Publications by authors named "Democrito B Miranda-Filho"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hepatotoxicity during TB treatment in people with HIV/AIDS related to NAT2 polymorphisms in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

Ann Hepatol 2020 Mar - Apr;19(2):153-160. Epub 2019 Oct 24.

Laboratório de Virologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães/FIOCRUZ, Recife, PE, Brazil.

Introduction And Objective: Hepatotoxicity during tuberculosis (TB) treatment is frequent and may be related to the Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase (NAT2) acetylator profile, in which allele frequencies differ according to the population. The aim of this study was to investigate functional polymorphisms in NAT2 associated with the development of hepatotoxicity after initiating treatment for TB in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil.

Material And Methods: This was a prospective cohort study that investigated seven single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the NAT2 coding region in 173 PLWHA undergoing TB treatment. Hepatotoxicity was defined as elevated aminotransferase levels and identified as being three times higher than it was before initiating TB treatment, with associated symptoms of hepatitis. A further 80 healthy subjects, without HIV infection or TB were used as a control group. All individuals were genotyped by direct sequencing.

Results: The NAT2*13A and NAT2*6B variant alleles were significantly associated with the development of hepatotoxicity during TB treatment in PLWHA (p<0.05). Individual comparisons between the wild type and each variant genotype revealed that PLWHA with signatures NAT2*13A/NAT2*13A (OR 4.4; CI95% 1.1-18.8; p 0.037) and NAT2*13A/NAT2*6B (OR 4.4; CI95% 1.5-12.7; p 0.005) significantly increased the risk of hepatotoxicity.

Conclusion: This study suggests that NAT2*13A and NAT2*6B variant alleles are risk factors for developing hepatotoxicity, and PLWHA with genotypes NAT2*13A/NAT2*13A and NAT2*13A/NAT2*6B should be targeted for specific care to reduce the risk of hepatotoxicity during treatment for tuberculosis.
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February 2021

International prospective observational cohort study of Zika in infants and pregnancy (ZIP study): study protocol.

BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2019 Aug 7;19(1):282. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Maternal-Infant Studies Center (CEMI), San Juan, Puerto Rico.

Background: Until recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) infections were considered mild and self-limiting. Since 2015, they have been associated with an increase in microcephaly and other birth defects in newborns. While this association has been observed in case reports and epidemiological studies, the nature and extent of the relationship between ZIKV and adverse pregnancy and pediatric health outcomes is not well understood. With the unique opportunity to prospectively explore the full spectrum of issues related to ZIKV exposure during pregnancy, we undertook a multi-country, prospective cohort study to evaluate the association between ZIKV and pregnancy, neonatal, and infant outcomes.

Methods: At research sites in ZIKV endemic regions of Brazil (4 sites), Colombia, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico (2 sites), and Peru, up to 10,000 pregnant women will be recruited and consented in the first and early second trimesters of pregnancy and then followed through delivery up to 6 weeks post-partum; their infants will be followed until at least 1 year of age. Pregnant women with symptomatic ZIKV infection confirmed by presence of ZIKV RNA and/or IgM for ZIKV will also be enrolled, regardless of gestational age. Participants will be tested monthly for ZIKV infection; additional demographic, physical, laboratory and environmental data will be collected to assess the potential interaction of these variables with ZIKV infection. Delivery outcomes and detailed infant assessments, including physical and neurological outcomes, will be obtained.

Discussion: With the emergence of ZIKV in the Americas and its association with adverse pregnancy outcomes in this region, a much better understanding of the spectrum of clinical outcomes associated with exposure to ZIKV during pregnancy is needed. This cohort study will provide information about maternal, fetal, and infant outcomes related to ZIKV infection, including congenital ZIKV syndrome, and manifestations that are not detectable at birth but may appear during the first year of life. In addition, the flexibility of the study design has provided an opportunity to modify study parameters in real time to provide rigorous research data to answer the most critical questions about the impact of congenital ZIKV exposure.

Trial Registration: NCT02856984 . Registered August 5, 2016. Retrospectively registered.
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August 2019

Perinatal analyses of Zika- and dengue virus-specific neutralizing antibodies: A microcephaly case-control study in an area of high dengue endemicity in Brazil.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 03 11;13(3):e0007246. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Aggeu Magalhães Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Laboratory confirmation of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is challenging due to cross-reactivity with dengue virus (DENV) and limited knowledge about the kinetics of anti-Zika antibody responses during pregnancy. We described ZIKV and DENV serological markers and the maternal-fetal transfer of antibodies among mothers and neonates after the ZIKV microcephaly outbreak in Northeast Brazil (2016). We included 89 microcephaly cases and 173 neonate controls at time of birth and their mothers. Microcephaly cases were defined as newborns with a particular head circumference (2 SD below the mean). Two controls without microcephaly were matched by the expected date of delivery and area of residence. We tested maternal serum for recent (ZIKV genome, IgM and IgG3 anti-NS1) and previous (ZIKV and DENV neutralizing antibodies [NAbs]) markers of infection. Multiple markers of recent or previous ZIKV and DENV infection in mothers were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). At delivery, 5.6% of microcephaly case mothers and 1.7% of control mothers were positive for ZIKV IgM. Positivity for ZIKV IgG3 anti-NS1 was 8.0% for case mothers and 3.5% for control mothers. ZIKV NAbs was slightly higher among mothers of cases (69.6%) than that of mothers of controls (57.2%; p = 0.054). DENV exposure was detected in 85.8% of all mothers. PCA discriminated two distinct components related to recent or previous ZIKV infection and DENV exposure. ZIKV NAbs were higher in newborns than in their corresponding mothers (p<0.001). We detected a high frequency of ZIKV exposure among mothers after the first wave of the ZIKV outbreak in Northeast Brazil. However, we found low sensitivity of the serological markers to recent infection (IgM and IgG3 anti-NS1) in perinatal samples of mothers of microcephaly cases. Since the neutralization test cannot precisely determine the time of infection, testing for ZIKV immune status should be performed as early as possible and throughout pregnancy to monitor acute Zika infection in endemic areas.
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March 2019

Pyriproxyfen and the microcephaly epidemic in Brazil - an ecological approach to explore the hypothesis of their association.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2016 Dec 31;111(12):774-776. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.

The microcephaly epidemic in Brazil generated intense debate regarding its causality, and one hypothesised cause of this epidemic, now recognised as congenital Zika virus syndrome, was the treatment of drinking water tanks with pyriproxyfen to control Aedes aegypti larvae. We present the results of a geographical analysis of the association between the prevalence of microcephaly confirmed by Fenton growth charts and the type of larvicide used in the municipalities that were home to the mothers of the affected newborns in the metropolitan region of Recife in Pernambuco, the state in Brazil where the epidemic was first detected. The overall prevalence of microcephaly was 82 per 10,000 live births in the three municipalities that used the larvicide Bti (Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis) instead of pyriproxyfen, and 69 per 10,000 live births in the eleven municipalities that used pyriproxyfen. The difference was not statistically significant. Our results show that the prevalence of microcephaly was not higher in the areas in which pyriproxyfen was used. In this ecological approach, there was no evidence of a correlation between the use of pyriproxyfen in the municipalities and the microcephaly epidemic.
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December 2016

Serological markers of hepatitis B and C in patients with HIV/AIDS and active tuberculosis.

J Med Virol 2016 Jun 1;88(6):996-1002. Epub 2015 Dec 1.

Departamento de Saúde Coletiva, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães/FIOCRUZ, Recife, Brazil.

Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and C virus (HCV) are common in patients with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). This is a cross-sectional study with patients infected with HIV/AIDS and active TB in Recife, Brazil, aiming to verify the prevalence of markers for HBV: antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc); and HCV: antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) by chemiluminescence, and to identify the frequency of associated factors. Data were collected through questionnaires, and blood was drawn from patients for analysis. We used the chi-square test and the Fisher exact test when necessary. We conducted a bivariate logistic regression analysis and the magnitude of the associations was expressed as odds ratio (OR) with a confidence interval of 95%. Among 166 patients studied with HIV/AIDS and active TB, anti-HBc was positive in 61 patients [36.7%; 95%CI (29.4-44.6%)] and anti-HCV in 11[6.6%; 95%CI (3.4-11.5%)]. In the logistic regression analysis, male sex, and age ≥40 years were independent factors associated with the occurrence of anti-HBc. In conclusion, we verified a high frequency of HBV contact marker and a low frequency of HCV markers in patients with HIV/AIDS and TB in Recife.
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June 2016

Comparison between potential risk factors for cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV/AIDS in areas of Brazil.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2015 Sep 27;9(9):988-96. Epub 2015 Sep 27.

Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Introduction: Coronary heart disease and its risk factors depend on genetic characteristics, behaviors, and habits, all of which vary in different regions. The use of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) has increased the survival of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA), who begin to present mortality indicators similar to the general population. This study aimed to compare the prevalence of factors potentially associated with coronary heart disease in three cohorts of PLWHA from three different regions of Brazil.

Methodology: The study population was composed of participants of the cohorts of Pernambuco, Goiás, and Rio Grande do Sul states. In these sites, adult patients attending reference centers for treatment of HIV/AIDS were consecutively enrolled.

Results: Pernambuco and Goiás had a higher proportion of males and of individuals with high-risk high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Pernambuco also had a greater proportion of individuals with hypertension, elevated triglycerides, and CD4 counts below 200 cells/mm(3). Lower education was more frequent in Rio Grande do Sul, and the use of cocaine was higher in this state.

Conclusions: The results confirm the importance of risk factors for coronary heart disease in PLHIV and highlight differences in the three cohorts. Specific measures against smoking and sedentary lifestyle, avoidance of advanced stages of immunosuppression, and appropriate treatment of dyslipidemia and dysglicemia are urgently needed to cope with the disease in Brazil.
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September 2015

Empirical treatment for TB in HIV: lessons from a cohort study of people living with HIV treated in Recife, Brazil.

BMC Public Health 2014 Mar 29;14:289. Epub 2014 Mar 29.

NESC Department, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães/FIOCRUZ, Recife, Brazil.

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death related to HIV worldwide. This study analyzes the survival of People Living with HIV (PLHIV) reporting cough without bacteriological confirmation of TB and identify factors associated with death.

Methods: Prospective cohort with a consecutive sample of PLHIV, aged ≥ 18 years. Patient inclusion criteria were complaint of current cough of any duration at the time of the first study interview or during their subsequent routine visits to health services and for whom AFB sputum smear was either negative or not performed during the whole follow-up period. Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate the probability of survival. We estimated the Hazard Ratio (HR) in bivariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses.

Results: Mortality was 4.6 per 100 py; 73% were receiving HAART at recruitment. Average time from the first recorded date of cough until empirical treatment for tuberculosis was six months. Mortality was higher when the CD4 count was low (HR = 5.3; CI 95%: 3.2-9.0; p = 0.000), in those with anemia (HR = 3.0; CI 95%: 1.6-5.6; p = 0.001) and with abnormal chest X-rays (HR = 2.4; CI 95%: 1.4-4.0; p = 0.001). Mortality was higher in those receiving empirical TB treatment (HR = 2.4; CI 95%: 1.4-4.0; p = 0.002), but only in those with normal X-rays, no history of tuberculosis and no bacteriology requests. Empirical treatment for TB was more frequent in PLHIV with low CD4 counts, anemia, history of opportunistic infections, weight loss, previous tuberculosis, negative bacteriology test (as opposed to not having a test) and abnormal chest X-ray.

Conclusions: Higher mortality in PLHIV reporting a current cough without bacteriological confirmation of tuberculosis was identified for those with a CD4 cell count <200, abnormal chest X-ray, anemia and empirical treatment for tuberculosis. Mortality was not significantly higher in those empirically treated for TB, who had three characteristics suggestive of the disease (abnormal chest X-ray, history of TB treatment, AFB sputum smear or M.tb culture testing). Routine cohorts are not an adequate setting to evaluate the impact of empirical treatment for TB on the mortality of PLHIV.
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March 2014

Treatment of facial lipoatrophy with polymethylmethacrylate among patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): impact on the quality of life.

Int J Dermatol 2014 Apr 6;53(4):497-502. Epub 2014 Mar 6.

Plastic Surgery Department, University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Background: The lipodystrophy syndrome is characterized by selective loss of subcutaneous fat on the face and extremities (lipoatrophy) and/or accumulation of fat around the neck, abdomen, and thorax (lipohypertrophy). The aim of this study has been to assess the impact of polymethylmethacrylate facial treatment on quality of life, self-perceived facial image, and the severity of depressive symptoms in patients living with HIV/AIDS.

Methods: A non-randomized before and after interventional study was developed. Fifty-one patients underwent facial filling. The self-perceived quality of life, facial image, and degree of depressive symptoms were measured by the Short-Form 36 and HIV/AIDS--Targeted quality of life questionnaires, by a visual analogue scale and by the Beck depression inventory, respectively, before and three months after treatment.

Results: Six of the eight domains of Short-Form 36 and eight of the nine dimensions of the HIV/AIDS--Targeted quality of life questionnaires, together with the visual analogue scale and by the Beck depression inventory scores, revealed a statistically significant improvement. The only adverse effects registered were edema and ecchymosis.

Conclusion: The treatment of facial lipoatrophy improved the self-perceived quality of life and facial image as well as any depressive symptoms among patients with HIV/AIDS.
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April 2014

Incremental costs of treating tetanus with intrathecal antitetanus immunoglobulin.

Trop Med Int Health 2013 May 5;18(5):555-63. Epub 2013 Mar 5.

Departamento de Clínica Médica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Objective: To estimate the incremental cost of delivering intrathecal tetanus immunoglobulin compared to an intramuscular option.

Methods: To compare the two interventions, costs were estimated using standard cost methodology. Cost categories were personnel, overhead, consumables, antibiotics to treat infection, gases for respiratory assistance and immunoglobulin. Tetanus patients, aged 12 years or older, who were part of a randomised controlled clinical trial conducted in a referral hospital in Recife, Brazil, were allocated to two groups: a control group (58) and a study group (62). Patients allocated to the control group received 3000 international units (IU) of human immunoglobulin, with preservative, intramuscularly. The study group received the same quantity of immunoglobulin also intramuscularly plus an intrathecal dose of 1000 IU of a human immunoglobulin, free of preservatives, to prevent irritation of the meninges and avoid the need for corticosteroids. Thus, the difference between the two groups was the exclusive use of intrathecal immunoglobulin. The outcome measurements were clinical progression, hospital stay, respiratory assistance and respiratory infection.

Results: Delivering intrathecal immunoglobulin to patients saved a total of US$ 60 389, in a 10-day intensive care treatment, by preventing a worsening of their tetanus severity (e.g. from Grade I to Grades II, III, IV). Substantial cost saving was also observed in terms of hospital stay (US$ 173 104).

Conclusions: Intrathecal treatment of tetanus is cost saving. This intervention deserves consideration by doctors and decision-makers as a mean of saving resources while maintaining high-quality health outcomes.
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May 2013

Accuracy of a dual path platform (DPP) assay for the rapid point-of-care diagnosis of human leptospirosis.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2012 1;6(11):e1878. Epub 2012 Nov 1.

Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America.

Background: Diagnosis of leptospirosis by the gold standard serologic assay, the microscopic agglutination test (MAT), requires paired sera and is not widely available. We developed a rapid assay using immunodominant Leptospira immunoglobulin-like (Lig) proteins in a Dual Path Platform (DPP). This study aimed to evaluate the assay's diagnostic performance in the setting of urban transmission.

Methodology: We determined test sensitivity using 446 acute and convalescent sera from MAT-confirmed case-patients with severe or mild leptospirosis in Brazil. We assessed test specificity using 677 sera from the following groups: healthy residents of a Brazilian slum with endemic transmission, febrile outpatients from the same slum, healthy blood donors, and patients with dengue, hepatitis A, and syphilis. Three operators independently interpreted visual results without knowing specimen status.

Results: The overall sensitivity for paired sera was 100% and 73% for severe and mild disease, respectively. In the acute phase, the assay achieved a sensitivity of 85% and 64% for severe and mild leptospirosis, respectively. Within seven days of illness onset, the assay achieved a sensitivity of 77% for severe disease and 60% for mild leptospirosis. Sensitivity of the DPP assay was similar to that for IgM-ELISA and increased with both duration of symptoms (chi-square regression P = 0.002) and agglutinating titer (Spearman ρ = 0.24, P<0.001). Specificity was ≥93% for dengue, hepatitis A, syphilis, febrile outpatients, and blood donors, while it was 86% for healthy slum residents. Inter-operator agreement ranged from very good to excellent (kappa: 0.82-0.94) and test-to-test reproducibility was also high (kappa: 0.89).

Conclusions: The DPP assay performed acceptably well for diagnosis of severe acute clinical leptospirosis and can be easily implemented in hospitals and health posts where leptospirosis is a major public health problem. However, test accuracy may need improvement for mild disease and early stage leptospirosis, particularly in regions with high transmission.
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April 2013

Risk factors for default from tuberculosis treatment in HIV-infected individuals in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil: a prospective cohort study.

BMC Infect Dis 2011 Dec 16;11:351. Epub 2011 Dec 16.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Background: Concomitant treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and tuberculosis (TB) presents a series of challenges for treatment compliance for both providers and patients. We carried out this study to identify risk factors for default from TB treatment in people living with HIV.

Methods: We conducted a cohort study to monitor HIV/TB co-infected subjects in Pernambuco, Brazil, on a monthly basis, until completion or default of treatment for TB. Logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals and P-values.

Results: From a cohort of 2310 HIV subjects, 390 individuals (16.9%) who had started treatment after a diagnosis of TB were selected, and data on 273 individuals who completed or defaulted on treatment for TB were analyzed. The default rate was 21.7% and the following risk factors were identified: male gender, smoking and CD4 T-cell count less than 200 cells/mm3. Age over 29 years, complete or incomplete secondary or university education and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were identified as protective factors for the outcome.

Conclusion: The results point to the need for more specific actions, aiming to reduce the default from TB treatment in males, younger adults with low education, smokers and people with CD4 T-cell counts < 200 cells/mm3. Default was less likely to occur in patients under HAART, reinforcing the strategy of early initiation of HAART in individuals with TB.
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December 2011

An evaluation of factors associated with taking and responding positive to the tuberculin skin test in individuals with HIV/AIDS.

BMC Public Health 2011 Sep 5;11:687. Epub 2011 Sep 5.

Department of Tropical Medicine, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

Background: The tuberculin skin test (TST) is still the standard test for detecting latent infection by M tuberculosis (LTBI). Given that the Brazilian Health Ministry recommends that the treatment of latent tuberculosis (LTBI) should be guided by the TST results, the present study sets out to describe the coverage of administering the TST in people living with HIV at two referral health centers in the city of Recife, where TST is offered to all patients. In addition, factors associated with the non-application of the test and with positive TST results were also analyzed.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out with HIV patients, aged 18 years or over, attending outpatient clinics at the Correia Picanço Hospital/SES/PE and the Oswaldo Cruz/UPE University Hospital, who had been recommended to take the TST, in the period between November 2007 and February 2010. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out to establish associations between the dependent variable - taking the TST (yes/no), at a first stage analysis, and the independent variables, followed by a second stage analysis considering a positive TST as the dependent variable. The odds ratio was calculated as the measure of association and the confidence interval (CI) at 95% as the measure of accuracy of the estimate.

Results: Of the 2,290 patients recruited, 1087 (47.5%) took the TST. Of the 1,087 patients who took the tuberculin skin test, the prevalence of TST ≥ 5 mm was 21.6% among patients with CD4 ≥ 200 and 9.49% among those with CD4 < 200 (p = 0.002). The patients most likely not to take the test were: men, people aged under 39 years, people with low educational levels and crack users. The risk for not taking the TST was statiscally different for health service. Patients who presented better immunity (CD4 ≥ 200) were more than two and a half times more likely to test positive that those with higher levels of immunodeficiency (CD4 < 200).

Conclusions: Considering that the TST is recommended by the Brazilian health authorities, coverage for taking the test was very low. The most serious implication of this is that LTBI treatment was not carried out for the unidentified TST-positive patients, who may consequently go on to develop TB and eventually die.
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September 2011