Publications by authors named "Denise M Barbulescu"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Genome-Wide Association Mapping Identifies Novel Loci for Quantitative Resistance to Blackleg Disease in Canola.

Front Plant Sci 2020 11;11:1184. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Centre for Bioinformatics and Biometrics, National Institute for Applied Statistics Research Australia, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia.

Blackleg disease, caused by the fungal pathogen , continues to be a major concern for sustainable production of canola ( L.) in many parts of the world. The deployment of effective quantitative resistance (QR) is recognized as a durable strategy in providing natural defense to pathogens. Herein, we uncover loci for resistance to blackleg in a genetically diverse panel of canola accessions by exploiting historic recombination events which occurred during domestication and selective breeding by genome-wide association analysis (GWAS). We found extensive variation in resistance to blackleg at the adult plant stage, including for upper canopy infection. Using the linkage disequilibrium and genetic relationship estimates from 12,414 high quality SNPs, GWAS identified 59 statistically significant and "suggestive" SNPs on 17 chromosomes of genome that underlie variation in resistance to blackleg, evaluated under field and shade-house conditions. Each of the SNP association accounted for up to 25.1% of additive genetic variance in resistance among diverse panel of accessions. To understand the homology of QR genomic regions with genome, we searched the synteny between QR regions with 22 ancestral blocks of Brassicaceae. Comparative analyses revealed that 25 SNP associations for QR were localized in nine ancestral blocks, as a result of genomic rearrangements. We further showed that phenological traits such as flowering time, plant height, and maturity confound the genetic variation in resistance. Altogether, these findings provided new insights on the complex genetic control of the blackleg resistance and further expanded our understanding of its genetic architecture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.01184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432127PMC
August 2020

Genomic Prediction and Genetic Correlation of Agronomic, Blackleg Disease, and Seed Quality Traits in Canola ( L.).

Plants (Basel) 2020 Jun 5;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 5.

School of Applied Systems Biology, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3086, Australia.

Genomic selection accelerates genetic progress in crop breeding through the prediction of future phenotypes of selection candidates based on only their genomic information. Here we report genetic correlations and genomic prediction accuracies in 22 agronomic, disease, and seed quality traits measured across multiple years (2015-2017) in replicated trials under rain-fed and irrigated conditions in Victoria, Australia. Two hundred and two spring canola lines were genotyped for 62,082 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) using transcriptomic genotype-by-sequencing (GBSt). Traits were evaluated in single trait and bivariate genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) models and cross-validation. GBLUP were also expanded to include genotype-by-environment G × E interactions. Genomic heritability varied from 0.31to 0.66. Genetic correlations were highly positive within traits across locations and years. Oil content was positively correlated with most agronomic traits. Strong, not previously documented, negative correlations were observed between average internal infection (a measure of blackleg disease) and arachidic and stearic acids. The genetic correlations between fatty acid traits followed the expected patterns based on oil biosynthesis pathways. Genomic prediction accuracy ranged from 0.29 for emergence count to 0.69 for seed yield. The incorporation of G × E translates into improved prediction accuracy by up to 6%. The genomic prediction accuracies achieved indicate that genomic selection is ready for application in canola breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9060719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356366PMC
June 2020

Genetic and physical mapping of loci for resistance to blackleg disease in canola (Brassica napus L.).

Sci Rep 2020 03 10;10(1):4416. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

NSW Department of Primary Industries, Wagga Wagga Agricultural Institute, Wagga Wagga, NSW, 2650, Australia.

Sustainable canola production is essential to meet growing human demands for vegetable oil, biodiesel, and meal for stock feed markets. Blackleg, caused by the fungal pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans is a devastating disease that can lead to significant yield loss in many canola production regions worldwide. Breakdown of race-specific resistance to L. maculans in commercial cultivars poses a constant threat to the canola industry. To identify new alleles, especially for quantitative resistance (QR), we analyzed 177 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from an RP04/Ag-Outback cross. DH lines were evaluated for QR under field conditions in three experiments conducted at Wagga Wagga (2013, 2014) and Lake Green (2015), and under shade house conditions using the 'ascospore shower' test. DH lines were also characterized for qualitative R gene-mediated resistance via cotyledon tests with two differential single spore isolates, IBCN17 and IBCN76, under glasshouse conditions. Based on 18,851 DArTseq markers, a linkage map representing 2,019 unique marker bins was constructed and then utilized for QTL detection. Marker regression analysis identified 22 significant marker associations for resistance, allowing identification of two race-specific resistance R genes, Rlm3 and Rlm4, and 21 marker associations for QR loci. At least three SNP associations for QR were repeatedly detected on chromosomes A03, A07 and C04 across phenotyping environments. Physical mapping of markers linked with these consistent QR loci on the B. napus genome assembly revealed their localization in close proximity of the candidate genes of B. napus BnaA03g26760D (A03), BnaA07g20240D (A07) and BnaC04g02040D (C04). Annotation of these candidate genes revealed their association with protein kinase and jumonji proteins implicated in defense resistance. Both Rlm3 and Rlm4 genes identified in this DH population did not show any association with resistance loci detected under either field and/or shade house conditions (ascospore shower) suggesting that both genes are ineffective in conferring resistance to L. maculans in Australian field conditions. Taken together, our study identified sequence-based molecular markers for dissecting R and QR loci to L. maculans in a canola DH population from the RP04/Ag-Outback cross.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61211-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7064481PMC
March 2020

Evaluation and Recommendations for Routine Genotyping Using Skim Whole Genome Re-sequencing in Canola.

Front Plant Sci 2018 7;9:1809. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Agriculture Victoria, AgriBio, Centre for AgriBioscience, Bundoora, VIC, Australia.

Whole genome sequencing offers genome wide, unbiased markers, and inexpensive library preparation. With the cost of sequencing decreasing rapidly, many plant genomes of modest size are amenable to skim whole genome resequencing (skim WGR). The use of skim WGR in diverse sample sets without the use of imputation was evaluated in 149 canola samples representative of global diversity. Fastq files with an average of 10x coverage of the reference genome were used to generate skim samples representing 0.25x, 0.5x, 1x, 2x, 3x, 4x, and 5x sequencing coverage. Applying a pre-defined list of SNPs versus SNP discovery was evaluated. As skim WGR is expected to result in some degree of insufficient allele sampling, all skim coverage levels were filtered at a range of minimum read depths from a relaxed minimum read depth of 2 to a stringent read depth of 5, resulting in 28 list-based SNP sets. As a broad recommendation, genotyping pre-defined SNPs between 1x and 2x coverage with relatively stringent depth filtering is appropriate for a diverse sample set of canola due to a balance between marker number, sufficient accuracy, and sequencing cost, but depends on the intended application. This was experimentally examined in two sample sets with different genetic backgrounds: 1x coverage of 1,590 individuals from 84 Australian spring type four-parent crosses aimed at maximizing diversity as well as one commercial F hybrid, and 2x coverage of 379 doubled haploids (DHs) derived from a subset of the four-parent crosses. To determine optimal coverage in a simpler genetic background, the DH sample sequence coverage was further down sampled . The flexible and cost-effective nature of the protocol makes it highly applicable across a range of species and purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6292936PMC
December 2018

Genomic Prediction Using Prior Quantitative Trait Loci Information Reveals a Large Reservoir of Underutilised Blackleg Resistance in Diverse Canola ( L.) Lines.

Plant Genome 2018 07;11(2)

Genomic prediction is becoming a popular plant breeding method to predict the genetic merit of lines. While some genomic prediction results have been reported in canola, none have been evaluated for blackleg disease. Here, we report genomic prediction for seedling emergence, survival rate, and internal infection), using 532 Spring and Winter canola lines. These lines were phenotyped in two replicated blackleg disease nurseries grown at Wickliffe and Green Lake, Victoria, Australia. A transcriptome genotyping-by-sequencing approach revealed 98,054 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) after quality control. We assessed various genomic prediction scenarios based on Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (GBLUP), BayesR and BayesRC, which can make use of prior quantitative trait loci information, via cross-validation. Clustering based on genomic relationships showed that Winter and Spring lines were genetically distinct, indicating limited gene flow between sets. Genetic correlations within traits between Spring and Winter lines ranged from 0.68 and 0.90 (mean = 0.76). Based on GBLUP in the whole population, moderate to high genomic prediction accuracies were achieved within environments (0.35-0.74) and were reduced across environments (0.28-0.58). Prediction accuracy within the Spring set ranged from 0.30-0.69, and from 0.19-0.71 within the Winter set. The BayesR model resulted in slightly lower accuracy to GBLUP. The proportion of genetic variance explained by known blackleg quantitative trait loci (QTL) was < 30%, indicating that there is a large reservoir of genetic variation in blackleg traits that remains to be discovered, but can be captured with genomic prediction. However, providing prior information of known QTL in the BayesRC method resulted in an increased prediction accuracy for survival and internal infection, particularly with Spring lines. Overall, these promising results indicate that genomic prediction will be a valuable tool to make use of all genetic variation to improve blackleg resistance in canola.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3835/plantgenome2017.11.0100DOI Listing
July 2018

A multiplex PCR for rapid identification of species in the triangle of U.

Plant Methods 2017 15;13:49. Epub 2017 Jun 15.

Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, AgriBio, Centre for AgriBioscience, La Trobe University, 5 Ring Road, Bundoora, VIC 3083 Australia.

Background: Within the Brassicaceae, six species from the genus are widely cultivated throughout the world as oilseed, condiment, fodder or vegetable crops. The genetic relationships among the six species are described by U's triangle model. Extensive shared traits and diverse morphotypes among species make identification and classification based on phenotypic data alone challenging and unreliable, especially when dealing with large germplasm collections. Consequently, a major issue for genebank collections is ensuring the correct identification of species. Molecular genotyping based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker sequencing or the Illumina Infinium 60K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array has been used to identify species and assess genetic diversity of collections. However, these methods are technically challenging, expensive and time-consuming, making them unsuitable for routine or rapid screening of accessions for germplasm management. A cheaper, faster and simpler method for species identification is described here.

Results: A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (MPCR) consisting of new and existing primers specific to the A, B and C genomes was able to reliably distinguish all six species in the triangle of U with 16 control samples of known species identity. Further validation against 120 accessions previously genotyped showed that the MPCR is highly accurate and comparable to more advanced techniques such as SSR marker sequencing or the Illumina Infinium 60K SNP array. In addition, the MPCR was sensitive enough to detect seed contaminations in pooled seed samples of accessions.

Conclusion: A cheap and fast multiplex PCR assay for identification of species in the triangle of U was developed and validated in this study. The MPCR assay can be readily implemented in any basic molecular laboratory and should prove useful for the management of germplasm collections in genebanks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13007-017-0200-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5472915PMC
June 2017

Genome-wide Association Study Identifies New Loci for Resistance to in Canola.

Front Plant Sci 2016 24;7:1513. Epub 2016 Oct 24.

Marcroft Grains Pathology, Horsham VIC, Australia.

Key message "We identified both quantitative and quantitative resistance loci to , a fungal pathogen, causing blackleg disease in canola. Several genome-wide significant associations were detected at known and new loci for blackleg resistance. We further validated statistically significant associations in four genetic mapping populations, demonstrating that GWAS marker loci are indeed associated with resistance to One of the novel loci identified for the first time, , conveys adult plant resistance in canola." Blackleg, caused by , is a significant disease which affects the sustainable production of canola (). This study reports a genome-wide association study based on 18,804 polymorphic SNPs to identify loci associated with qualitative and quantitative resistance to . Genomic regions delimited with 694 significant SNP markers, that are associated with resistance evaluated using 12 single spore isolates and pathotypes from four canola stubble were identified. Several significant associations were detected at known disease resistance loci including in the vicinity of recently cloned / genes, and at new loci on chromosomes A01/C01, A02/C02, A03/C03, A05/C05, A06, A08, and A09. In addition, we validated statistically significant associations on A01, A07, and A10 in four genetic mapping populations, demonstrating that GWAS marker loci are indeed associated with resistance to . One of the novel loci identified for the first time, , conveys adult plant resistance and mapped within 13.2 kb from gene of TIR-NBS class. We showed that resistance loci are located in the vicinity of genes of and on the sequenced genome of cv. Darmor-. Significantly associated SNP markers provide a valuable tool to enrich germplasm for favorable alleles in order to improve the level of resistance to in canola.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2016.01513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5075532PMC
October 2016

Multi-environment QTL studies suggest a role for cysteine-rich protein kinase genes in quantitative resistance to blackleg disease in Brassica napus.

BMC Plant Biol 2016 08 24;16(1):183. Epub 2016 Aug 24.

Saskatoon Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 0X2, Canada.

Background: Resistance to the blackleg disease of Brassica napus (canola/oilseed rape), caused by the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Leptosphaeria maculans, is determined by both race-specific resistance (R) genes and quantitative resistance loci (QTL), or adult-plant resistance (APR). While the introgression of R genes into breeding material is relatively simple, QTL are often detected sporadically, making them harder to capture in breeding programs. For the effective deployment of APR in crop varieties, resistance QTL need to have a reliable influence on phenotype in multiple environments and be well defined genetically to enable marker-assisted selection (MAS).

Results: Doubled-haploid populations produced from the susceptible B. napus variety Topas and APR varieties AG-Castle and AV-Sapphire were analysed for resistance to blackleg in two locations over 3 and 4 years, respectively. Three stable QTL were detected in each population, with two loci appearing to be common to both APR varieties. Physical delineation of three QTL regions was sufficient to identify candidate defense-related genes, including a cluster of cysteine-rich receptor-like kinases contained within a 49 gene QTL interval on chromosome A01. Individual L. maculans isolates were used to define the physical intervals for the race-specific R genes Rlm3 and Rlm4 and to identify QTL common to both field studies and the cotyledon resistance response.

Conclusion: Through multi-environment QTL analysis we have identified and delineated four significant and stable QTL suitable for MAS of quantitative blackleg resistance in B. napus, and identified candidate genes which potentially play a role in quantitative defense responses to L. maculans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-016-0877-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4995785PMC
August 2016

Pterostilbene Is a Potential Candidate for Control of Blackleg in Canola.

PLoS One 2016 23;11(5):e0156186. Epub 2016 May 23.

Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, AgriBio, Centre for AgriBioscience, 5 Ring Road, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC 3083, Australia.

Two stilbenes, resveratrol and pterostilbene, exhibit antifungal activity against Leptosphaeria maculans, the fungal pathogen responsible for blackleg (stem canker) in canola (Brassica napus). In vitro studies on the effect of these stilbenes on L. maculans mycelial growth and conidia germination showed that pterostilbene is a potent fungicide and sporicide, but resveratrol only exerted minor inhibition on L. maculans. Cell viability of hyphae cultures was markedly reduced by pterostilbene and SYTOX green staining showed that cell membrane integrity was compromised. We demonstrate that pterostilbene exerts fungicidal activity across 10 different L. maculans isolates and the compound confers protection to the blackleg-susceptible canola cv. Westar seedlings. The potential of pterostilbene as a control agent against blackleg in canola is discussed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0156186PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4877020PMC
July 2017

In vitro kinetics of factor VIII activity in patients with mild haemophilia A and a discrepancy between one-stage and two-stage factor VIII assay results.

Br J Haematol 2007 Jan;136(1):138-45

Haematology Division, Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.

In some mild haemophilia A patients (discrepant haemophilia), factor VIII coagulant activity (FVIII:C) levels, by one-stage assay are more than double than those by two-stage assay. This may be due to the longer incubation times (10-12 min) in the two-stage assay. This study aimed to determine the time course of the activation phase of the two-stage assay, using both classical coagulation and chromogenic detection methods. In both systems, for equivalent patients (equivalent FVIII:C levels by one-stage and two-stage assays, n = 6, all different mutations), similar FVIII:C results were obtained with short- or long-incubation times. In contrast, plasma from discrepant patients (n = 8, five different mutations) showed higher FVIII:C at shorter incubation times than after longer incubation times. In the chromogenic assay, FVIII:C levels were higher after incubation for 2 min (23-56%, mean 41%) than after 10 min (19-41%, mean 29%). In the classical coagulation assay, FVIII:C levels were higher at shorter incubation times (21-64%, mean 37%) than with the longer incubation times usually used (13-29%, mean 23%). These time-course experiments have verified that the longer incubation time used in the two-stage assay is at least partly responsible for the lower FVIII:C measured by that assay in discrepant haemophilia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2006.06402.xDOI Listing
January 2007
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