Publications by authors named "Demosthenes Panagiotakos"

694 Publications

Exploring the Relation between Atopic Diseases and Lifestyle Patterns among Adolescents Living in Greece: Evidence from the Greek Global Asthma Network (GAN) Cross-Sectional Study.

Children (Basel) 2021 Oct 18;8(10). Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Allergology and Pulmonology Unit, 3rd Paediatric Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 12462 Athens, Greece.

Introduction: Diet and physical activity might be associated with the risk of allergic diseases in childhood. However, evidence in literature is sparse and diverse. We aim to examine the associations between four healthy dietary consumption pattern drinks, plus the adherence to a physically active lifestyle with atopic diseases (asthma, allergic rhinitis and eczema) in adolescence and their relative importance.

Methods: A total of 1934 adolescents (921 boys, 47.5%) and their parents completed a validated questionnaire assessing atopic diseases' symptoms prevalence in the past 12 months, as well as nutritional and physical activity information. Four healthy dietary and one physical active lifestyle patterns were identified and logistic regression was applied to assess their relation with allergic diseases.

Results: A high weekly consumption of fruits, vegetables and pulses and low consumption of unhealthy foods was negatively associated with all atopic symptoms while adherence to a physical active lifestyle was inversely associated with asthma and allergic rhinitis symptoms and dairy products with asthma and eczema symptoms in the past 12 months after adjustment for several confounders (all < 0.05). Fruits, vegetables and pulses consumption per week emerged as the most important lifestyle pattern negatively associated for all atopic diseases, after the adjustment for all the remaining lifestyle patterns and confounders (all < 0.05) Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a high fruit, vegetable and pulse intake should be the first lifestyle intervention every clinician and public health care worker evolving in the management of atopic adolescents should encourage and promote.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children8100932DOI Listing
October 2021

Circulating 25-hydroxy-vitamin D and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece. Electronic address:

Aims: Circulating vitamin D is linked with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A meta-analysis has yet to explicitly explore correlation between vitamin D and the risk of CVD incidence and recurrent CVD. This meta-analysis examines the association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) and the risk of CVD incidence (fatal, non-fatal, fatal and non-fatal combined events) and the risk of recurrent CVD (fatal, recurrent, and fatal and recurrent combined events). PROSPERO registration-CRD42021251483.

Data Synthesis: A total of 79 studies (46 713 CVD cases in 1 397 831 participants) were included in the meta-analysis, of which 61 studies examined the risk of CVD incidence events, and 18 studies examined risk of recurrent CVD events. The risk of CVD incidence events (RR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.26-1.43, p < 0.001) and recurrent CVD events (RR = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.46-2.36, p < 0.001) was higher in the lowest than the highest category of circulating 25(OH)D. Dose-response analysis reported a linear association for every 10 ng/ml increment of 25(OH)D and non-fatal CVD incidence events (RR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.89-0.98, p = 0.005), lower fatal recurrent CVD events (RR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.32-0.62, p < 0.001) and lower combined recurrent CVD events (RR = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.65-0.97, p = 0.023). A non-linear association was observed between higher 25(OH)D and lower fatal CVD incidence events (P-nonlinear<0.001), lower combined CVD incidence events (P-nonlinear = 0.001), and lower non-fatal recurrent CVD events (P-nonlinear = 0.044).

Conclusions: The lowest category of circulating 25(OH)D was associated with a higher risk of CVD incidence events and recurrent CVD events.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2021.09.003DOI Listing
September 2021

Low health literacy and perceived stress in adults: is there a link?

Cent Eur J Public Health 2021 Sep;29(3):195-200

Human Ecology Laboratory, Department of Home Economics and Ecology, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.

Objectives: Mental stress, low health literacy (HL) and nutrition literacy (NL) are associated with serious negative health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate HL and NL levels, in relation to levels of perceived stress, in adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the urban area of the Attica region, Greece. The sample consisted of 1,281 individuals, aged ≥ 18 years. The European Health Literacy Questionnaire 47, the Greek version of the Nutrition Literacy Scale and the Perceived Stress Scale 14 were used. Socio-demographic characteristics were also assessed. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests, Pearson chi-square and multiple linear regression models were used.

Results: The sample's perceived stress mean value (SD) was 26.47 (7.27) with women scoring statistically significantly higher than men. The mean HL and NL scores were 32.28 (8.28) and 22.11 (5.67), respectively. Linear regression analysis has shown that perceived stress was significantly negatively associated with HL (p < 0.001) but not with NL levels (p = 0.675) after adjusting for a series of confounding variables.

Conclusions: Low health literacy seems to be very significantly associated with high levels of perceived stress. The reasons behind this association require further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21101/cejph.a6692DOI Listing
September 2021

The presence of NAFLD influences the transition of metabolically healthy to metabolically unhealthy obesity and the ten-year cardiovascular disease risk: a population-based cohort study.

Metabolism 2021 Sep 30:154893. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Medicine, Boston VA Healthcare System and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Background/objectives: We evaluated the role of the presence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) at baseline in the transition from metabolically healthy to metabolically unhealthy obesity (MHO to MUO) ten years later.

Methods: A prospective cohort study (ATTICA study, Greece) was performed between 2002 and 2012 studying a sample from the greater metropolitan Athens area. In total, 1514 (49·8%) men and 1528 (50.2%) women (aged >18 years old) free-of-CVD were included. Healthy metabolic status was defined as absence of all NCEP ATP III (2005) metabolic syndrome components. NAFLD was defined according to validated liver steatosis indices. Follow-up CVD assessment (2011-2012) was achieved in n = 2020 participants (n = 317 cases).

Results: NAFLD prevalence among MHO participants ranged from 29% to 39% according to the specific NAFLD score used. MHO participants who developed metabolically unhealthy status had about two times higher odds to have NAFLD at baseline compared with their metabolically healthy normal weight counterparts whereas stable MHO was not associated significantly with NAFLD. Moreover, MHO status accompanied by NAFLD was associated with increased CVD risk (Hazard Ratio = 2.90 95%Confidence Interval (1.35, 5.40)) in comparison to their non-NAFLD MHO counterparts. Further analysis revealed that in the obese, NAFLD indices and not simply visceral adiposity increased significantly the ability of metabolic status (using standard definition) to predict long-term CVD incidence.

Conclusions: Considering NAFLD, even when assessed using validated indices only, in the clinical assessment of apparently healthy obese individuals predicts who is to develop MUO and contributes independently and more accurately to defining future cardiometabolic risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2021.154893DOI Listing
September 2021

The Association of Dietary Habits and Lifestyle Characteristics with Successful Aging among Older Greek Origin Individuals Living in France, Canada, and Greece: The Epidemiological Mediterranean Islands Study (MEDIS).

Ecol Food Nutr 2021 Oct 1:1-14. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.

The aim of the present work was to investigate the association of dietary habits and lifestyle characteristics with successful aging among native Greeks and Greeks of Diaspora (Canada and France). During 2005-2019, 2,434 Greek men and women, living in Greece, in France, and in Canada, over 65 years of age were enrolled voluntarily in the study. Anthropometric, clinical and socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits, and lifestyle parameters were derived through standard procedures, while successful aging was evaluated using the validated Successful Aging Index (SAI, range 0-10). The SAI of the overall sample was 2.8 ± 1.4. Greeks of Diaspora had higher SAI levels compared to their counterparts in Greece (). However, there was no difference between Greeks of Canada and these of France (). Actually, Greeks of Diaspora had almost 1.9 units higher SAI compared to native Greeks (). Work and financial status, dietary and lifestyle behaviors (i.e., physical activity, smoking habits), and several clinical characteristics (i.e., history of hypertension and hypercholesterolemia) were statistically different between the three groups (). Greeks of Diaspora had higher SAI levels, probably because of their healthier lifestyle practices, which mainly depend on their traditions and cultural background of their homelands and living conditions in the host countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03670244.2021.1982708DOI Listing
October 2021

The association between serum uric acid levels and 10-year cardiovascular disease incidence: results from the ATTICA prospective study.

Rev Cardiovasc Med 2021 Sep;22(3):991-1001

First Cardiology Clinic, School of Medicine, University of Athens, 15772 Athens, Greece.

Limited data suggests possible gender-specific association between serum uric acid (SUA) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the association between SUA levels and 10-year CVD incidence (2002-2012) in the ATTICA study participants. Overall, 1687 apparently healthy volunteers, with SUA measurements, residing in the greater metropolitan Athens area (Greece), were included. Multivariable Cox-regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios for SUA in relation to 10-year CVD incidence. Receiver operating curve analysis was conducted to detect optimal SUA cut-off values. Participants in the 2nd and 3rd SUA tertile had 29 and 73% higher 10-year CVD incidence compared with those in the 1st tertile ( < 0.001). In gender-specific analysis, only in women SUA was independently associated with CVD incidence; women in the 3rd SUA tertile had 79% greater 10-year CVD event risk compared to their 1st tertile counterparts. Obese in the 3rd SUA tertile had 2-times higher CVD incidence compared to those in the 1st tertile. Similar findings were observed in metabolically healthy (vs. unhealthy) and metabolically healthy obese. SUA thresholds best predicting 10-year CVD incidence was 5.05 and 4.15 mg/dL (0.30 and 0.25 mmol/L) in men and women, respectively. In conclusion, increased SUA levels were independently related to 10-year CVD event rate in women, obese and metabolically healthy individuals. SUA could predict 10-year CVD incidence even at low levels. Further studies are warranted to identify SUA cut-off values that may improve the detection of individuals at higher CVD risk in clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.31083/j.rcm2203108DOI Listing
September 2021

Successful aging and lifestyle comparison of Greeks living in Greece and abroad: the epidemiological Mediterranean Islands Study (MEDIS).

Arch Gerontol Geriatr 2021 Nov-Dec;97:104523. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Kinesiology and Health, School of Arts and Sciences Rutgers University, USA; Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences and Education, Harokopio University, Athens Greece. Electronic address:

Objectives: Comparing lifestyle and successful aging between Greeks living in Greece (GG) and Greeks living abroad (GA) using a multidimensional model of successful aging including both biomedical and non-medical components.

Methods: Anthropometric, clinical, psychological, socio-demographic, dietary and lifestyle parameters were assessed in a random sample of 252 GG and 252 GA. Successful aging was evaluated using the validated successful aging index (SAI range 0-10).

Results: GA had better financial and educational status and scored higher in all social activity parameters (p's < 0.05). GA were more likely to be physically active (p < 0.001), had higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet (p < 0.001) and were less likely to be smoking (p = 0.008). Depression was more evident among GG compared to GA (p < 0.001). GA was aging significantly more successfully than GG (p < 0.001). Men irrespective of location were aging significantly more successfully than women (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Place of residence and personal choices significantly affect the level of healthy aging among people with similar genetic backgrounds.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.archger.2021.104523DOI Listing
September 2021

Prevalence and Determinants of Sex-Specific Dietary Supplement Use in a Greek Cohort.

Nutrients 2021 Aug 20;13(8). Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina School of Medicine, 45110 Ioannina, Greece.

We describe the profile of dietary supplement use and its correlates in the Epirus Health Study cohort, which consists of 1237 adults (60.5% women) residing in urban north-west Greece. The association between dietary supplement use and demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, personal medical history and clinical measurements was assessed using logistic regression models, separately for women and men. The overall prevalence of dietary supplement use was 31.4%, and it was higher in women (37.3%) compared to men (22.4%; -value = 4.2). Based on multivariable logistic regression models, dietary supplement use in women was associated with age (positively until middle-age and slightly negatively afterwards), the presence of a chronic health condition (OR = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.18-2.46), lost/removed teeth (OR = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.35-0.78) and diastolic blood pressure (OR per 5 mmHg increase =0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96); body mass index and worse general health status were borderline inversely associated. In men, dietary supplement use was positively associated with being employed (OR = 2.53; 95% CI, 1.21-5.29). A considerable proportion of our sample used dietary supplements, and the associated factors differed between women and men.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13082857DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8399686PMC
August 2021

Dietary Sugar Intake and Its Association with Obesity in Children and Adolescents.

Children (Basel) 2021 Aug 3;8(8). Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Agricultural University of Athens, Iera Odos 75, 118 55 Athens, Greece.

Sugar intake has been associated with increased prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity; however, results remain controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the probability of overweight/obesity with higher sugar intakes, accounting for other dietary intakes. Data from 1165 children and adolescents aged ≥2-18 years (66.8% males) enrolled in the Hellenic National Nutrition and Health Survey (HNNHS) were used; specifically, 781 children aged 2-11 years and 384 adolescents 12-18 years. Total and added sugar intake were assessed using two 24 h recalls (24 hR). Foods were categorized into specific food groups to evaluate the main foods contributing to intakes. A significant proportion of children (18.7%) and adolescents (24.5%) exceeded the recommended cut-off of 10% of total energy intake from added sugars. Sweets (29.8%) and processed/refined grains and cereals (19.1%) were the main sources of added sugars in both age groups, while in adolescents, the third main contributor was sugar-sweetened beverages (20.6%). Being overweight or obese was 2.57 ( = 0.002) and 1.77 ( = 0.047) times more likely for intakes ≥10% of total energy from added sugars compared to less <10%, when accounting for food groups and macronutrient intakes, respectively. The predicted probability of becoming obese was also significant with higher total and added-sugar consumption. We conclude that high consumption of added sugars increased the probability for overweight/obesity among youth, irrespectively of other dietary or macronutrient intakes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children8080676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8391470PMC
August 2021

Dietary Patterns, Weight Perception and Obesity Status, among 10-12-Year-Old Children; an Epidemiological Study in Greece.

Children (Basel) 2021 Jul 23;8(8). Epub 2021 Jul 23.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece.

Adherence to certain dietary patterns influences obesity status in both children and adults. Weight perception influences dietary habits. The aim of this study was to examine children's dietary habits and obesity status, in relation to weight perception. One thousand seven hundred Greek students enrolled in this study during 2014-2016. Children's characteristics were assessed through validated questionnaires, and weight status was classified according to the criteria of the International Obesity Task Force. Dietary patterns were assessed through exploratory factor analysis. Overall, 52.2% of children characterized themselves as normal weight, 34.5% as low weight, and 13.3% as overweight/obese; 52.5% of children were in accordance with their actual weight status, with girls being more likely to overestimate their weight. Children followed three dietary patterns, i.e., starchy and protein foods, unhealthy/high-fat foods, and healthy foods. Children who followed the healthy dietary pattern and had accurate weight perception (in accordance with their actual weight), had lower odds of being overweight/obese ( < 0.001). Accurate weight perception in conjunction with healthy dietary habits may play a determinant role in the prevention of obesity. From a public health perspective, early identification of children's weight misperception along with healthy dietary habit promotion shape a crucial role in childhood obesity confrontation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children8080626DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8393401PMC
July 2021

A Mediterranean diet microsimulation modeling in relation to cardiovascular disease burden: the ATTICA and GREECS epidemiological studies.

Eur J Clin Nutr 2021 Jul 6. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.

Background/objectives: To quantify the changes in 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) onset, recurrence, and mortality, in relation to transitioning from low to a higher level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet.

Subjects/methods: An individual-level microsimulation was created based on ATTICA (2002-2012, n = 3042 subjects free-of-CVD) and GREECS (2004-2014, n = 2172 patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS)) studies (in total n = 5214). Eight scenarios regarding the proportion of participants and the size of improvement of the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet (corresponding to one to ten point increases in MedDietScore) were compared in terms of relative change in CVD incidence and mortality, as well as, the number of preventable CVD events and deaths.

Results: Improving adherence to the Mediterranean diet in at least 10% of the population, a significant relative percentage reduction could be observed in 10-year CVD onset, recurrence, and mortality. At least 851 first CVD events, 374 recurrent CVD events, and 205 CVD deaths per 100,000 of the population could be averted or delayed. In addition, Mediterranean diet clustering revealed that scoring higher in fruits, vegetables, whole wheat products, and legumes was more important than achieving higher scores in low consumption of meat and full-fat dairy products against CVD (all HRs in the former cluster were lower than the latter, indicating a stronger protective effect).

Conclusions: This microsimulation process confirms the added value of the Mediterranean diet in primary and secondary CVD prevention having great achievements even with modifications in a small part of the population (10%), while challenges the orientation of Mediterranean-diet interventions giving higher weights to plant-based part.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-00967-6DOI Listing
July 2021

Final opinion on the safety of breast implants in relation to anaplastic large cell lymphoma: Report of the scientific committee on health, emerging and environmental risks (SCHEER).

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2021 Oct 30;125:104982. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental, And Emerging Risks (SCHEER), SCHEER Secretariat, European Commission, DG Health and Food Safety, Directorate C: Public Health, Country Knowledge, Crisis Management, Unit C2: Country Knowledge and Scientific Committees, HTC 03/073, L-2920, Luxembourg.

The Scientific Committee on Health, Environmental and Emerging Risks (SCHEER) was requested by the European Commission (EC) to provide a scientific opinion on the safety of breast implants in relation to anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). There are several types of textured breast implants; surface textures of breast implants are not all manufactured in the same way, and breast implants with diverse surface textures may also present different benefits. The magnitude of the risk per type of textured implant is difficult to establish due to the low incidence of the breast implants associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL). Therefore, risk assessments per implant type are needed. Overall SCHEER considers that there is a moderate weight of evidence for a causal relationship between textured breast implants and BIA-ALCL, particularly in relation to implants with an intermediate to high surface roughness.The pathogenic mechanisms are not fully elucidated; current hypotheses include genetic drivers, chronic inflammation resulting either from bacterial contamination, shell shedding of particulates, or shell surface characteristics leading to friction, or by implant associated reactive compounds. Reporting of new BIA-ALCL cases by the national clinical registries is critically important to obtain a better estimate of the risk of BIA-ALCL for patients with a breast implant.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2021.104982DOI Listing
October 2021

Fish and cardiovascular disease prevention: time for a closer collaboration between basic science and clinical research.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 Jul;117(8):e94-e96

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvab186DOI Listing
July 2021

Irrational beliefs trigger depression and anxiety symptoms, and associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress markers in the 10-year diabetes mellitus risk: the ATTICA epidemiological study.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2021 Jun 18;20(1):727-739. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.

Purpose: To investigate the combined role of irrational beliefs, anxiety and depression in the 10-year incidence of type 2 diabetes, and the underlying effect of biochemical, and socio-behavioural factors.

Methods: Within the context of the ATTICA cohort study (2002-2012), 853 participants without evidence of CVD [453 men (45 ± 13 years) and 400 women (44 ± 18 years)] underwent psychological evaluation through the Irrational Beliefs Inventory (IBI) (range 0-88), the Zung Self-Rating-Depression-Scale (ZDRS) and the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory (STAI). Diagnosis of diabetes at follow-up examination was based on the criteria of the American Diabetes Association (ADA).

Results: Mean IBI score was 53 ± 10 in men and 51 ± 11 in women (p = 0.68). Participants with high irrational beliefs who also had anxiety symptoms had a 93% excess risk of developing diabetes during the 10-year follow-up (Hazard Ratio 1.93; 95%CI 1.34, 2.78) as compared to those without anxiety. Moreover, diabetes risk was 73% higher among individuals with high levels of irrational beliefs and depression as compared to those where depression was absent (1.73; 1.21, 2.46). Lower education status, family history of diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, high BMI, as well as tumor necrosis factor and total antioxidant capacity were revealed as mediating risk factors related to the tested associations.

Conclusion: Irrational beliefs among apparently healthy adults trigger depression and anxiety symptomatology, and through the increased inflammation and oxidative stress profile, were associated with increased diabetes risk. This observation moves psychological research a step forward in supporting and guiding primary prevention of mental health and metabolic conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-021-00805-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212310PMC
June 2021

Household food spending, parental and childhood's diet quality, in financial crisis: a cross-sectional study in Greece.

Eur J Public Health 2021 Oct;31(4):822-828

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.

Background: Over the past decade, the financial crisis has affected harshly the household income of Greek people. This study aimed to investigate whether the effect of the financial crisis on food spending has affected the dietary habits in the family environment.

Methods: Under a cross-sectional study conducted during 2014-2016, 1145 children and their parents completed questionnaires examining socio-economic and dietary characteristics. The MedDietScore and the KIDMED Score were used to assess parental and childhood adherence to the Mediterranean diet, respectively.

Results: The parents who reported that the financial crisis has affected food spending used to consume weekly fewer fruits (3.26 ± 0.94 vs. 3.41 ± 0.90, P = 0.016), carbohydrate foods (3.16 ± 0.57 vs. 2.99 ± 0.55, P < 0.001) and legumes (3.28 ± 0.76 vs. 3.14 ± 0.67, P = 0.001) and more nutrient-poor/energy-dense foods (2.55 ± 0.98 vs. 2.20 ± 0.82, P < 0.001) compared with non-affected parents. Their children showed a decreased weekly consumption of vegetables (2.82 ± 0.90 vs. 2.97 ± 0.98, P = 0.019) and increased weekly consumption of nutrient-poor/energy-dense foods (2.38 ± 0.97 vs. 2.19 ± 0.80, P < 0.001). The affected parents had a lower MedDietScore than non-affected parents (25.76 ± 8.10 vs. 27.03 ± 8.11, P = 0.034). No difference was revealed on the KIDMED Score (P = 0.294).

Conclusions: The constrained food spending due to financial crisis has an independent and inverse impact on parent's diet quality while keeping unaffected preadolescent's diet quality. This finding highlights the role of parents as a protective 'wall' against the deterioration of their children's diet quality. The modification on the prices of healthy food and the provision of food aid particularly in economically disadvantaged households is underlined.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckab076DOI Listing
October 2021

Determinants of verbal fluency trajectories among older adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging.

Appl Neuropsychol Adult 2021 May 8:1-10. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.

Background: Prevalence of dementia and cognitive impairment increase creating the need for identifying modifiable risk factors to reduce their burden. The aim of this study was to identify latent groups following similar trajectories in cognitive performance assessed with the verbal fluency test, as well as their determinants.

Methods: Data from English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) were studied. Latent groups of similar course through a 6-year period in the outcome variable (verbal fluency) were investigated, along with their determinants, using Group Based Trajectory Modeling (GBTM).

Results: Four latent groups of verbal fluency trajectories were revealed. Education was the strongest predictor for a favorable trajectory, while cardiovascular disease and depression symptoms were associated with lower within each trajectory.

Conclusion: Cardiovascular diseases and depressive symptoms are associated with a worse course of verbal fluency through aging, implying that they might serve as targets for interventions to prevent cognitive decline in the aging population. Contrarily, higher level of education is associated with a more favorable course through aging.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23279095.2021.1913739DOI Listing
May 2021

Estimating the COVID-19 Spread Through Real-time Population Mobility Patterns: Surveillance in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

J Med Internet Res 2021 06 14;23(6):e22999. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

School of Nursing, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong.

Background: On January 21, 2020, the World Health Organization reported the first case of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, which rapidly evolved to the COVID-19 pandemic. Since then, the virus has also rapidly spread among Latin American, Caribbean, and African countries.

Objective: The first aim of this study is to identify new emerging COVID-19 clusters over time and space (from January 21 to mid-May 2020) in Latin American, Caribbean, and African regions, using a prospective space-time scan measurement approach. The second aim is to assess the impact of real-time population mobility patterns between January 21 and May 18, 2020, under the implemented government interventions, measurements, and policy restrictions on COVID-19 spread among those regions and worldwide.

Methods: We created a global COVID-19 database, of 218 countries and territories, merging the World Health Organization daily case reports with other measures such as population density and country income levels for January 21 to May 18, 2020. A score of government policy interventions was created for low, intermediate, high, and very high interventions. The population's mobility patterns at the country level were obtained from Google community mobility reports. The prospective space-time scan statistic method was applied in five time periods between January and May 2020, and a regression mixed model analysis was used.

Results: We found that COVID-19 emerging clusters within these five periods of time increased from 7 emerging clusters to 28 by mid-May 2020. We also detected various increasing and decreasing relative risk estimates of COVID-19 spread among Latin American, Caribbean, and African countries within the period of analysis. Globally, population mobility to parks and similar leisure areas during at least a minimum of implemented intermediate-level control policies (when compared to low-level control policies) was related to accelerated COVID-19 spread. Results were almost consistent when regional stratified analysis was applied. In addition, worldwide population mobility due to working during high implemented control policies and very high implemented control policies, when compared to low-level control policies, was related to positive COVID-19 spread.

Conclusions: The prospective space-time scan is an approach that low-income and middle-income countries could use to detect emerging clusters in a timely manner and implement specific control policies and interventions to slow down COVID-19 transmission. In addition, real-time population mobility obtained from crowdsourced digital data could be useful for current and future targeted public health and mitigation policies at a global and regional level.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/22999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204939PMC
June 2021

Foods, Nutrients and Dietary Patterns in Relation to Irrational Beliefs and Related Psychological Disorders: The ATTICA Epidemiological Study.

Nutrients 2021 Apr 27;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 27.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences and Education, Harokopio University, 176 71 Athens, Greece.

We explored the differences in dietary habits and dietary patterns between individuals characterized by irrational beliefs with no or low anxiety and depressive symptoms and individuals characterized by irrational beliefs with high anxiety and depressive symptomatology. Within the context of the ATTICA cohort study (2002-2012), 853 participants without evidence of cardiovascular disease (453 men (45 ± 13 years) and 400 women (44 ± 18 years)) underwent mental health assessment through the irrational beliefs inventory (IBI), the Zung self-rating depression scale (ZDRS) and the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Demographic characteristics, a thorough medical history, dietary behaviour and other lifestyle behaviours were also evaluated and analysed using factor analysis. Five main factors related to dietary patterns were extracted for the high-IBI/low-STAI group of participants (explaining the 63% of the total variation in consumption), whereas four factors were extracted for the high-IBI/high-STAI participants, the high-IBI/low-ZDRS participants and the high-IBI/high-ZDRS participants, explaining 53%, 54% and 54% of the total variation, respectively. A Western-type dietary pattern was the most dominant factor for individuals reporting irrational beliefs and anxiety or depressive symptomatology. The high refined carbohydrates and fats dietary pattern was the most dominant factor for individuals with irrational beliefs but without psychopathology. Linear regression analysis showed that irrational beliefs, in combination with anxiety or depression, age, sex and BMI, were important predictors of adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Dietary habits interact with irrational beliefs and, in association with the consequent psychological disorders, are associated with overall diet, and presumably may affect the health status of individuals.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13051472DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8146573PMC
April 2021

Parental Education and the Association between Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and Asthma in Adolescents: The Greek Global Asthma Network (GAN) Study.

Children (Basel) 2021 Apr 16;8(4). Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Allergology and Pulmonology Unit, 3rd Paediatric Department, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 12462 Athens, Greece.

Background: Evidence suggests that nutritional factors, such as consumption of fruits and vegetables, along with socioeconomic factors such as parental education level, are associated with asthma prevalence. Our study examined the role of parental education in the association between fruit and vegetable consumption and adolescent asthma.

Methods: 1934 adolescents (mean age: 12.7 years, standard deviation: 0.6 years, boys: 47.5%) and their parents were voluntarily enrolled and completed a validated questionnaire assessing current asthma status, fruit and vegetable consumption and parental educational level. Participants were categorized as high or low intake for five food groups: fruits, cooked vegetables, raw vegetables, all vegetables (cooked and raw), and all three food groups together (fruits and all vegetables).

Results: Adolescents who were high consumers of all three food groups (fruits, cooked and raw vegetables) were less likely to have asthma, adjusted for several confounders (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.53, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.97). Moreover, in adolescents who had parents with tertiary education and were in the high consumption of all three food groups, the inverse association was almost twofold higher than the one for adolescents with parents of primary/secondary education (aOR: 0.35, 95% CI: (0.21-0.89) and aOR: 0.61, 95% CI: (0.47-0.93) respectively).

Conclusions: Our findings highlight the importance of the adoption of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables for all asthmatic adolescents and emphasize the important role of parental influences in this association.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/children8040304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071508PMC
April 2021

Determinants of Processing Speed Trajectories among Middle Aged or Older Adults, and Their Association with Chronic Illnesses: The English Longitudinal Study of Aging.

Life (Basel) 2021 Apr 18;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 18.

School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 17671 Athens, Greece.

The aim of this study was to identify latent groups of similar trajectories in processing speed through aging, as well as factors that are associated with these trajectories. In the context of the Ageing Trajectories of Health: Longitudinal Opportunities and Synergies (ATHLOS) project, data from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) (n = 12099) were analyzed. Latent groups of similar trajectories in the processing scores as well as their predictors and covariates were investigated, using group-based trajectory models (GBTM). The coefficient estimates for potential group predictors correspond to parameters of multinomial logit functions that are integrated in the model. Potential predictors included sex, level of education, marital status, level of household wealth, level of physical activity, and history of smoking, while time-varying covariates included incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes mellitus, depressive symptoms, and sleep disturbances. Four trajectories were identified and named after their baseline scores and shapes: High (4.4%), Middle/Stable (31.5%), Low/Stable (44.5%), and Low Decline (19.6%). Female sex, higher levels of education, mild level of physical activity, having been married, and higher level of wealth were associated with a higher probability of belonging to any of the higher groups compared to the Low/Decline that was set as reference, while presence of CVD, diabetes mellitus, and depressive symptoms were associated with lower processing speed scores within most trajectories. All the aforementioned factors might be valid targets for interventions to reduce the burden of age-related cognitive impairment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11040357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072694PMC
April 2021

Parental health literacy and nutrition literacy affect child feeding practices: A cross-sectional study.

Nutr Health 2021 Apr 29:2601060211001489. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Clinic of Social and Family Medicine, University of Crete, Greece.

Background: Health literacy (HL) and nutrition literacy (NL) are important issues to consider, in the provision of health care to children and the establishment of healthy eating behaviors.

Aim: The study investigates the possible role of HL and NL levels of Greek parents, in parental Feeding Practices (PFP).

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study which was conducted in the urban area of the Attica region, Greece. The sample consisted of 402 parents (68.4% mothers). Parents completed the Greek version of Comprehensive Parental Feeding Questionnaire, the European Health Literacy Questionnaire 47 and the Greek version of the Nutrition Literacy Scale. Sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics were also assessed. The non-parametric tests Mann-Whitney and Kruskal Wallis, the chi-square test and linear regression models were applied.

Results: The median for HL and NL were 33.69 and 24.00, respectively. Mothers applied the "child control" practice more frequently than fathers ( = 0.015). Linear regression analysis revealed that HL was associated positively with "healthy eating guidance" and "monitoring" ( = 0.009 and < 0.0001, respectively) and negatively with "emotion regulation/food as reward" and "child control" ( = 0.037 and = 0.015, respectively). NL was associated positively only with "healthy eating guidance" ( = 0.009), positively but marginally with "monitoring" ( = 0.051) and negatively with "emotion regulation/food as reward" ( = 0.020).

Conclusions: Higher parental levels of HL and NL are significantly positively associated with better parental feeding practices in Greece.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02601060211001489DOI Listing
April 2021

The relationship of the built and food environments with the metabolic syndrome in the Athens metropolitan area: a sex-stratified spatial analysis in the context of the ATTICA epidemiological study.

Hormones (Athens) 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 70 El. Venizelou Ave., 17671, Athens, Kallithea, Greece.

Purpose: The built and food environments are widely acknowledged to play an important role in defining human health by influencing, among others, behaviors such as nutrition habits and physical activities. The aim of this study was to identify the spatial variability of the sex-specific prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its environmental determinants in the Athens metropolitan area.

Methods: Data on the prevalence of the MetS were provided by the ATTICA epidemiological study for 2749 participants, with complete data for geographical identification (1375 women [44 years old {SD = 14 years}] and 1374 men [45 years old {SD = 13 years}]), while socioeconomic, demographic, and environmental characteristics were provided by official national and international databases.

Results: Approximately 20% of the people residing in the study area were diagnosed with MetS, with its prevalence being almost two times higher in men compared to women. Areas more extensively covered by green urban spaces and sports facilities were shown to have a lower prevalence of MetS, while greater density and availability of supermarkets and street markets were inversely related to MetS prevalence in both sexes. In addition, the present analysis revealed that the beneficial role of the built environment's characteristics on MetS prevalence was significantly stronger in the male population, while the preventive effect of the food environment's characteristics was almost 1.5 times stronger in the female population CONCLUSION: Although individualized prevention and treatment approaches are necessary to decrease the burden of MetS, environmental modifications that promote healthy behaviors represent an essential health approach.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42000-021-00293-3DOI Listing
April 2021

How will the way we live look different in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic? A nutrition survey in Greece.

Nutr Health 2021 Apr 11:2601060211009033. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

School of Medicine, 68993University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Background: As we move towards a post-pandemic society, a question arises: How will the way we live look different in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic?

Aim: The aim of this survey was to evaluate changes in eating habits and other lifestyle behaviours (i.e., exercise and smoking) of people of almost all ages, who live in Greece, during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods: A web-based survey using conventional sampling was conducted from during December 2020, in Greece. A total of 2258 individuals, aged 17 years and older voluntarily participated (912 (40%) men).

Results: 89 (3.94%) of the participants reported that they had, or currently have been diagnosed with COVID-19. Moreover, 36.4% of the participants reported that they have changed their dietary habits during the pandemic towards a healthier diet - those participants had median age of 35 years, were of both sexes, 17% had co-morbidities and 69% with higher education level; moreover, 19% of those participants have started or increased the frequency of receiving dietary supplements that enhance the immune system, 34% of the participants reported that they gained weight during the pandemic period, whereas 19.8% reported that they have lost weight, and 37% of the participants reported that they have started or increased, as compared to the pre-pandemic time, their frequency of physical activities.

Conclusions: The COVID-19_pandemic seems to have forced people to discover again habits and traditions towards a more natural and healthier way of living. Long-term consequences and the evolution of these lifestyle changes after the COVID-19 pandemic have to be evaluated relevant to their implications in public health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/02601060211009033DOI Listing
April 2021

Excess mortality in Greece during 2020: the role of COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease.

Hellenic J Cardiol 2021 Apr 6. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hjc.2021.04.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022518PMC
April 2021

Global, regional, and national burden of aortic aneurysm, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 70 Eleutheriou Venizelou str, 17671 Athens, Greece.

Aims: This study aimed at evaluating the age, sex, and country-income patterns in aortic aneurysm disease burden, analysing trends in mortality and years of life lost (YLLs), as well as their causal drivers and risk factors, using the 2017 Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD 2017).

Methods And Results: We described the temporal, global, and regional (195 countries) patterns of aortic aneurysm (thoracic and abdominal) mortality, YLLs, their drivers [sociodemographic index (SDI), healthcare access and quality index (HAQ index)] and risk factors using the GBD 1990-2017. Correlation and mixed multilevel modelling between aortic aneurysm mortality, YLLs, HAQ index and other variables were applied. From 1990 to 2017, a global declining trend in age-standardized aortic aneurysm mortality was found [2.88 deaths/100 000 (95% uncertainty intervals, UI 2.79 to 3.03) in 1990 and 2.19 deaths/100 000 (95% UI 2.09 to 2.28) in 2017]. Among high-income countries (HICs) a consistent declining Spearman's correlation between age-standardised aortic aneurysm mortality, SDI (HICs; 1990 rho: 0.57, P ≤ 0.001; 2017 rho: 0.41, P = 0.001) and HAQ index was observed (HICs; 1990 rho: 0.50, P <0.001; 2016 rho: 0.35, P = 0.006); in comparison with low- and middle-income countries where correlation trends were weak and mixed. At a global level, higher HAQ index was related with lower aortic aneurysm mortality and YLLs [mortality, coef: -0.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.06, -0.04; YLLs, coef: -0.94, 95% CI: -1.17, -0.71].

Conclusions: Age-standardized aortic aneurysm mortality declined globally between 1990 and 2017. Globally, age-standardized aortic aneurysm mortality and YLLs were related to changes in SDI and HAQ index levels, while country-level income-related variations were also observed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwab015DOI Listing
March 2021

Electronic cigarettes and health with special focus on cardiovascular effects: position paper of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology (EAPC).

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Jul 17. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Department of Community Medicine, The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.

Background: Tobacco use is the single largest preventable risk factor for premature death of non-communicable diseases and the second leading cause of cardiovascular disease. In response to the harmful effects of tobacco smoking, the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has emerged and gained significant popularity over the past 15 years. E-cigarettes are promoted as safe alternatives for traditional tobacco smoking and are often suggested as a way to reduce or quit smoking. However, evidence suggests they are not harmless.

Discussion: The rapid evolution of the e-cigarette market has outpaced the legislator's regulatory capacity, leading to mixed regulations. The increasing use of e-cigarettes in adolescents and young individuals is of concern. While the long-term direct cardiovascular effects of e-cigarettes remain largely unknown, the existing evidence suggests that the e-cigarette should not be regarded as a cardiovascular safe product. The contribution of e-cigarette use to reducing conventional cigarette use and smoking cessation is complex, and the impact of e-cigarette use on long-term cessation lacks sufficient evidence.

Conclusion: This position paper describes the evidence regarding the prevalence of e-cigarette smoking, uptake of e-cigarettes in the young, related legislations, cardiovascular effects of e-cigarettes and the impact of e-cigarettes on smoking cessation. Knowledge gaps in the field are also highlighted. The recommendations from the population science and public health section of the European Association of Preventive Cardiology are presented.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2047487320941993DOI Listing
July 2020

Extracurricular Sports Participation and Sedentary Behavior in Association with Dietary Habits and Obesity Risk in Children and Adolescents and the Role of Family Structure: a Literature Review.

Curr Nutr Rep 2021 03 17;10(1):1-11. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Science and Education, Harokopio University, 70 Eleftheriou Venizelou (Thiseos) Ave, Kallithea, 176 71, Athens, Greece.

Purpose Of Review: Childhood obesity is considered a major problem in the modern world, associated with many health issues in youth. This review aimed the association between extracurricular sports participation, sedentary time/screen time, and "obesogenic" and "non-obesogenic" dietary habits among youth and to explore the role of family structure on the adoption of sedentary behaviors by children.

Recent Findings: Increased participation in extracurricular sports was associated with a healthier dietary pattern, containing more "non-obesogenic" food choices. Opposite results were indicated by sedentary activities. Increased time in watching TV, computer/electronic games, and other screen devices was positively associated with unhealthy dietary patterns. Overall, extracurricular activities influence the quality of food choices, which may prevent or promote childhood obesity; thus, sport-related activities should be promoted through public health policies. The role of the family structure is contradictory.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13668-021-00352-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Health literacy as a determinant of childhood and adult obesity: a systematic review.

Int J Adolesc Med Health 2021 Feb 12;33(3):9-39. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Biostatistics, Medical Research Methods & Epidemiology, Department of Nutrition & Dietetics, School of Health Sciences and Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.

Objectives: To assess whether Health Literacy (HL) acts as a determinant of obesity in adults and children by synthesizing the results of recent scientific evidence.

Content: This is a systematic qualitative review following the MOOSE guidelines. A systematic, computer-assisted literature search via PubMed scientific database, between January 1st, 2000, and September 30th 2020, was conducted. Only cross-sectional epidemiologic research studies that were published in the English language, investigating HL's possible role as a determinant of childhood and adult obesity, were included.

Summary: After screening 725 citations from the PubMed database, 39 (n=39) studies in total were included in this literature review; Four (n=4) studies were conducted in the children population, seven (n=7) studies were performed in children-parent/caregiver dyads, and 28 studies (n=28) enrolled adults. There is significant evidence that HL knowledge and skills determine the consequent management of obesity and BMI rates in children and adult populations.

Outlook: Despite policies and action plans put in place by countries globally, overweight and obesity continue to be a pressing public health issue and one of the critical drivers of non-communicable diseases, constituting a health, social and economic burden worldwide. Health Literacy as an essential health policy and promotion agenda item and a critical empowerment strategy could increase children's and adults' control over their overall health and awareness to overcome obesity issues. Initiatives to improve HL levels could be useful tools in managing the obesity epidemic, starting from integrating HL in the school curriculum and further in family and community action plans.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ijamh-2020-0275DOI Listing
February 2021

Sleeping patterns and childhood obesity: an epidemiological study in 1,728 children in Greece.

J Clin Sleep Med 2021 05;17(5):1093-1101

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, School of Health Sciences & Education, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.

Study Objectives: Sleep is an essential normal function for children's growth and development, but over the years, lifestyle changes have resulted in insufficient sleep, a factor that may be associated with increased childhood obesity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between sleep duration and sleep patterns separately on weekdays and weekends regarding children's weight status.

Methods: This study was conducted among Greek students (55.1% girls) in 2014-2016. Children's weight status was classified according to the International Obesity Task Force tables and guidelines. Sleep duration was determined based on the sleep and wake time that children reported, separately for weekdays and weekends. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to derive sleep patterns and evaluate their relation to children's weight status.

Results: Multiadjusted analysis revealed an inverse association between average duration of sleep on weekdays and weekends with the likelihood of being overweight/obese (odds ratio per 1 hour 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.92). This was more prominent on weekends than on weekdays. Children who had lower duration on weekdays, but catch-up sleep duration on weekends, were 2% (95% confidence interval, 0.97-0.99) less likely to be overweight/obese compared to those children having both less or increased sleep duration on weekdays and weekends.

Conclusions: Sleep duration and sleep patterns seem to be associated with childhood weight status. Interventions should be developed to educate parents on the importance of an adequate sleep duration and healthy sleep patterns for their children's healthy development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.9160DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8320471PMC
May 2021

Association of fatal myocardial infarction with past level of physical activity: a pooled analysis of cohort studies.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Cardiology, Bispebjerg Frederiksberg University Hospital, Bispebjerg Bakke 23, Building 67, 1st floor, DK-2400 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Aims: To assess the association between past level of physical activity (PA) and risk for death during the acute phase of myocardial infarction (MI) in a pooled analysis of cohort studies.

Methods And Results: European cohorts including participants with a baseline assessment of PA, conventional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, and available follow-up on MI and death were eligible. Patients with an incident MI were included. Leisure-time PA was grouped as sedentary (<7 MET-hours), low (7-16 MET-hours), moderate (16.1-32 MET-hours), or high (>32 MET-hours) based on calculated net weekly energy expenditure. The main outcome measures were instant and 28-day case fatality of MI. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariate random-effects models. Adjustments for age, sex, CV risk factors, alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status were made. From 10 cohorts including a total of 1 495 254 participants, 28 140 patients with an incident MI comprised the study population. A total of 4976 (17.7%) died within 28 days-of these 3101 (62.3%) were classified as instant fatal MI. Compared with sedentary individuals, those with a higher level of PA had lower adjusted odds of instant fatal MI: low PA [OR, 0.79 (95% CI, 0.60-1.04)], moderate PA [0.67 (0.51-0.89)], and high PA [0.55 (0.40-0.76)]. Similar results were found for 28-day fatal MI: low PA [0.85 (0.71-1.03)], moderate PA [0.64 (0.51-0.80)], and high PA [0.72 (0.51-1.00)]. A low-to-moderate degree of heterogeneity was detected in the analysis of instant fatal MI (I2 = 47.3%), but not in that of 28-day fatal MI (I2 = 0.0%).

Conclusion: A moderate-to-high level of PA was associated with a lower risk of instant and 28-day death in relation to a MI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa146DOI Listing
February 2021
-->