyze the expression of enzymes, cytokines, and transcription factors using qPCR. Expression of the gene was seen as significantly higher in the group of patients with chronic inactive gastritis than in the control group. Expression of the gene and its transcription factor was significantly higher in the group of chronic inactive gastritis patients than in the control. Expression of , , , and and the transcription factors, and , in the presence or absence of showed no significant difference. However, the expression of was significantly lower in -positive patients than that in -negative patients. ARG1 and Treg profile appeared to be modulating the inflammatory process, protecting patients from the tissue lesions with chronic inactive gastritis. Furthermore, we suggest that may be a crucial mediator of the immune response against an infection, after gastric mucosal damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/2536781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6610761PMC
February 2020

Th1, Th17, and Treg Responses are Differently Modulated by TNF-α Inhibitors and Methotrexate in Psoriasis Patients.

Sci Rep 2019 05 17;9(1):7526. Epub 2019 May 17.

University of Uberaba, Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Psoriasis is a chronic, recurrent, immune-mediated, hyperproliferative inflammatory skin disease. The role of the adaptive immune system, particularly of Th1 and Th17 lymphocytes, has been regarded as prominent in the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis, as well as decreased Tregs function. Immunobiological drugs were administered in therapeutic pulses and a few studies evaluate their effects on the immune repertoire. The aim of this study was to evaluate the adaptive immune profile of patients with severe psoriasis under immunobiological treatment in two time points. Thirty-two psoriasis patients and 10 control patients were evaluated. In the group of psoriasis patients, 10 patients were on anti-TNF and 14 patients on methotrexate treatment, while 8 individuals were not treated. IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-2, and IL-10 were analyzed. CD4 T cell intracellular cytokines were analyzed. It was observed that stimulation could significantly increase the production of IL-17, IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-10 only before anti-TNF pulse therapy. The activation of Th1 and Treg cells after stimulation was significantly higher before anti-TNF pulse. Patients on methotrexate or anti-TNF therapy produced significantly lower levels of TNF-α, IL-10, and IL-6. Furthermore, these patients showed a significant decrease in the activated CD4+ T cells. The treatment with immunomodulator or methotrexate modulates the activation of CD4+ T cells, and anti-TNF treatment appears to have a modulating effect on the activation and production of Th1, Th17, and Treg cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43899-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6525159PMC
May 2019

T-Cell Immunophenotyping and Cytokine Production Analysis in Patients with Chagas Disease 4 Years after Benznidazole Treatment.

Infect Immun 2019 08 23;87(8). Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Parasitology, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

The major problem with Chagas disease is evolution of the chronic indeterminate form to a progressive cardiac disease. Treatment diminishes parasitemia but not clinical progression, and the immunological features involved are unclear. Here, we studied the clinical course and the immune response in patients with chronic-phase Chagas disease at 48 months after benznidazole treatment. Progression to the cardiac form of Chagas disease or its aggravation was associated with higher antigen-specific production of interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in patients with cardiac Chagas disease than in patients with the indeterminate form. Predominance of IFN-γ production over interleukin-10 (IL-10) production in antigen-specific cultures was associated with cardiac involvement. Significantly higher numbers of antigen-specific T helper 1 cells (T-Bet IFN-γ) and a significantly higher IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio were observed in patients with cardiac Chagas disease than in patients with the indeterminate form. Cardiac damage was associated with higher numbers of T helper cells than cytotoxic T lymphocytes producing IFN-γ. Patients with cardiac Chagas disease had predominant CD25 and CD25 T regulatory (Treg) subpopulations, whereas patients with the indeterminate form manifested a higher relative mean percentage of CD25 Treg subpopulations. These findings suggest that at 48 months after benznidazole treatment, the disease can worsen or progress to the cardiac form. The progression may be related to increased IFN-γ production (mostly from CD4 T cells) relative to IL-10 production and increased Treg percentages. Patients with the indeterminate form of Chagas disease show a more balanced ratio of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00103-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6652764PMC
August 2019

Analysis of Macrophage Activation Markers in an Experimental Model of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Treated with Photodynamic Therapy Mediated by 5-Aminolevulinic Acid.

Photobiomodul Photomed Laser Surg 2019 May 12;37(5):298-304. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

1 Immunology Laboratory, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil.

In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and the profile of macrophages activation markers. Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by parasites of the genus . CL is caused by in the old world and by in the Americas. Considering the targeted organs, PDT may constitute a valuable therapeutic intervention. Macrophages are the host cells of in mammals and may be classified into type M1 or M2 depending on the pattern of activation. BALB/c mice were infected in the foot pad with 1 × 10 amastigotes of and treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), visible light, or 5-ALA-PDT. The ex vivo mRNA expression levels of interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), arginase-1, heme oxygenase ( Hmox), and induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were quantities as markers of macrophage activation with distinct ability to kill intracellular parasite. The parasite load decreased significantly in the group treated with PDT compared with the other groups. The iNOS relative mRNA was higher in the group treated with PDT and light only compared with the group without treatment, whereas iNOS/arginase ratio was significantly higher only in the PDT group. The expression of TNF-α was significantly higher in 5-ALA and light compared with PDT and control group. No significant difference was observed in the expression of the other markers evaluated. Both, light and 5-ALA-PDT were able to upregulate iNOS expression only; 5-ALA-PDT was able to reduce parasite burden. The increase in the iNOS levels suggests it might participate in the antimicrobial mechanisms triggered by 5-ALA-PDT; although parasite death mechanism was not completely clarified, the results presented in this study suggest that macrophage activation may contribute to parasite control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/photob.2018.4574DOI Listing
May 2019

Current Practices in Ocular Tuberculosis: A Survey of Brazilian Specialists.

Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2020 26;28(2):256-261. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Escola Paulista de Medicina (EPM), Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, Brazil.

: To describe the approach of Brazilian specialists in the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis-associated uveitis (TBU).: Members of the Brazilian Uveitis Society received an electronic invitation to participate in an online questionnaire.: Of the 169 invited specialists, 78 answered the questionnaire. Specialists evaluated 5.6 patients with TBU annually. Tuberculin skin test (TST, 81%) was primarily used for diagnosis. Patients with presumed TBU should always be tested for syphilis and HIV according to 51 (88%) and 47 (81%) of respondents, respectively. Chest computed tomography (CT, 72%) was preferable to chest radiography (CXR) for diagnosis. A positive TST (81%) and CXR (60%) were the main indicators of anti-tuberculous therapy, with 34%, 39%, and 14% of specialists treating for 6, 9, and 12 months, respectively.: TST remains the preferred method for TBU diagnosis and prompt treatment by Brazilian specialists, though there is no consensus regarding disease treatment and management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09273948.2018.1563705DOI Listing
January 2021

Streptococcus mutans detection in saliva and colostrum samples.

Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2019 Jan 31;17(1):eAO4515. Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Universidade de Uberaba, Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

Objective: To detect Streptococcus mutans in colostrum and saliva of neonates and compare with its detection in saliva of mothers.

Methods: Forty-three healthy women, full-term gestations with no complications, submitted to elective Cesarean section, and their newborns were included in the study. Samples were investigated by polymerase chain reaction to detect S. mutans in genetic material from the samples.

Results: Approximately 16% of colostrum samples showed S. mutans , but not correlated with the presence of the bacteria in both samples of saliva. S. mutans was detected in 49 and 30% of saliva samples of mothers and neonates, respectively. There was a positive correlation in S. mutans detection between types of saliva. The number of maternal samples of saliva with detectable S. mutans was smaller in women receiving dental treatment during pregnancy. Tooth brushing, three times a day, influenced the detection of S. mutans in both the saliva and the colostrum.

Conclusion: Although maternal saliva may present S. mutans , few samples of colostrum present the bacteria. The presence of bacteria in neonate saliva may be related to contact before birth. Dental treatment and hygiene habits seem to influence the detection of S. mutans in samples of maternal saliva and colostrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31744/einstein_journal/2019AO4515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6438671PMC
January 2019

Interferon-γ release assay as a sensitive diagnostic tool of latent tuberculosis infection in patients with HIV: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Infect Dis 2018 Nov 19;18(1):585. Epub 2018 Nov 19.

Clemente Ferreira Institute, Rua da Consolação 717, São Paulo, SP, CEP: 01221-020, Brazil.

Background: In developing countries, tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem and the leading cause of death among patients with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus). Until 2001, the tuberculin skin test (TST) was the only available tool for the diagnosis of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), but false-negative TST results are frequently reported. Recently, the interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release assay (IGRA) has gained ground because it can detect the IFN-γ secreted by circulating lymphocytes T cells when stimulated by specific TB antigens. However, the role of IGRA in the diagnosis of LTBI in HIV-infected patients has not been well established.

Methods: This cross-sectional study compared the accuracy of TST (performed by the Mantoux method) and IGRA (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube, Cellestis, Carnegie, Australia) on the diagnosis of LTBI among patients with HIV. LTBI is defined by LTBI risk and at least one positive test (TST or IGRA), without clinical evidence of active TB. We also assessed the accuracy of TST and IGRA among HIV patients with high and low risk for LTBI.

Results: Among 90 HIV patients, 80 met the study criteria for LTBI, fifty-nine (73.7%) patients were TST positive, 21 (26.2%) were negative, whereas 75 patients (93.7%) were IGRA positive, and five (6.2%) were negative. TST showed poor agreement with the diagnosis of LTBI (Kappa: 0.384), while IGRA demonstrated good agreement (Kappa: 0.769). Among 69 patients with high risk and 21 with low risk for LTBI, TST was positive in 48 (69.5%) and 11 (52.4%), while IGRA was positive in 68 (98.5%) and 7 (33.3%) patients, respectively. There were no association between TST and the level of risk (P = 0,191). Conversely, we observed a strong association between the IGRA and risk for LTBI (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Compared to TST, IGRA positivity is consistent with the risk of TB infection and seems to be a better diagnostic tool for LTBI in HIV-infected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3508-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6245697PMC
November 2018

Reversible posterior encephalopathy syndrome in a 10-year-old child.

J Bras Nefrol 2019 Jul-Sep;41(3):436-439. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Medicina e Enfermagem (DEM), Viçosa, MG, Brasil.

Introduction: The posterior reversible encephalopathy (PRES) syndrome encompasses a set of clinical-radiological findings associated with severe systemic arterial hypertension. This case report proposes to discuss the identification, diagnosis, and management of PRES in the pediatric population.

Case Presentation: Female patient, 10 years old, admitted to the emergency room with complaint of oliguria and generalized edema. At the initial physical exam, the only alteration present was anasarca. The diagnostic investigation revealed nephrotic syndrome, and clinical treatment was started. She evolved on the 8th day of hospitalization with peak hypertension, sudden visual loss, reduced level of consciousness, nystagmus, and focal seizures requiring intubation. She was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit, with neurological improvement, after the established therapy. CT scan revealed a discrete hypodense area in the white matter of the occipital lobe and anteroposterior groove asymmetry, compatible with PRES.

Discussion: PRES is due to vasogenic cerebral edema of acute or subacute installation. Symptoms include headache and altered consciousness, stupor, coma, neurological deficits, seizures and cortical blindness. Nephropathies are the main cause of PRES in pediatrics. Magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion of molecules is the gold standard for diagnosis. The initial treatment objectives are the reduction of blood pressure, antiepileptic therapy, correction of hydroelectrolytic and acid-base disorders and management of intracranial hypertension.

Conclusion: PRES is associated with acute hypertension. Early diagnosis and proper management may determine a better prognosis and minimize the severity of the clinical course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/2175-8239-JBN-2018-0111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6788842PMC
April 2020

High in situ mRNA levels of IL-22, TFG-β, and ARG-1 in keloid scars.

Immunobiology 2018 12 20;223(12):812-817. Epub 2018 Aug 20.

Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM) ICBN and CEFORES, Uberaba, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Keloid scars are currently considered a chronic inflammatory process and no longer a benign skin tumor. Keloids are defined as highly inflamed, hyperproliferative pathological scars. Growth factors and cytokines have important functions in the keloid inflammatory etiopathogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the in situ expression of cytokines and growth factors in keloid scars in comparison with that in normal scars. Among them, we specifically assessed TGF-β, FGF, IL-33, IL-22, ARG-1, ARG-2, iNOS, VIP, VIP-R1, TAC, and TAC-R1. A total of 98 biopsies were evaluated, including of 53 keloid and 45 normal scars. The age of patients with keloids ranged from 11 to 73 years, with a mean age of 28 years and predominance of the female gender (58.5% of the total patients). Around 64.15% of the patients belonged to the black ethnic group. Evaluated keloids were most commonly located in the earlobe because of ear piercing, representing 73.6% of the cases. We found significantly greater expression of TGF-β, IL-22, and ARG-1 in keloids when compared with that in normal scars. As for IL-33, ARG-2, and VIP-R1, despite the higher number of mRNA copies found in keloids, this difference was not significant. Furthermore, FGF, iNOS, VIP, TAC, and TAC-R1 mRNA levels were not detectable, and therefore these results were inconclusive in this study. Considering these results, understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control the inflammatory response during cutaneous healing may promote the development of strategies to improve the treatment of patients with keloids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2018.08.010DOI Listing
December 2018

Levels of Pro and Anti-inflammatory Citokynes and C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis Submitted to Nonsurgical Periodontal Treatment

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2018 Jul 27;19(7):1927-1933. Epub 2018 Jul 27.

University of Uberaba, Uberaba, MG, Brazil.Email:

Aim: to compare the levels of IFN-γ, TGF-β and C-reactive protein (CRP) in healthy patients (HP) and chronic periodontitis patients (CP) before and seven days after the last session of Non-Surgical Periodontal Treatment (NSPT). Materials and Methods: 40 subjects were divided into two groups: healthy (n= 20), and with chronic periodontitis (n = 20). Serum and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were collected from each patient and quantified for IFN-γ, TGF-β and CRP using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: IFN-γ was found to be higher in the GCF of the CP group before NSPT in relation to the HP group (p<0.05), and it had significant higher levels after seven days of NSPT (p<0.05). The levels of TGF-β in the GCF of CP patients before NSPT were significantly higher when compared to HP (p<0.05), but they decreased after seven days of NSPT (p>0.05). Serum CRP levels did not show statistical difference between CP and HP before or after NSPT. Conclusion: Therefore, our results demonstrated for the first time that NSPT causes early exacerbation of the immune response at the local level represented by increased levels of IFN-γ and decreased levels of TGF-β in the gingival crevicular fluid after seven days of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.7.1927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6165634PMC
July 2018

Streptococcus mutans in Umbilical Cord Blood, Peripheral Blood, and Saliva from Healthy Mothers.

Curr Microbiol 2018 Oct 22;75(10):1372-1377. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

Uberaba University, Av. Nenê Sabino, 1801 - Bairro Universitário, Uberaba, Minas Gerais, CEP: 38.055-500, Brazil.

The aims of this study were to analyze the presence of Streptococcus mutans (SM)-DNA in cord blood (CB), maternal peripheral blood (PB), and maternal saliva (SA) and compare with data collected in health surveys. Sixty-four healthy women with pregnancies to term and without complications attending for elective cesarean section in the Clinical Hospital of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo were included. Samples of PB and unstimulated SA were obtained on the day of hospitalization and samples of CB were collected after the delivery section. Samples were investigated using polymerase chain reaction for the presence of SM-DNA using specific primers. The results show over 50% of the sample of PB and CB showed SM-DNA detectable. There was a positive correlation between the SM detection in PB/CB and SA (P < 0.05). Pregnant women, who reported tooth brushing more than three times a day, often showed detectable SM-DNA in PB and CB (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the majority of children can have contact with SM-DNA during the intrauterine life by the CB. SM probably transferred from salivary habitat to PB and CB. The tooth brushing can be associated to S. mutans detection in blood samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-018-1532-yDOI Listing
October 2018

TNF-α blockade impairs in vitro tuberculous granuloma formation and down modulate Th1, Th17 and Treg cytokines.

PLoS One 2018 15;13(3):e0194430. Epub 2018 Mar 15.

Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Biological Sciences, Triângulo Mineiro Federal University, Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a granulomatous disease that has affected humanity for thousands of years. The production of cytokines, such as IFN-γ and TNF-α, is fundamental in the formation and maintenance of granulomas and in the control of the disease. Recently, the introduction of TNF-α-blocking monoclonal antibodies, such as Infliximab, has brought improvements in the treatment of patients with chronic inflammatory diseases, but this treatment also increases the risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis. Our objective was to analyze, in an in vitro model, the influence of Infliximab on the granulomatous reactions and on the production of antigen-specific cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-12p40, IL-10 and IL-17) from beads sensitized with soluble Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) antigens cultured in the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from TB patients. We evaluated 76 individuals, with tuberculosis active, treated and subjects with positive PPD. Granuloma formation was induced in the presence or absence of Infliximab for up to 10 days. The use of Infliximab in cultures significantly blocked TNF-α production (p <0.05), and led to significant changes in granuloma structure, in vitro, only in the treated TB group. On the other hand, there was a significant reduction in the levels of IFN-γ, IL-12p40, IL-10 and IL-17 after TNF-α blockade in the three experimental groups (p <0.05). Taken together, our results demonstrate that TNF-α blockade by Infliximab directly influenced the structure of granuloma only in the treated TB group, but negatively modulated the production of Th1, Th17 and regulatory T cytokines in the three groups analyzed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0194430PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5854376PMC
July 2018

Analysis of colostrum IgA against bacteria involved in neonatal infections.

Einstein (Sao Paulo) 2017 Jul-Sep;15(3):256-261

Universidade de Uberaba, Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

Objective: To describe e compare the specificity of IgA antibodies against bacteria extract of Klebsiella pneumoniae , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , and Salmonella enteritidis .

Methods: Colostrum samples were aseptically collected in the first 12 hours after C-section delivery. The specificity of IgA against bacteria extracts was analyzed by the Western blot.

Results: The findings showed proteins of high molecular weight frequently detectable in the samples. S. aureus was the most frequently found bacterium in the samples (p<0.05). Approximately 93.8, 56.3, 62.5 and 60.4% of samples presented IgA reactive to S. aureus , K. pneumoniae , S. enteritidis, and E. coli, respectively. Roughly 40% of samples showed no IgA reactive to K. pneumoniae, S. enteritidis and E. coli .

Conclusion: Clinical evidence of the importance of breastfeeding for the immune protection of neonates was consistent with the observed immunological findings, since most samples showed IgA reactive against the species tested. The application and development of immunotherapies during pregnancy, focused on frequently detected antigens, could be an important tool to enhance the presence of IgA in colostrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1679-45082017AO3958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5823036PMC
December 2017

Modulation of Galectin-3 and Galectin 9 in gastric mucosa of patients with chronic gastritis and positive Helicobacter pylori infection.

Pathol Res Pract 2017 Oct 25;213(10):1276-1281. Epub 2017 Aug 25.

Laboratory of Biopathology and Molecular Biology, University of Uberaba (UNIUBE), Uberaba, MG, Brazil; Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, MG, CEFORES, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: Galectins are mediators that play an important role in the inflammatory response and in this study we analyzed the expression of Galectins (Gal) -1, -3 and -9 in biopsies of the gastric antrum of patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms.

Methodology: 44 patients with upper digestive tract symptoms were evaluated, and underwent Upper Digestive Endoscopy examination. Sections of the gastric antrum were fixed in buffered formaldehyde at 4% in order to perform the anatomopathological examination and immunohistochemical analysis for Galectins-1, -3 and -9 expression. Fresh sections of gastric antrum were used for DNA extraction and evaluation of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). P values<0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: Gal-1 was significantly more expressed on stroma than epithelium (p<0.0001), whereas Gal-3 and Gal-9 were more expressed on epithelium (p<0.0001). Gal-3 was found to be significantly higher in the stroma of patients with H. pylori infection, mainly on Cag-A positive H. pylori (p<0.0001). Gal-9 was down modulated in stroma of patients with chronic gastritis.

Conclusion: Up modulation of Gal-3 expression was associated with H. pylori infection and down modulation of Gal-9 with the inflammatory process of chronic gastritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2017.08.005DOI Listing
October 2017

In Situ Cytokine Expression and Morphometric Evaluation of Total Collagen and Collagens Type I and Type III in Keloid Scars.

Mediators Inflamm 2017 30;2017:6573802. Epub 2017 May 30.

Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM) ICBN and CEFORES, Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

Keloids are characterized by excessive collagen deposition and growth beyond the edges of the initial injury, and cytokines may be related to their formation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the collagen fibers, analyze in situ expression of cytokines in keloid lesions, and compare to the control group. Results showed that there was a predominance of women and nonwhite and direct black ancestry. Keloid showed a significant increase in total and type III collagen. Significantly, the expression of mRNA for TGF- in keloid was increased, the expressions of IFN-, IFN-R1, and IL-10 were lower, and IFN-R1 and TNF- had no statistical difference. Correlations between collagen type III and TGF- mRNA expression were positive and significant, IFN-, IFN-R1, and IL-10 were negative and significant, and TNF- showed no statistical difference. We conclude that there was a significant increase of total collagen in keloid and predominance of collagen type III compared to the controls, showing keloid as an immature lesion. There is a significant increase in TGF- mRNA in keloid lesions, and a significant decrease in IFN- and IL-10, suggesting that these cytokines are related to keloid lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/6573802DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5468593PMC
March 2018

Modulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase 14, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 3, Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 4, and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Development of Periapical Lesions.

J Endod 2017 Jul 17;43(7):1122-1129. Epub 2017 May 17.

Laboratory of Immunology, Department of Biological Sciences and Cefores, Triângulo Mineiro Federal University, Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Uberaba University, Uberaba, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: Periapical cysts and granulomas are chronic lesions caused by an inflammatory immune response against microbial challenge in the root canal. Different cell types, cytokines, and molecules have been associated with periapical lesion formation and expansion. Therefore, because of the chronic inflammatory state of these lesions, the aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 and -19, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3 and -4, CD68, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in periapical cysts and granulomas.

Methods: Sixteen cases of periapical cysts and 15 cases of periapical granulomas were analyzed. Ten normal dental pulps were used as the negative control. Immunohistochemistry was performed with anti-MMP-19, anti-MMP-14, anti-TIMP-3, anti-TIMP-4, anti-iNOS, and anti-CD68 antibodies.

Results: The expression of TIMP-3, TIMP-4, iNOS, and CD68 was significantly higher in both the cyst and granuloma groups than in the control group. TIMP-4 was also significantly higher in cases of chronic apical abscess. There was also a significant difference in the expression of MMP-14 between the cyst and control groups. However, there were no differences in the expression of MMP-19 between the 3 groups.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that the expression of MMP-14, TIMP-3, and TIMP-4 is associated with the development of periapical lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2017.02.020DOI Listing
July 2017

Comparisons of IgA response in saliva and colostrum against oral streptococci species.

Braz Oral Res 2017 May 15;31:e39. Epub 2017 May 15.

Universidade de São Paulo - USP, Medical School of Ribeirao Preto, Department of Pediatrics, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

The present study compared IgA specificity against oral streptococci in colostrum and saliva samples. Sixty-two mother-and-child pairs were included; samples of colostrum (C) and saliva (MS) were collected from the mothers and saliva samples were collected from babies (BS). The specificity of IgA against Streptococcus mutans and S. mitis were analyzed by western blot. Only 30% of babies' samples presented IgA reactivity to S. mutans, while 74 and 80% of MS and C, respectively, presented this response. IgA reactivity to S. mutans virulence antigens (Ag I/II, Gtf and GbpB) in positive samples showed differences between samples for Gtf and especially for GbpB (p < 0.05), but responses to Ag I/II were similar (p > 0.05). The positive response of Gtf-reactive IgA was different between C (90%) and MS (58%) samples (p < 0.05), but did not differ from BS (p > 0.05). GbpB was the least detected, with 48 and 26% of C and MS, and only 5% of BS samples presenting reactivity (p > 0.05). Eight percent of MS and C samples presented identical bands to SM in the same time-point. In conclusion, the differences of IgA response found between C and MS can be due to the different ways of stimulation, proliferation and transportation of IgA in those secretions. The colostrum has high levels of IgA against S. mutans virulence antigens, which could affect the installation and accumulation process of S. mutans, mainly by supplying anti-GbpB IgA to the neonate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107BOR-2017.vol31.0039DOI Listing
May 2017

Complexity and Controversies over the Cytokine Profiles of T Helper Cell Subpopulations in Tuberculosis.

J Immunol Res 2015 1;2015:639107. Epub 2015 Oct 1.

Laboratory of Immunology, Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, 38025-180 Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious infectious disease caused by the TB-causing bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is considered a public health problem with enormous social impact. Disease progression is determined mainly by the balance between the microorganism and the host defense systems. Although the immune system controls the infection, this control does not necessarily lead to sterilization. Over recent decades, the patterns of CD4+ T cell responses have been studied with a goal of complete understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved in the maintenance of latent or active tuberculosis infection and of the clinical cure after treatment. Conflicting results have been suggested over the years, particularly in studies comparing experimental models and human disease. In recent years, in addition to Th1, Th2, and Th17 profiles, new standards of cellular immune responses, such as Th9, Th22, and IFN-γ-IL-10 double-producing Th cells, discussed here, have also been described. Additionally, many new roles and cellular sources have been described for IL-10, demonstrating a critical role for this cytokine as regulatory, rather than merely pathogenic cytokine, involved in the establishment of chronic latent infection, in the clinical cure after treatment and in keeping antibacillary effector mechanisms active to prevent immune-mediated damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/639107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4606092PMC
May 2016

Inflammation Biomarkers of Advanced Disease in Nongingival Tissues of Chronic Periodontitis Patients.

Mediators Inflamm 2015 7;2015:983782. Epub 2015 May 7.

Instituto de Ciências Biológicas e Naturais, Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, Uberaba, MG, Brazil ; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, Department of Clinical Analyzes, Toxicology and Food Sciences, USP, Avenida do Café, s/n, 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Chronic periodontitis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease that affects supporting structures of the teeth. Although the gingival response is largely described, little is known about the immune changes in the alveolar bone and neighboring tissues that could indicate periodontal disease (PD) activity. Then, in this study we identified the ongoing inflammatory changes and novel biomarkers for periodontitis in the tissues directly affected by the destructive disease in PD patients. Samples were collected by osteotomy in 17 control subjects during extraction of third molars and 18 patients with advanced PD, in which alveoloplasty was necessary after extraction of teeth with previous extensive periodontal damage. Patients presented mononuclear cells infiltration in the connective tissue next to the bone and higher fibrosis area, along with increased accumulation of IL-17(+) and TRAP(+) cells. The levels of TNF-α and MMP-2 mRNA were also elevated compared to controls and a positive and significant correlation was observed between TNF-α and MMP-2 mRNA expression, considering all samples evaluated. In conclusion, nongingival tissues neighboring large periodontal pockets present inflammatory markers that could predict ongoing bone resorption and disease spreading. Therefore, we suggested that the detailed evaluation of these regions could be of great importance to the assessment of disease progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/983782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4439505PMC
May 2016

Expression pattern of transcription factors and intracellular cytokines reveals that clinically cured tuberculosis is accompanied by an increase in Mycobacterium-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells.

Biomed Res Int 2015 27;2015:591237. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

Laboratory of Immunology, Institute of Biological Sciences, Triângulo Mineiro Federal University, 38025-180 Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem and is the second biggest cause of death by infectious disease worldwide. Here, we investigate in vitro the Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cytokines and transcriptional factors produced after Mycobacterium-specific antigen stimulation in patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis, clinically cured pulmonary tuberculosis, and healthy donors with a positive tuberculin skin test (TST+). Together, our data indicate that clinical cure after treatment increases the percentages of Mycobacterium-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells compared with those found in active-TB and TST+ healthy donors. These results show that the host-parasite equilibrium in latent TB breaks in favor of the microorganism and that the subsequent clinical recovery posttreatment does not return the percentage levels of such cells to those observed in latent tuberculosis. Additionally, our results indicate that rather than showing an increase in the percentage of Mycobacterium-specific Tregs, active-TB patients display lower Th1 : Treg and Th17 : Treg ratios. These data, together with lower Th1 : Th2 and Th17 : Th2 ratios, may indicate a mechanism by which the breakdown of the host-parasite equilibrium leads to active-TB and changes in the repertoire of Mycobacterium-specific Th cells that are associated with clinical cure after treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/591237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4427018PMC
February 2016

Galectin-9 as an important marker in the differential diagnosis between oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus.

Immunobiology 2015 Aug 27;220(8):1006-11. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

Laboratory of Biopathology and Molecular Biology, University of Uberaba (UNIUBE), Uberaba, MG, Brazil; CEFORES/Federal University of Triângulo Mineiro (UFTM), Uberaba, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: To evaluate the expression of Galectins (Gal) 1, 3 and 9, Metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) and mast cell density in oral lesions of patients with potentially malignant disorders (PMD) and oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) by comparison with the controls.

Study Design: We selected 40 cases of PMD, 40 OSCC and 13 with normal histopathological profile. Immunohistochemistry was performed for Gal-1, Gal-3, Gal-9 and MMP-3.

Results: Gal-9 was significantly higher in patients with OSCC than in others groups (p < 0.001). Gal-1 expression was significantly lower in patients with leukoplakia than those with OSCC and controls (p = 0.0001). Gal-3 was significantly lower in patients with OSCC than those with leukoplakia (p = 0.03). MMP-3 was lower in patients with leukoplakia in comparison with the lichen planus group (p = 0.013).

Conclusion: The increased expression of Gal-9 may be helpful to differentiate of OSCC from other oral cavity lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2015.04.004DOI Listing
August 2015

Chagas disease reactivation in HIV-coinfected patients: histopathological aspects.

Immunobiology 2015 May 28;220(5):656-62. Epub 2014 Nov 28.

Laboratory of Biopathology and Molecular Biology, University of Uberaba, Uberaba, Brazil; Cefores, Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Uberaba, Brazil. Electronic address:

Introduction: Chagas disease reactivation has been described in severely immunocompromised patients by various etiologies, including in HIV-coinfected patients.

Objective: This study aimed to perform histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of the brain, myocardium, esophagus and large bowel of autopsied patients with CHD and/or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in comparison with control patients.

Material And Methods: Autopsy reports were reviewed from 1998 to 2012 and eight adult subjects were selected and divided into four groups: RE, CH, AI and CO. Sections of brain, myocardium, esophagus and large bowel were collected from each subject and processed for histological and immunohistochemical analysis. The histological sections stained with HE, Giemsa and picrosirius were used to quantify the density of inflammatory cells, the density of mast cells, and the percentage of collagen, respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis of IL17 and CD31 was performed.

Results: The density of mast cells in the myocardium was significantly higher in the CH group than in the other groups. The density of mast cells in the esophagus and in the large bowel was significantly higher when compared to the other groups. The percentage of collagen in the esophagus, myocardium and large bowel was significantly lower in the RE group than in the CO group. The CH group had a higher percentage of collagen in the myocardium and in the large bowel in relation to the other groups. The density of cells immunostained with anti-IL17 was significantly higher in the large bowel and in the myocardium in the CH group than in the CO group. There was higher density of vessels immunostained with anti-CD31 in the myocardium and esophagus of the AI group than in the other groups. There were no significant correlations between the density of mast cells and percentage of collagen in the RE, CO, CH and AI groups.

Conclusion: Brain lesions observed in patients with CDR, as well as the higher density of cells immunostained with anti-IL17 at these sites, suggest that this cytokine was increasing local inflammation with subsequent tissue damage due to inflammation. Furthermore, the higher density of mast cells in the esophagus and large bowel of these subjects suggests that these cells might play a major role in esophageal and intestinal inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2014.11.013DOI Listing
May 2015