Publications by authors named "Delin Hu"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Gaussian fitting algorithm with multi-geometric parameters for rotated elliptical beam profiling using pixel ion chamber.

Med Phys 2021 Sep 11;48(9):4799-4811. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Hubei, China.

Purpose: A high-precision rotated elliptical beam profiling method based on pixel ion chamber is proposed in this paper. This method aims to improve the accuracy by modeling the transverse profile of rotated beam as an ellipse with additional correlation coefficient and eliminating the fitting error due to the volume averaging effect of pixel ion chamber.

Methods: In pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy systems, the transverse beam profile model is generally represented as a standard Gaussian distribution. Considering the elliptical spots, two-dimensional (2D) joint Gaussian distribution characterized with the correlation coefficient ρ is adopted in this study. Gaussian-type particle distribution with white noise was generated and processed in MATLAB to simulate the secondary particle collection in the pixel ion chamber. The simulated pixel ion chamber is a commercially available ion chamber which consists of 12 × 12 small square pixels (3.75 × 3.75 mm ) with a 0.05 mm interval. The simulated signals were preprocessed by filtering with the noise threshold and extracting the maximum simply connected domain (MSCD) of the signal. Then, five geometric parameters that identify the transverse beam profiles were fitted under different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions: the center of the beam (x , y ), the spot size (σ , σ ), and the rotation angle θ formed between the major axes of elliptical spot and the x axes of the ion chamber. First, the simulated signals were preprocessed by filtering with the noise threshold and extracting the MSCD of the signal. Second, a rectification curve of systematic error in fitted spot size versus the prescribed spot size was used to predict the systematic error due to the volume averaging effect. Finally, the effects of fitting errors on therapeutic dose were evaluated in terms of gamma index and relative dose difference.

Results: When the SNR is not less than 20 dB, the relative fitting error of spot size and the absolute fitting error of angle θ are less than 1% and 6.1°, respectively. The fitting error of beam center increases with spot size and will not exceed 0.22 mm when spot size reaches up to 12 mm. At a SNR equal to 20 dB, neither cold nor hot spots were presented in dose distribution calculated with the fitted spot parameters.

Conclusion: The improved Gaussian fitting algorithm performs well when SNR is not less than 20 dB. This method can effectively distinguish the nominal beam and rotated elliptical beam. An ideal systematic error curve can be predicted and used to correct the fitted spot size, thus eliminating the systematic error due to the volume averaging effect of the pixel ion chamber. The fitting error of spot size cannot be fully corrected, but it is negligible and shows little effect on the overall therapeutic dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15140DOI Listing
September 2021

CNN-Based Volume Flow Rate Prediction of Oil-Gas-Water Three-Phase Intermittent Flow from Multiple Sensors.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Feb 10;21(4). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China.

In this paper, we propose a deep-learning-based method using a convolutional neural network (CNN) to predict the volume flow rates of individual phases in the oil-gas-water three-phase intermittent flow simultaneously by analyzing the measurement data from multiple sensors, including a temperature sensor, a pressure sensor, a Venturi tube and a microwave sensor. To build datasets, a series of experiments for the oil-gas-water three-phase intermittent flow in a horizontal pipe, in which gas volume fraction and water-in-liquid ratio ranges are 23.77-94.45% and 14.95-86.97%, respectively, and gas flow superficial velocity and liquid flow superficial velocity ranges are 0.66-5.23 and 0.27-2.14 m/s, respectively, have been carried out on a test loop pipeline. The preliminary results indicate that the model can provide relative prediction errors on the testing-1 dataset for the volume flow rates of oil-phase, gas-phase and water-phase within ±10% with 94.49%, 92.56% and 95.71% confidence levels, respectively. Additionally, the prediction results on the testing-2 dataset also demonstrate the generalization ability of the model. The consuming time of a prediction with one sample is 0.43 s on an Intel Xeon CPU E5-2678 v3, and 0.01 s on an NVIDIA GeForce GTX 1080 Ti GPU. Hence, the proposed CNN-based prediction model, which can fulfill the real-time application requirements in the petroleum industry, reveals the potential of using deep learning to obtain accurate results in the multiphase flow measurement field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21041245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916361PMC
February 2021

Lower trapezius myocutaneous flap repairs adjacent deep electrical burn wounds.

Eur J Med Res 2020 Dec 1;25(1):63. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Burn, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, No. 218 Jixi Road, Hefei, Anhui, 230022, People's Republic of China.

Background: Local tissue damage caused by electrical burns is often deep and severe. High-voltage electrical burns are common in the head, neck and torso areas. These are mostly caused by direct contact with the power supply and are often accompanied by deep injuries of the nerve, blood vessel, muscle, tendon, and bone. We must pay great attention to the clinical treatment of these parts injured by electrical burn.

Case Presentation: The first case involved a migrant worker who touched a 6-kV high-tension wire when welding steel; this electric shock caused burns in many places. Deep electrical burn wounds were mainly located on the left shoulder and back, characterized by widespread skin and soft tissue defect and bone necrosis. We utilized a lower trapezius myocutaneous flap to repair these wounds in the neck and back caused by deep electrical burns. The flap survived completely and the wound was effectively repaired. The function and shape of the shoulder and back after the restoration were satisfactory. The second case involved a 29-year-old who accidentally touched a high-voltage wire while working and was burned by a 30,000-V electric shock. His wounds were mainly located on the left head, neck, back and left upper limbs. We designed a 30 cm × 12 cm right trapezius myocutaneous flap which completely covered the wound surface; the electrical burn wounds on the neck and back were effectively repaired. After the electrical burn wound was repaired, the neck function returned to normal with a satisfactory shape.

Conclusion: The authors report two cases of patients who were burned by high voltage. We used lower trapezius myocutaneous flaps to repair their wounds, which achieved satisfactory clinical results. This study has provided a reliable surgical method for the clinical treatment of deep electrical burn wounds in the neck, shoulders and back.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40001-020-00465-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709246PMC
December 2020

HIF-1α Enhances Vascular Endothelial Cell Permeability Through Degradation and Translocation of Vascular Endothelial Cadherin and Claudin-5 in Rats With Burn Injury.

J Burn Care Res 2021 03;42(2):258-268

Department of Burn, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University Department of Burn, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University.

The mechanism underlying burn injury-induced enhanced vascular endothelial permeability and consequent body fluid extravasation is unclear. Here, the rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) were treated with the serum derived from rats with burn injury to elucidate the mechanism. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were grouped as follows (10 rats/group): control, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours postburn groups. The heart, liver, kidney, lung, jejunum, and ileum of rats injected with 2% Evans blue (EB) through the tail vein were excised to detect the EB level in each organ. The serum levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The effect of serum from 12-hour postburn group on the membrane permeability of RAEC monolayer, as well as on the mRNA and protein levels of ET-1, endothelin receptor A (ETA), ETB, and zonula occludens (ZO-1), was analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting. The membrane permeability of GV230/HIF-1α-transfected or shRNA-HIF-1α-transfected RAECs, as well as the expression levels of HIF-1α, ET-1, ETA, ETB, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, and claudin-5, was analyzed using qRT-PCR and western blotting, whereas the localization of VE-cadherin and claudin-5 was examined using immunofluorescence. The serum HIF-1α and ET-1 levels in the burn groups, which peaked at 12 hours postburn, were significantly upregulated (P < .01) when compared with those in the control group. Additionally, the serum HIF-1α levels were positively correlated with vascular permeability. Compared with the shRNA-negative control-transfected RAECs, the shRNA-II/HIF-1α-transfected RAECs exhibited downregulated expression of HIF-1α, ET-1, ETA, and ETB (P < .01), and upregulated expression of ZO-1, claudin-5, and VE-cadherin (P < .05). Compared with the GV230-transfected RAECs, the GV230/HIF-1α-transfected RAECs exhibited upregulated expression of HIF-1α, ET-1, ETA, and ETB (P < .01), and downregulated expression of ZO-1, claudin-5, and VE-cadherin (P < .05). The GV230/HIF-1α-transfected RAECs exhibited degradation and translocation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5. In addition to degradation of VE-cadherin and claudin-5, HIF-1α mediated enhanced endothelial cell permeability through upregulation of ET-1, ETA, and ETB, and downregulation of ZO-1 and VE-cadherin in rats with burn injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/iraa139DOI Listing
March 2021

[Effect of calmodulin and its mutants on binding to Na1.2 IQ].

Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2020 May;49(1):71-75

Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China.

Objective: To investigate the effect of calmodulin (CaM) and its mutants on binding to voltage-gated Na channel isoleucine-glutamine domain (Na1.2 IQ).

Methods: The cDNA of Na1.2 IQ was constructed by PCR technique, CaM mutants CaM, CaM and CaM were constructed with Quickchange site-directed mutagenesis kit (QIAGEN). The binding of Na1.2 IQ to CaM and CaM mutants under calcium and calcium free conditions were detected by pull-down assay.

Results: Na1.2 IQ and CaM were bound to each other at different calcium concentrations, while GST alone did not bind to CaM. The binding affinity of CaM and Na1.2 IQ at [Ca]-free was greater than that at 100 nmol/L [Ca] ( < 0.05). In the absence of calcium, the binding amount of CaM wild-type to Na1.2 IQ was greater than that of its mutant, and the binding affinity of CaM to Na1.2 IQ was the weakest among the three mutants ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: The binding ability of CaM and CaM mutants to Na1.2 IQ is Ca-dependent. This study has revealed a new mechanism of Na1.2 regulated by CaM, which would be useful for the study of ion channel related diseases.
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May 2020

Effects of hypoxia inducible factor-1α on expression levels of MLCK, p-MLC and ZO-1 of rat endothelial cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2019 11 17;519(3):591-596. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Department of Burn, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230022, China. Electronic address:

Objective: To examine the aberrant expression of endothelial permeability associated proteins including MLCK, p-MLC and ZO-1 in presence of different levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α).

Methods: We established monolayer vascular endothelial cell model with the primary rat endothelial cells. Over-expressed or under-expressed HIF-1α cell lines were made by endothelial cells transfected with plasmid vector constructed with HIF-1α gene or HIF-1α-specific short hairpin RNA (shRNA). Levels of mRNA and protein of MLCK, p-MLC and ZO-1 were determined using Real-Time PCR and Western blot. All data were analyzed using by One-Way ANOVA method and LSD.

Results: We successfully cultured the rat endothelial primary cells for four days. The mRNA and protein levels of MLCK and p-MLC were significantly increased in the HIF-1α over-expression group than that in the blank control group and the empty plasmid GV230 group (P<0.05). ZO-1 was significantly lower in the HIF-1α over-expression group than that in the blank control group and the GV230 group. On the contrary, the mRNA and protein levels of MLCK and p-MLC were significantly lower in the HIF-1α under-expression group than that in the blank control group and the shRNA-NC group (P<0.05). ZO-1 was significantly higher in the HIF-1α low-expression group than that in the blank control group and the shRNA-NC group.

Conclusion: HIF-1α positively regulates the expression of MLCK and p-MLC and negatively regulates the expression of ZO-1 in rat monolayer endothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2019.08.159DOI Listing
November 2019

Ilioinguinal Flap Combined With Tensor Fascia Lata Muscle Flap to Repair Deep Electrical Burns in the Lower Abdomen: A Report of Two Cases.

Wounds 2019 Jun;31(6):E42-E45

Department of Burn, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui, China.

Introduction: Electrical burns are caused by the conversion of electrical energy flowing through the body into heat energy, which can cause coagulative necrosis of the skin and deep tissues. Deep tissue damage is often more serious than skin damage. Electrical burns have the characteristics of destructive and progressive damage and present the common symptoms of severe local tissue damage accompanied by a wide range of deep tissue necrosis, resulting in injury of nerves, blood vessels, bones, and internal organs. Autologous skin grafting alone cannot effectively cover deep tissues or repair electrical burn wounds.

Case Report: This article describes 2 patients with deep electrical burns in the lower abdomen that showed extensive skin and soft tissue damage, partial necrosis of abdominal muscle tissue, and weak abdominal wall. As a single tissue flap was too small to effectively cover the defect wound, ilioinguinal flap and tensor fascia lata muscle flap were utilized in both cases with good outcomes. These flaps survived completely, and the wounds were effectively repaired. After repair, the shape was satisfactory, and the function of the lower abdomen was normal.

Conclusions: Transfer of flaps from a site near the wound for repairing electrical burns is convenient for transfer with minimal surgical trauma and a simpler operating procedure than the free flap.
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June 2019

Analysis of MnS Inclusions Formation in Resulphurised Steel via Modeling and Experiments.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Jun 24;12(12). Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Center for Advanced Solidification Technology (CAST), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444, China.

Controlling the formation of MnS inclusions during solidification influences the mechanical properties and machinability of the resulfurized steel. A coupled segregation-nucleation-growth model was developed by the finite-difference method involving solute redistribution, heterogeneous nucleation and growth kinetics. Laboratory solidification experiments were performed under various cooling rates in resulphurised 49MnVS steel. In this work, the influence of cooling rate on solute redistribution and growth size of MnS inclusions were simulated using the current coupled model, and the calculated results can provide a valuable reference for MnS formation. Increasing of the cooling rate led to early precipitation and refinement of formed MnS inclusions. Based on the simulation results and experimental data, mathematical relationships between the growing size of MnS with the cooling rate in the low ductility temperature region and in the whole solidification were obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12122028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6631139PMC
June 2019

Flow Adversarial Networks: Flowrate Prediction for Gas-Liquid Multiphase Flows Across Different Domains.

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2020 Feb 11;31(2):475-487. Epub 2019 Apr 11.

The solution of how to accurately and timely predict the flowrate of gas-liquid mixtures is the key to help petroleum and other related industries to reduce costs, improve efficiency, and optimize management. Although numerous studies have been carried out over the past decades, the problem is still significantly challenging due to the complexity of multiphase flows. This paper attempts to seek new possibilities for multiphase flow measurement and novel application scenarios for state-of-the-art machine learning (ML) techniques. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are applied to predict the flowrate of multiphase flows for the first time and can achieve promising performance. In addition, considering the difference between data distributions of training and testing samples and its negative impact on prediction accuracy of the CNN models on testing samples, we propose flow adversarial networks (FANs) that can distill both domain-invariant and flowrate-discriminative features from the raw input. The method is evaluated on dynamic experimental data of different multiphase flows on different flow conditions and operating environments. The experimental results demonstrate that FANs can effectively prevent the accuracy degradation caused by the gap between training and testing samples and have better performance than state-of-the-art approaches in the flowrate prediction field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2019.2905082DOI Listing
February 2020

[Study on the mechanism of hypertonic salt solution alleviates lung injury of rats at the early stage of severe scald].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2018 Sep;30(9):867-871

Department of Burns, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230022, Anhui, China. Corresponding author: Sun Yexiang, Email:

Objective: To explore the mechanism of hypertonic salt solution (HS) alleviates lung injury of rats at the early stage of severe scald.

Methods: Thirty-two female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to sham group, lactated Ringer solution (LR) group, HS200 group (200 mmol/L HS group, 1 L 200 mmol/L HS contained 955 mL LR and 45 mL 10% NaCl) and HS400 group (400 mmol/L HS group, 1 L 400 mmol/L HS contained 846 mL LR and 154 mL 10% NaCl), with 8 rats in each group. A 30% total body surface area (TBSA) III degree scalded model was reproduced by scalded on the back with 98 centigrade boiling water for 12 seconds, whereas those in the sham group were exposed to 37 centigrade water without liquid resuscitation. Rats in the three drug intervention groups were resuscitated with LR, 200 mmol/L HS and 400 mmol/L HS by caudal vein according to the Parkland formula, respectively. All rats were sacrificed at 8 hours after scald injury to harvest abdominal aorta blood and lung tissues. Interleukins (IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17) in serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples from the lung tissue were used to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels by ultraviolet spectrophotometer. Expressions of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and extracellular regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in the lung were determined by Western Blot. The lung tissue was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), and the pathological changes were observed with a light microscope.

Results: Compared with the sham group, the lung tissues in the LR group were damage obviously, which accompanied with more inflammatory cell infiltration, cell edema and pulmonary septum thickening, and the levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-17 in serum and MDA content, the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 in lung tissues were increased whereas the activity of SOD was decreased. Compared with the LR group, the lung injury was significantly alleviated, the levels of IL-6, IL-17 in serum and MDA content and the phosphorylation of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 were decreased, and the levels of IL-10 and SOD were increased in both HS groups with a dose-dependent manner. There were significant difference in above parameters between HS400 group and LR group [serum IL-6 (ng/L): 3.76±0.12 vs. 6.72±0.90, serum IL-10 (ng/L): 33.76±3.71 vs. 16.77±3.19, serum IL-17 (ng/L): 103.52±2.78 vs. 124.96±4.96, lung MDA (nmol/mg): 5.59±0.24 vs. 7.09±0.39, lung SOD (U/mg): 226.7±3.9 vs. 172.7±3.4, lung phosphorylation of p38MAPK (p-p38MAPK)/p38MAPK: 0.15±0.09 vs. 0.35±0.19, lung phosphorylation of ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2)/ERK1/2: 0.27±0.01 vs. 0.70±0.01, all P < 0.01].

Conclusions: HS protected against lung injury induced by severe burns in rats with a dose-dependent manner, and it was better than LR, and its possible mechanism was related with reducing the expression of p38MAPK and ERK1/2 pathway in lung tissue, increasing the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines and decreasing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus inhibiting excessive inflammation and oxidative stress injury in lung.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.issn.2095-4352.2018.09.009DOI Listing
September 2018

microRNA-98 mediated microvascular hyperpermeability during burn shock phase via inhibiting FIH-1.

Eur J Med Res 2015 Apr 23;20:51. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

Department of Burns, The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, No. 218 Jixi Road, Hefei, Anhui Province, 230022, People's Republic of China.

Background: microRNA is a small non-coding RNA molecule and functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. This study was designed to evaluate the role of miR-98 in the development of microvascular permeability and its molecular pathogenesis.

Methods: Forty-eight healthy adult Wistar rats were divided into the control group (n = 8) and burn group (n = 40) that inflicted with 30% total body surface area third-degree burn. Groups were processed at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h post-burn. Plasma for vascular endothelial cell culture was collected from control and 12 h post-burn rats. Organic microvascular permeability and serum miR-98 level were measured. In vitro, rat aorta endothelial cells were stimulated with burn serum. Level of miR-98 and protein of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), factor inhibiting HIF-1α (FIH-1), and tight junction-associated proteins were determined.

Results: Organic microvascular permeability began to rise at 2 h post-burn and maintained the same character throughout the experiment except in lung tissue that was still rising at 12 h; the serum level of miR-98 was elevated (P < 0.05). In vitro, burn serum stimulation increased rat aorta endothelial monolayer cell permeability as well as upregulated miR-98 expression (P < 0.05). As shown in the result of transfection experiment, miR-98 negatively regulated FIH-1 and tight junction-associated protein expression (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The findings of the present study suggest severe microvascular permeability due to burns; and the underlying mechanism bases on the promotion of miR-98 level to the extent that it activated HIF-1 gene expression, resulting in junction-associated protein deficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40001-015-0141-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4411771PMC
April 2015

[Meek technique skin graft for treating exceptionally large area burns].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2010 Jun;24(6):650-2

Department of Burn, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei Anhui, 230022, P.R. China.

Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of Meek technique skin graft in treating exceptionally large area burns.

Methods: The clinical data were retrospectively analysed from 10 cases of exceptionally large area burns treated with Meek technique skin graft from April 2009 to February 2010 (Meek group), and were compared with those from 10 cases of exceptionally large area burns treated with the particle skin with large sheet of skin allograft transplantation from January 2002 to December 2006 (particle skin group). In Meek group, there were 8 males and 2 females with an average age of 34.5 years (range, 5-55 years), including 6 cases of flame burns, 2 cases of hot liquid burns, 1 case of electrical burn, and 1 case of high-temperature dust burn. The burn area was 82.6% +/- 3.1% of total body surface area (TBSA). The most were deep II degree to III degree burns. The time from burn to hospitalization was (3.5 +/- 1.3) hours. In particle skin group, there were 8 males and 2 females with an average age of 36.8 years (range, 18-62 years), including 5 cases of flame burns, 2 cases of hot liquid burns, and 3 cases of gunpowder explosion injury. The burn area was 84.1% +/- 7.4% of TBSA. The most were deep II degree to III degree burns. The time from burn to hospitalization was (4.9 +/- 2.2) hours. There was no significant difference in general data between 2 groups (P > 0.05).

Results: The skin graft survival rate, the time of skin fusion, the systemic wound healing time, and the treatment cost of 1% of burn area were 91.23% +/- 5.61%, (11.14 +/- 2.12) days, (38.89 +/- 10.36) days, and (5113.28 +/- 552.44) yuan in Meek group, respectively; and were 78.65% +/- 12.29%, (18.37 +/- 4.63) days, (48.73 +/- 16.92) days, and (7386.36 +/- 867.64) yuan in particle skin group; showing significant differences between 2 groups (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Meek technique skin graft has good effect in treating exceptionally large area burns with the advantages of high survival rate of skin graft, short time of skin fusion, and low treatment cost of 1% of burn area.
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June 2010
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