Publications by authors named "Delia Grace"

112 Publications

Risk factors of dengue fever in an urban area in Vietnam: a case-control study.

BMC Public Health 2021 Apr 7;21(1):664. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Dengue is a mosquito-borne flavivirus present in many metropolitan cities of tropical countries.

Methods: During and after the dengue season (September 2018 to January 2019), we conducted a case-control study in order to determine the risk factors for dengue fever in Hanoi city, Vietnam. 98 dengue patients and 99 patients with other acute infections, such as Hepatitis B virus infection, were recruited at Department of Infectious Disease of Bach Mai national hospital in Hanoi. Patients were interviewed using a structured questionnaire covering demographic, housing, environmental factors and knowledge, attitude, and practice on dengue prevention and control. Univariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to determine the risk factors of dengue status.

Results: The mean score of knowledge items and practice items was only 7.9 out of total 19 points and 3.9 out of total 17 points, respectively. While the mean score of attitude items was 4.8 out of total 6 points. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that older patients had lesser risk of getting dengue infection as compared to younger adults aged 16-30, and patients living in peri-urban districts were less likely to suffer of dengue fever than patients living in central urban districts (OR = 0.31; 95% CI 0.13-0.75). This study could not find any association with occupation, water storage habit, knowledge, attitude, or practice on dengue prevention.

Conclusions: All patients had a relatively low level of knowledge and practice on dengue prevention and control. However, the attitude of the participants was good. We found that age group and living district were the risk factors correlated with the dengue status. Communication programs on raising dengue awareness should be repeated all year round and target particular groups of adolescents, younger adults, landlords and migrants from other provinces to improve their knowledge and encourage them to implement preventive measures against dengue fever.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10687-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8028770PMC
April 2021

Improved Sample Selection and Preparation Methods for Sampling Plans Used to Facilitate Rapid and Reliable Estimation of Aflatoxin in Chicken Feed.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 Mar 16;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Biosciences, International Livestock Research Institute, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a toxic fungal metabolite associated with human and animal diseases, is a natural contaminant encountered in agricultural commodities, food and feed. Heterogeneity of AFB1 makes risk estimation a challenge. To overcome this, novel sample selection, preparation and extraction steps were designed for representative sampling of chicken feed. Accuracy, precision, limits of detection and quantification, linearity, robustness and ruggedness were used as performance criteria to validate this modification and Horwitz function for evaluating precision. A modified sampling protocol that ensured representativeness is documented, including sample selection, sampling tools, random procedures, minimum size of field-collected aggregate samples (primary sampling), procedures for mass reduction to 2 kg laboratory (secondary sampling), 25 g test portion (tertiary sampling) and 1.3 g analytical samples (quaternary sampling). The improved coning and quartering procedure described herein (for secondary and tertiary sampling) has acceptable precision, with a Horwitz ratio (HorRat = 0.3) suitable for splitting of 25 g feed aliquots from laboratory samples (tertiary sampling). The water slurring innovation (quaternary sampling) increased aflatoxin extraction efficiency to 95.1% through reduction of both bias (-4.95) and variability of recovery (1.2-1.4) and improved both intra-laboratory precision (HorRat = 1.2-1.5) and within-laboratory reproducibility (HorRat = 0.9-1.3). Optimal extraction conditions are documented. The improved procedure showed satisfactory performance, good field applicability and reduced sample analysis turnaround time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002447PMC
March 2021

Microbial contamination and associated risk factors in retailed pork from key value chains in Northern Vietnam.

Int J Food Microbiol 2021 Mar 17;346:109163. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

International Livestock Research Institute, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

Pork and pork products are important staple food in the diet of Vietnamese consumers. The safety of pork, including biological contamination, is a concern to several public authorities and value chain actors. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify Salmonella and total bacterial count (TBC) contamination of cut pork sold in different outlets, and determine the potential factors leading to contamination. A total of 671 pork samples were collected from different retail channels in three provinces in Northern Vietnam. Hygiene conditions and practices at pork vending premises were also observed and recorded. Data analysis used descriptive statistics and regression analysis. Overall, Salmonella prevalence in retailed pork was 58.1%. Salmonella contamination in pork from traditional retail, modern retail and food services were 60.5%, 50.9% and 80.5%, respectively. Eighty percent and 68% of fresh pork in canteen and street food was contaminated with Salmonella. Only a small proportion of a subset of the pork samples (6.2%) tested met the Vietnamese standard requirement for TBC contamination. Average concentration of TBC in fresh pork in traditional retail, modern retail and food services were 6.51 (SD: 0.64), 6.38 (0.65), and 6.96 (0.85) LogCFU/g, respectively. Transport time, use of the same tools for pork and other types of meat, storage temperature, and environment hygiene are important factors that might affect microbial contamination. The findings underline the high level of microbial contamination, which requires practical interventions to improve food safety hygiene practices and behavior of pork retailers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2021.109163DOI Listing
March 2021

Live and Wet Markets: Food Access versus the Risk of Disease Emergence.

Trends Microbiol 2021 Mar 9. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Zoonosis Science Center, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala SE-75237, Sweden; International Livestock Research Institute, Department of Biosciences, Nairobi 00100, Kenya; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Clinical Sciences, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address:

Emerging zoonotic diseases exert a significant burden on human health and have considerable socioeconomic impact worldwide. In Asia, live animals as well as animal products are commonly sold in informal markets. The interaction of humans, live domestic animals for sale, food products, and wild and scavenging animals, creates a risk for emerging infectious diseases. Such markets have been in the spotlight as sources of zoonotic viruses, for example, avian influenza viruses and coronaviruses, Here, we bring data together on the global impact of live and wet markets on the emergence of zoonotic diseases. We discuss how benefits can be maximized and risks minimized and conclude that current regulations should be implemented or revised, to mitigate the risk of new diseases emerging in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2021.02.007DOI Listing
March 2021

International, Transdisciplinary, and Ecohealth Action for Sustainable Agriculture in Asia.

Front Public Health 2021 5;9:592311. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Animal and Human Health Program, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Sustainably intensifying agriculture to secure food for people, while minimizing the human, animal, and environmental health impacts is an unprecedented global food security challenge. Action research is needed to understand and mitigate impacts, with Ecosystem approaches to health (Ecohealth) emerging as a promising framework to support such efforts. Yet, few have critically examined the application of Ecohealth principles in an agricultural context, particularly in Southeast Asia where agricultural intensification is rapidly expanding. In this paper, we evaluate the strengths, challenges, and opportunities of agriculture-related Ecohealth projects in low-resource settings of Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, and China, drawing on a case study of the Field Building Leadership Initiative (FBLI). To do this, we used a developmental evaluation framework involving several iterative cycles of document reviews, interviews, focus groups, and outcome harvesting with researchers, partners, and community members involved in FBLI. Results highlight the importance of transdisciplinarity, participation, and knowledge-to-action principles in co-generating knowledge and co-developing practical solutions. Implementing such principles presents challenges in terms of coordinating regional collaborations, managing high workloads, meaningfully engaging communities, and ensuring ongoing monitoring and evaluation. To address these challenges, there is a need to strengthen capacity in integrated approaches to health, improve institutionalization of Ecohealth, foster community engagement, and systematically monitor and evaluate efforts. Ecohealth holds significant promise in improving food security, but only when considerable time is spent developing and implementing projects with communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.592311DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892777PMC
February 2021

The 2020 report of The Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: responding to converging crises.

Lancet 2021 Jan 2;397(10269):129-170. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Office of the Vice Provost for Research, University College London, London, UK.

Translations: For the Chinese, French, German, and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32290-XDOI Listing
January 2021

Evaluating farm-level livestock interventions in low-income countries: a scoping review of what works, how, and why.

Anim Health Res Rev 2020 12 2;21(2):108-121. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Biosciences, International Livestock Research Institute, P. O. Box 30709, 00100Nairobi, Kenya.

Livestock interventions can improve nutrition, health, and economic well-being of communities. The objectives of this review were to identify and characterize livestock interventions in developing countries and to assess their effectiveness in achieving development outcomes. A scoping review, guided by a search strategy, was conducted. Papers needed to be written in English, published in peer-reviewed journals, and describe interventions in animal health and production. Out of 2739 publications systematically screened at the title, abstract, and full publication levels, 70 met our inclusion criteria and were considered in the study. Eight relatively high-quality papers were identified and added, resulting in 78 reviewed publications. Only 15 studies used randomized controlled trial designs making it possible to confidently link interventions with the resulting outcomes. Eight studies had human nutrition or health as outcomes, 11 focused on disease control, and four were on livestock production. Eight interventions were considered successful, but only four were scalable. We found good evidence that livestock-transfer programs, leveraging livestock products for nutrition, and helping farmers manage priority diseases, can improve human well-being. Our report highlights challenges in garnering evidence for livestock interventions in developing countries and provides suggestions on how to improve the quantity and quality of future evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1466252320000146DOI Listing
December 2020

Knowledge and practices of dairy farmers relating to brucellosis in urban, peri-urban and rural areas of Assam and Bihar, India.

Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2020 May 31;10(1):1769531. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Brucellosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in the world. This study aimed at assessing farmers' knowledge about brucellosis as well as practices relevant to transmission of brucellosis and their associated determinants.

Results: Few farmers knew about brucellosis (3.4%, = 18) and its zoonotic importance (0.8%, = 4). Knowledge about brucellosis was higher for farmers with a larger herd size ( < 0.001) and fully using a stall-fed system ( < 0.001). Training on dairy cattle management ( < 0.001), training on animal disease ( < 0.01), consultation with veterinarians ( < 0.001) and farms being in urban areas ( < 0.01) were also significantly positively associated with knowledge about brucellosis. No significant association was observed between farmers' knowledge about brucellosis and state, family size, education, age or gender of the farmers. Farmers knowledge about brucellosis was significantly associated with certain practices that include use of disinfectant while cleaning farms ( < 0.05), animal movement ( < 0.01), introduction of new animals ( < 0.05) and raw milk consumption ( < 0.05). The study did not find any association between knowledge about brucellosis and method of disposal of aborted materials, personal hygiene and quarantine practices.

Conclusion: More interaction with veterinarians and training on animal management may be an important tool for generating awareness among the farming community for reducing transmission of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2020.1769531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655058PMC
May 2020

Understanding Antibiotic Residues and Pathogens Flow in Wastewater from Smallholder Pig Farms to Agriculture Field in Ha Nam Province, Vietnam.

Environ Health Insights 2020 5;14:1178630220943206. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Center for Public Health and Ecosystem Research, Hanoi University of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Contact with livestock wastewater on farms and in communities can pose a risk to human and animal health.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 180 households and 24 pig farms (96 wastewater samples) to explore information about pig production, livestock waste management, antibiotic use, and to analyze antibiotic residues and microbial contamination, respectively.

Results: Of the 120 households raising pigs, biogas systems were the most commonly used to treat animal waste (70%), followed by compositing (19%), and the remaining respondents discharged waste directly into drains or ponds (11%). The majority of respondents (78%) used antibiotics to treat and prevent disease in pigs, but 32% of them did not know of any disadvantages of antibiotic abuse. ELISA assays were performed on half of the wastewater samples (n = 48), demonstrating that residues of flouroquinolones and sulfonamides were present in 6.3% (3/48) and 22.9% (11/48) of tested samples, respectively. The average residual level of sulfamethazine was 27.8 ug/l. Further, concentrations exceeding regulatory levels in Vietnam were found in nearly all samples. spp. was also found in 57.3% of samples, though prevalence rates varied across the different sites. Finally, was found in 8.4% of samples, and was found in 5.2% of samples.

Conclusions: This study suggests that livestock wastewater carried potential harmful pathogens and antibiotic residues that could come into contact with humans in the community. Thus, appropriate operation and application of livestock wastewater treatment (such as biogas or composting) and management should be a continued focused.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1178630220943206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7543113PMC
October 2020

MILK Symposium review: Community-tailored training to improve the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women regarding hygienic milk production and handling in Borana pastoral area of southern Ethiopia.

J Dairy Sci 2020 Nov;103(11):9748-9757

International Livestock Research Institute, P. O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Milk and milk products are essential in the diets of the Borana pastoral community in Ethiopia. Traditional handling and processing of dairy products using basic equipment and infrastructure coupled with a preference for raw milk consumption pose potential health risks to consumers. We tested the effect of an intervention designed to improve the hygienic handling and safe consumption of milk on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of women who produce and sell dairy products. The intervention consisted of 16 h of training on good milk production practices and prevention of milk-borne diseases. A total of 120 women were trained and their KAP assessed at baseline (pretraining), immediately after training, and 6 mo after training. Overall, training increased the knowledge score of the participants from 75.6 to 91.4% in the immediate post-training assessment, and to 90.0% at 6 mo post-training. Compared with pretraining (58.8%), we found a statistically significant difference in the overall attitude score at the immediate post-training evaluation (64.7%) but not 6 mo after (61.4%). We observed a similar increase in the understanding of correct practices from 49.5% at pretraining to 64.7% 6 mo following the training. For some desirable attitudes and practices, the proportion of women reporting adoption at pretraining was low and the change derived from training still left one-third of respondents displaying a negative attitude and a quarter of them reporting wrong practices. We recommend that future training interventions be complemented with locally adaptable technologies, provision of incentives, and creation of an enabling environment including improved access to clean water and sanitation facilities to affect not only knowledge, but also attitudes and ultimately practices in the long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18292DOI Listing
November 2020

Selected Endemic Zoonoses in Pigs Presenting for Slaughter in Kampala, Uganda.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 12 8;103(6):2552-2560. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Leptospirosis, brucellosis, and Q fever (coxiellosis) are bacterial zoonoses that cause acute febrile illness in people as well as reproductive losses in pigs. Pig keeping is an increasingly important livelihood to millions of smallholder farmers in Uganda because of exponential increases in demand for pork. The prevalence of leptospirosis and Q fever in pigs is unknown, and the few studies of porcine brucellosis have estimated a range of seroprevalence. Therefore, we undertook a prevalence survey of leptospirosis, brucellosis, and Q fever in pigs using quantitative real-time PCR to determine the potential importance of these zoonoses to the growing pig sector in Uganda. Six hundred forty-nine pigs were sampled in 2015-2016 at an urban pork slaughterhouse. Ten percent of pigs ( = 68) had leptospiral DNA in either their kidney or reproductive tissue. In adjusted analyses, variables predictive of leptospiral status included female sex (odds ratio [OR]: 2.37, < 0.01) and pigs sampled in March 2016 (OR: 2.23, = 0.02) and October 2016 (OR: 0.30, = 0.04). DNA fingerprinting revealed circulation of at least four distinct serovars in these pigs. spp. and DNA were not detected in any sampled pig. This is the first report of widespread circulation of pathogenic spp. in pigs in Uganda, suggesting that leptospirosis likely has a greater impact on the health of pigs than was previously recognized. Pig farmers, pig traders, and slaughterhouse workers may be at greatest occupational risk because of their direct contact with infective leptospires in aborted fetuses, bodily fluids, and other tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695076PMC
December 2020

A qualitative study on antibiotic use and animal health management in smallholder dairy farms of four regions of India.

Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2020 Jul 12;10(1):1792033. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.

Background: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major global public health issue. In India, access to medicines is poorly regulated and therefore antibiotics in dairy cattle are commonly used by farmers without consulting with veterinarians. This study was conducted to understand practices and knowledge related to antibiotic use and AMR among dairy farmers and veterinary professionals in selected urban and peri-urban areas of India.

Methods: A total of 28 focus group discussions with farmers and 53 interviews with veterinary professionals were carried out.

Results: Mastitiswas identified as the main animal health challenge. Antibiotic consultation behavior of farmers depended on the availability of veterinarians. Except in Bangalore, farmers were found to often treat animals on their own. They were found unaware of the concept of AMR, but knew the importance of vaccination. Veterinarians included in the study had a good understanding of antibiotics, AMR, and zoonotic diseases.

Conclusion: The knowledge level and practices observed in the study related to the use/abuse of antibiotics can potentially increase the risk of development of AMR and its transfer in the community. Our findings can help support AMR - mitigation efforts in the country, including the design of better policies on antibiotic use in dairy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2020.1792033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480485PMC
July 2020

Risk factors for spp. and infection among small ruminants in Eastern India.

Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2020 Jun 23;10(1):1783091. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

International Livestock Research Institute, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Small ruminants are the main reservoirs for brucellosis and coxiellosis, two zoonotic diseases affecting livestock production, and posing a public health threat in India. Understanding disease prevalence and risk factors associated with small ruminant infection can help mitigate disease transmission. We report a cross-sectional survey in the states of Assam and Odisha in Eastern India. We interviewed 244 farmers to assess knowledge, attitude and practices relevant to brucellosis and coxiellosis infection. Serum samples from 411 goats and 21 sheep were analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Rose-Bengal agglutination plate test. Higher and seroprevalence were found in Odisha (22% and 11.5%, respectively) than Assam (9.8% and 1.6%, respectively), and certain districts in Odisha were at higher risk. No association was found between seropositive animals and clinical signs, a challenge when attempting to identify seropositive animals in the herd. None of the farmers interviewed were aware of brucellosis, its aetiology, clinical form, or zoonotic risk. This study acts as a first indication of the extent of these diseases among small ruminants in these Indian states, highlighting how farming practices are associated with increased risk of infection. More research is urgently needed to mitigate zoonoses transmission in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2020.1783091DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7480416PMC
June 2020

Prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis E virus in pigs in Vietnam.

BMC Vet Res 2020 Sep 14;16(1):333. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

School of Veterinary Medicine, Rakuno Gakuen University, 582 Bunkyodai, Ebetsu, Hokkaido, 069-8501, Japan.

Background: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a zoonotic disease and has been reported around the world. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the sero-prevalence and phylogenetic analysis of HEV in Vietnam. Pig blood and fecal pooled samples were collected to assess the prevalence of HEV. We assessed the true prevalence (TP) of HEV from apparent prevalence (AP) by taking into account the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic tests using a Bayesian approach. For phylogenetic analysis, the data compared with worldwide HEV reference strains including all eight genotypes (G1-G8) which were identified in previous study.

Results: A total of 475 sera and 250 fecal pooled samples were collected at slaughterhouses and pig farms from five provinces, in Viet Nam. Overall, the sero-AP of HEV was 58.53% (95% confidence interval: 53.95-62.70) while the sero-TP was slightly higher (65.43, 95% credible interval: 47.19-84.70). In terms of pooled samples, overall, the RNA-AP was 6.80% (95% confidence interval: 4.01-10.66). One strain in Hanoi, two strains in Dak Lak, seven strains in An Giang, four strains in Son La and two strains in Nghe An were isolated. The phylogenetic tree demonstrated that 19 Vietnamese strains were clustered into HEV 3 and 4.

Conclusions: This study provided evidence that HEV is circulating in domestic pigs in Vietnam. From a public health perspective, it is very important to raise public awareness for high-risk groups (e.g. slaughterhouse workers, pig traders, farmers and market sellers) who have more opportunities to come in contact with pig and contaminated meats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-020-02537-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7489210PMC
September 2020

Investigation of Ebolavirus exposure in pigs presented for slaughter in Uganda.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Sep 11. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Sydney School of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

In 2008, an outbreak of Reston ebolavirus (RESTV) in pigs in the Philippines expanded our understanding of the host range of ebolaviruses. Subsequent experimental infections with the human-pathogenic species Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) confirmed that pigs are susceptible to African species of ebolaviruses. Pig keeping has become an increasingly important livelihood strategy throughout parts of sub-Saharan Africa, driven by increasing demand for pork. The growth in pig keeping is particularly rapid in Uganda, which has the highest per capita pork consumption in East Africa and a history of sporadic human outbreaks of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Using a systematic sampling protocol, we collected sera from 658 pigs presented for slaughter in Uganda between December 2015 and October 2016. Forty-six pigs (7%) were seropositive based on ELISA tests at two different institutions. Seropositive pigs had antibodies that bound to Sudan NP (n = 27), Zaire NP (Kikwit; n = 8) or both NPs (n = 11). Sera from 4 of the ELISA-positive pigs reacted in Western blot (EBOV NP = 1; RESTV NP = 2; both NPs = 2), and one sample had full neutralizing antibody against Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV) in virus neutralization tests. Pigs sampled in June 2016 were significantly more likely to be seropositive than pigs sampled in October 2016 (p = .03). Seropositive pigs were sourced from all regions except Western region. These observed temporal and spatial variations are suggestive of multiple introductions of ebolaviruses into the pig population in Uganda. This is the first report of exposure of pigs in Uganda to ebolaviruses and the first to employ systematic abattoir sampling for ebolavirus surveillance during a non-outbreak period. Future studies will be necessary to further define the role pigs play (if any) in ebolavirus maintenance and transmission so that potential risks can be mitigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13822DOI Listing
September 2020

The Extent and Structure of Peri-urban Smallholder Dairy Farming in Five Cities in India.

Front Vet Sci 2020 3;7:359. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Public Health Foundation India, Gurgaon, India.

Livestock keeping is common in many cities in India, driven by the demand for animal-source foods, particularly perishable milk. We selected five cities from different regions of the country and conducted a census in 34 randomly selected peri-urban villages to identify and describe all smallholder dairy farms. In total 1,690 smallholder dairy farms were identified, keeping on average 2.2 milking cows and 0.7 milking buffaloes. In Bhubaneswar, the proportion of cows milking was only 50%, but in other cities it was 63-73%. In two of the five cities, more than 90% of the farmers stated that dairy production was their main source of income, while <50% in the other cities reported this. In one of the cities, only 36% of the households kept milk for themselves. Market channels varied considerably; in one city about 90% of farms sold milk to traders, in another, 90% sold to the dairy cooperative, and in another around 90% sold directly to consumers. In conclusion, peri-urban dairy systems in India are important but also varying between different cities, with only one city, Bengaluru, having a well-developed cooperative system, and the northeastern poorer region being more dependent on traders. Further studies may be needed to elucidate the importance and to design appropriate developmental interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.00359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7348999PMC
July 2020

A review of animal health and drug use practices in India, and their possible link to antimicrobial resistance.

Antimicrob Resist Infect Control 2020 07 8;9(1):103. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

International Livestock Research Institute, P. O. Box 30709, Nairobi, 00100, Kenya.

Background: Livestock production, particularly the dairy sector, is important for food and nutritional wellbeing of communities in India, it supports livelihoods of many farmers, and contributes to the economy of the country. India is a high consumer of antibiotics and antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria are a major public health concern.

Objectives: Our objectives were to identify animal health and drug use practices that may contribute to emergence and spread of AMR in the country, review previous AMR- mitigation strategies, and discuss "theory of change" as an approach to informing the choice of interventions.

Methods: We undertook a desk review of literature to identify practices with potential to contribute to emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in India. Searches were done in PubMed, Google scholar, and Google. Data were synthesized and discussed by themes.

Results: Animal disease surveillance is less developed and infrastructure to support delivery of services is inadequate. Several groups are known to offer animal health services. The untrained "animal health workers" and para-veterinarians are more popular with farmers as they charge less for consultations (compared to veterinarians who are few and charge more). Over-the-counter access of antibiotics, without prescription, and direct marketing of drugs to farmers are common. Because of this, farmers are able to treat their animals and only consult when cases become non- responsive to treatment. Antibiotics are mostly used in management of mastitis cases. Drug withdrawal periods are rarely observed and occurrence of antibiotic- contaminated milk has been reported. Awareness on AMR is low and antimicrobial stewardship in livestock is yet to be developed. Initiatives such as the National programme for containment of AMR, National Action Plan on AMR, and the National Health policy point to government's commitment in addressing the problem of AMR in the country.

Conclusion: Several animal health and drug use practices, with potential to cause AMR, have been described, and their contribution can be discussed further by engaging stakeholders in a "theory of change" exercise. Interventions that address AMR from the animal health perspective should be promoted, and incentives to increase their adoption explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13756-020-00760-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7346624PMC
July 2020

Assessment of Small Ruminant Welfare in Ethiopia - An Abattoir-Based Study.

J Appl Anim Welf Sci 2020 Jul-Sep;23(3):356-365. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Aklilu Lemma Institute of Pathobiology, International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) , Nairobi, Kenya.

This paper presents the results of a cross-sectional study assessing the welfare of sheep and goats in a large abattoir in central Ethiopia, using qualitative and quantitative approaches. A total of 384 nonhuman animals (192 sheep and 192 goats) underwent clinical examination and behavioral observation in 2014. The study also included behavioral observation of 57 animal handlers, and a qualitative assessment of animal welfare conditions at the abattoir. Clinical examination revealed dirty wool/hair (54.9%), poor body condition (15.8%), and respiratory disorders (14.0%). The most commonly observed behaviors were refusing to move (17.1%), panting (15.8%) and reversing (10.4%). Significantly higher proportion of sheep exhibited resistance behaviors such as refusing to move (21.4% of sheep and 13.0% of goats; p < 0.030) and resistance to being pulled (12.5% of sheep and 6.3% of goats; p < 0.0036). Handlers frequently beat (87.7%), pushed (57.9%) and pulled (49.1%) the animals. Poor handling of animals was very common and could result in animal distress and falls. In collaboration with the abattoir workers, the authors developed simple good practice to improve welfare and reduce losses from poor welfare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10888705.2019.1663736DOI Listing
December 2020

Pesticide Residues in Peri-Urban Bovine Milk from India and Risk Assessment: A Multicenter Study.

Sci Rep 2020 05 15;10(1):8054. Epub 2020 May 15.

Public Health Foundation of India, Plot 47, Sector 44, Gurugram, Haryana, India.

Pesticides residue poses serious concerns to human health. The present study was carried out to determine the pesticide residues of peri-urban bovine milk (n = 1183) from five different sites (Bangalore, Bhubaneswar, Guwahati, Ludhiana and Udaipur) in India and dietary exposure risk assessment to adults and children. Pesticide residues were estimated using gas chromatography with flame thermionic and electron capture detectors followed by confirmation on gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. The results noticed the contamination of milk with hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), dichloro-diphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), endosulfan, cypermethrin, cyhalothrin, permethrin, chlorpyrifos, ethion and profenophos pesticides. The residue levels in some of the milk samples were observed to be higher than the respective maximum residue limits (MRLs) for pesticide. Milk samples contamination was found highest in Bhubaneswar (11.2%) followed by Bangalore (9.3%), Ludhiana (6.9%), Udaipur (6.4%) and Guwahati (6.3%). The dietary risk assessment of pesticides under two scenarios i.e. lower-bound scenario (LB) and upper-bound (UB) revealed that daily intake of pesticides was substantially below the prescribed acceptable daily intake except for fipronil in children at UB. The non-cancer risk by estimation of hazard index (HI) was found to be below the target value of one in adults at all five sites in India. However, for children at the UB level, the HI for lindane, DDT and ethion exceeded the value of one in Ludhiana and Udaipur. Cancer risk for adults was found to be in the recommended range of United States environment protection agency (USEPA), while it exceeded the USEPA values for children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-65030-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7229043PMC
May 2020

The role of livestock products for nutrition in the first 1,000 days of life.

Anim Front 2019 Oct 28;9(4):24-31. Epub 2019 Sep 28.

Animal and Human Health Program, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/af/vfz033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6951902PMC
October 2019

Relative Distribution, Diversity, and Bloodmeal Sources of Mosquitoes and Known Vectors of Rift Valley Fever Phlebovirus in Three Differing Ecosystems in Bura, Tana River County, Kenya.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2020 05 28;20(5):365-373. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Institute for Parasitology and Tropical Veterinary Medicine, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Environmental modifications disturb the equilibrium of mosquito populations, altering the risk of mosquito-borne diseases. Mosquito distribution, diversity, and bloodmeal sources were examined to compare Rift Valley fever (RVF) risk among irrigated, riverine, and pastoral ecosystems in Bura, Tana River County, Kenya, between September 2014 and June 2015. Thirty-eight households and 21 irrigation fields were selected for the study. Mosquitoes were trapped with carbon dioxide-impregnated CDC traps, one trap per household and three traps per irrigated field, and morphologically identified using taxonomic keys. Host DNA was extracted from engorged females and cytochrome b genes amplified by PCR to identify sources of bloodmeals. A total of 21,015 mosquitoes were collected; 5742 within households in the 3 ecosystems and 15,273 within irrigated fields. Mosquitoes collected within irrigated fields belonged to 8 genera and 37 species, while those from households within the irrigation scheme belonged to 6 genera and 29 species. Collections from riverine and pastoral households belonged to five and four genera, respectively. The most abundant genera in the irrigated fields were (21%) and (22%), while (43%) was the most abundant within households. Most mosquitoes in riverine and pastoral households belonged to (76%) and (65%) genera, respectively. Seasonal variation driven by rainfall was evidenced by spikes in mosquito numbers within irrigated and riverine ecosystems. Host species identification revealed that goats and humans were the main sources of bloodmeal. There was an overall increase in mosquito abundance and diversity as a result of the presence of the irrigated ecosystem in this county, and an increased availability of highly RVF-susceptible hosts as a result of the establishment and concentration of residential areas, promoting potential vector-host contacts. These results highlight the impact of anthropogenic changes on mosquito ecology, potentially heightening the risk of transmission and maintenance of RVF in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2019.2503DOI Listing
May 2020

Spatiotemporal analysis of historical records (2001-2012) on dengue fever in Vietnam and development of a statistical model for forecasting risk.

PLoS One 2019 27;14(11):e0224353. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Background: Dengue fever is the most widespread infectious disease of humans transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. It is the leading cause of hospitalization and death in children in the Southeast Asia and western Pacific regions. We analyzed surveillance records from health centers in Vietnam collected between 2001-2012 to determine seasonal trends, develop risk maps and an incidence forecasting model.

Methods: The data were analyzed using a hierarchical spatial Bayesian model that approximates its posterior parameter distributions using the integrated Laplace approximation algorithm (INLA). Meteorological, altitude and land cover (LC) data were used as predictors. The data were grouped by province (n = 63) and month (n = 144) and divided into training (2001-2009) and validation (2010-2012) sets. Thirteen meteorological variables, 7 land cover data and altitude were considered as predictors. Only significant predictors were kept in the final multivariable model. Eleven dummy variables representing month were also fitted to account for seasonal effects. Spatial and temporal effects were accounted for using Besag-York-Mollie (BYM) and autoregressive (1) models. Their levels of significance were analyzed using deviance information criterion (DIC). The model was validated based on the Theil's coefficient which compared predicted and observed incidence estimated using the validation data. Dengue incidence predictions for 2010-2012 were also used to generate risk maps.

Results: The mean monthly dengue incidence during the period was 6.94 cases (SD 14.49) per 100,000 people. Analyses on the temporal trends of the disease showed regular seasonal epidemics that were interrupted every 3 years (specifically in July 2004, July 2007 and September 2010) by major fluctuations in incidence. Monthly mean minimum temperature, rainfall, area under urban settlement/build-up areas and altitude were significant in the final model. Minimum temperature and rainfall had non-linear effects and lagging them by two months provided a better fitting model compared to using unlagged variables. Forecasts for the validation period closely mirrored the observed data and accurately captured the troughs and peaks of dengue incidence trajectories. A favorable Theil's coefficient of inequality of 0.22 was generated.

Conclusions: The study identified temperature, rainfall, altitude and area under urban settlement as being significant predictors of dengue incidence. The statistical model fitted the data well based on Theil's coefficient of inequality, and risk maps generated from its predictions identified most of the high-risk provinces throughout the country.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0224353PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6881000PMC
April 2020

Positive association between Brucella spp. seroprevalences in livestock and humans from a cross-sectional study in Garissa and Tana River Counties, Kenya.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2019 10 17;13(10):e0007506. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Brucella spp. is a zoonotic bacterial agent of high public health and socio-economic importance. It infects many species of animals including wildlife, and people may get exposed through direct contact with an infected animal or consumption of raw or undercooked animal products. A linked livestock-human cross-sectional study to determine seroprevalences and risk factors of brucellosis in livestock and humans was designed. Estimates were made for intra-cluster correlation coefficients (ICCs) for these observations at the household and village levels.

Methodology: The study was implemented in Garissa (specifically Ijara and Sangailu areas) and Tana River (Bura and Hola) counties. A household was the unit of analysis and the sample size was derived using the standard procedures. Serum samples were obtained from selected livestock and people from randomly selected households. Humans were sampled in both counties, while livestock could be sampled only in Tana River County. Samples obtained were screened for anti-Brucella IgG antibodies using ELISA kits. Data were analyzed using generalized linear mixed effects logistic regression models with the household (herd) and village being used as random effects.

Results: The overall Brucella spp. seroprevalences were 3.47% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.72-4.36%) and 35.81% (95% CI: 32.87-38.84) in livestock and humans, respectively. In livestock, older animals and those sampled in Hola had significantly higher seroprevalences than younger ones or those sampled in Bura. Herd and village random effects were significant and ICC estimates associated with these variables were 0.40 (95% CI: 0.22-0.60) and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.08-0.52), respectively. In humans, Brucella spp. seroprevalence was significantly higher in older people, males, and people who lived in pastoral areas than younger ones, females or those who lived in irrigated or riverine areas. People from households that had at least one seropositive animal were 3.35 (95% CI: 1.51-7.41) times more likely to be seropositive compared to those that did not. Human exposures significantly clustered at the household level; the ICC estimate obtained was 0.21 (95% CI: 0.06-0.52).

Conclusion: The presence of a Brucella spp.-seropositive animal in a household significantly increased the odds of Brucella spp. seropositivity in humans in that household. Exposure to Brucella spp. of both livestock and humans clustered significantly at the household level. This suggests that risk-based surveillance measures, guided by locations of primary cases reported, either in humans or livestock, can be used to detect Brucella spp. infections in livestock or humans, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6818805PMC
October 2019

Snakebite in domestic animals: First global scoping review.

Prev Vet Med 2019 Oct 20;170:104729. Epub 2019 Jul 20.

Institute of Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, University of Geneva, Campus Biotech, Chemin des mines 9, CH - 1202, Geneva, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Snakebite is a Neglected Tropical Disease estimated to cause more than 100,000 human deaths and disable more than 400,000 victims each year. It primarily affects poor agricultural workers, farmers, and cattle herders living in rural areas of developing countries. It is thus an occupational disease. However, the impact of snakebite on these rural communities could be even higher if a One Health approach is taken to consider the direct impact on domestic animals and indirect impact on the livelihood of affected communities. To explore this hypothesis we developed the first scoping review to identify and characterize the global literature on snakebite in domestic animals. Three bibliographic databases (PubMed, Web of Science and Agricola) were searched using terms related to snake, snakebite and domestic animals for publications up to December 31, 2016. Two independent reviewers screened publications applying inclusion/exclusion criteria to select relevant material. Relevant information was then extracted from the selected literature. The global literature on snakebite in domestic animals (n = 143 observational studies, reviews and letters) mainly represented North America, Europe and Australia (69%) with less information from Central and South America, Asia and Africa (31%). Observational studies (n = 119) mostly concerned pets (78%) and to a lesser extent livestock (22%). Thirty-four snake species were reported as responsible for bites in domestic animals. WHO's Medically Important Venomous Snakes were more frequently involved. The social-ecological determinants of snakebite were poorly documented but the reviewed literature suggested a strong seasonality and a diversity of habitat. Snakebite in animals caused neurotoxic, cytotoxic and hemotoxic envenomation syndromes similar to humans and death. Half of publications on envenomed livestock reported a fatality rate above 47%. There was no literature on the indirect impact of snakebite on livelihood caused by animal morbidity and mortality. The results of this scoping review suggest a high and under-reported burden in terms of mortality in animals and a potential economic impact of snakebite in terms of losses in livelihood of affected communities. However, major knowledge gaps with respect to impact of snakebite on livestock and livelihood were identified. Filling these gaps is necessary for a full understanding of the impact of snakebite and to raise scientific, political and public awareness on this neglected issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.104729DOI Listing
October 2019

Aflatoxin Exposure from Milk in Rural Kenya and the Contribution to the Risk of Liver Cancer.

Toxins (Basel) 2019 08 10;11(8). Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Department of Biosciences, International Livestock Research Institute, P.O. Box 30709, Nairobi 00100, Kenya.

Milk is an important commodity in Kenya; the country has the largest dairy herd and highest per capita milk consumption in East Africa. As such, hazards in milk are of concern. Aflatoxin M (AFM) is a toxic metabolite of aflatoxin B (AFB) excreted in milk by lactating animals after ingesting AFB-contaminated feeds. This metabolite is injurious to human health, but there is little information on the risk to human health posed by AFM in milk in rural Kenya. To fill this gap, a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) applying probabilistic statistical tools to quantify risks was conducted. This assessed the risk of liver cancer posed by AFM in milk, assuming 10-fold lower carcinogenicity than AFB. Data from four agro-ecological zones in Kenya (semi-arid, temperate, sub-humid and humid) were used. We estimated that people were exposed to between 0.3 and 1 ng AFM per kg body weight per day through the consumption of milk. The annual incidence rates of cancer attributed to the consumption of AFM in milk were 3.5 × 10 (95% CI: 3 × 10-3.9 × 10), 2.9 × 10 (95% CI: 2.5 × 10-3.3 × 10), 1.4 × 10 (95% CI: 1.2 × 10-1.5 × 10) and 2.7 × 10 (95% CI: 2.3 × 10-3 × 10) cancers per 100,000 in adult females, adult males, children 6-18 years old, and in children less than five years old, respectively. Our results show that aflatoxin exposure from milk contributes relatively little to the incidence of liver cancer. Nonetheless, risk managers should take action based on cumulative exposure from all sources of aflatoxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins11080469DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6722829PMC
August 2019

Seroprevalence of leptospirosis and Japanese encephalitis in swine in ten provinces of Vietnam.

PLoS One 2019 1;14(8):e0214701. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Background: Leptospirosis is an important zoonotic disease with a global distribution, affecting a wide range of mammalian animals and humans. Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the major vector-borne zoonotic disease in the Asia-Pacific region. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of serovar-specific Leptospira and JE in swine from 10 provinces in Vietnam.

Methods: Samples were initially collected for swine influenza surveillance from March to April 2017 at large-scale farms (with at least 50 sows and/or 250 fattening pigs) with pigs that tested positive for influenza in the previous surveillance period (2015-16).

Findings: A total of 2,000 sera samples were analyzed from 10 provinces. Overall, the seroprevalence of leptospirosis was 21.05% (95% CI: 19.28-22.90) using a cut-off titer of ≥ 1:100. The apparent prevalence of JE was 73.45% (95% CI: 71.46-75.37) while the true prevalence was slightly higher (74.46%, 95% credible interval: 73.73-86.41). We found a relatively high presence of leptospirosis and JE in pigs kept on large farms. Prevalence was comparable with other studies suggesting opportunistic testing of samples collected for other surveillance purposes can be a valuable tool to better understand and prevent the potential transmission of these zoonotic diseases from pigs to people in Vietnam.

Conclusion: Our study provides evidence to veterinarians and animal health professionals for evidence-based practice such as diagnosis, vaccination and zoonotic control. Further investigation into the possible role of different domestic animals, wildlife species or environmental factors is needed to identify the potential risk factors and transmission routes in Vietnam.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0214701PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6675114PMC
March 2020

Occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk traded in peri-urban Nairobi, and the effect of boiling and fermentation.

Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2019 17;9(1):1625703. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

Department of Biosciences, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.

Dairy production in Kenya is important and dominated by small-holder farmers who market their produce through small-scale traders in the informal sector. : This study aimed to determine the prevalence of aflatoxin (AFM1) in informally marketed milk in peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya, and to assess knowledge of milk traders on aflatoxins using questionnaires. A total of 96 samples were analyzed for AFM1 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, boiling and fermentation experiments were carried out in the laboratory. : All samples had AFM1 above the limit of detection (5 ng/kg) (mean of 290.3 ± 663.4 ng/kg). Two-thirds of the samples had AFM1 levels above 50 ng/kg and 7.5% of the samples exceeded 500 ng/kg. Most of the traders had low (69.8%) or medium (30.2%) knowledge. Educated ( = 0.01) and female traders (= 0.04) were more knowledgeable. Experimentally, fermenting milk to  (a traditional fermented drink) and yogurt significantly reduced AFM1 levels (< 0.01) (71.8% reduction in lala after incubation at room temperature for 15 h, and 73.6% reduction in yogurt after incubation at 45ºC for 4h). Boiling had no effect. : The study concluded that the prevalence of raw milk with AFM1 was high, while knowledge was low. Fermentation reduced the AFM1 levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2019.1625703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6586110PMC
June 2019

Seroprevalence of hemorrhagic septicemia in dairy cows in Assam, India.

Infect Ecol Epidemiol 2019 1;9(1):1604064. Epub 2019 May 1.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.

Hemorrhagic septicemia (HS) is a highly fatal disease caused by that often cause outbreaks in buffalo and cattle in India, and thus is a major cause of production losses. It is one of the livestock diseases with the highest mortality, and despite available vaccines, outbreaks still occur. To assess the seroprevalence in the state of Assam, Northeast India, 346 serum samples from cows from 224 randomly selected households, from both urban and rural areas of three districts, were tested with a commercial ELISA. In total 88 cows were seropositive (25.4%), and indigenous cattle were significantly more seropositive (33.5%) compared to the crossbred cattle (18.5%) (p = 0.002). Herd prevalence was 35.7%, and more rural farms (47.4%) were positive compared to the urban farms (23.6%) (p < 0.001). No other risk factors were identified in this study. Only one farm had vaccinated against HS, but there were no seropositive animals detected in that herd. This study shows that HS is highly prevalent in Assam. Considering the importance of dairy production in India, and the dependence of the rural Assam population on farming and livestock keeping, more extensive vaccination campaigns would be important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008686.2019.1604064DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6507812PMC
May 2019

Risk Factors for Seroprevalence in Peri-Urban Dairy Farms in Five Indian Cities.

Trop Med Infect Dis 2019 Apr 22;4(2). Epub 2019 Apr 22.

Public Health Foundation India, Gurgaon 122002, India.

Brucellosis is endemic among dairy animals in India, contributing to production losses and posing a health risk to people, especially farmers and others in close contact with dairy animals or their products. Growing urban populations demand increased milk supplies, resulting in intensifying dairy production at the peri-urban fringe. Peri-urban dairying is under-studied but has implications for disease transmission, both positive and negative. In this cross-sectional study, five Indian cities were selected to represent different geographies and urbanization extent. Around each, we randomly selected 34 peri-urban villages, and in each village three smallholder dairy farms (defined as having a maximum of 10 dairy animals) were randomly selected. The farmers were interviewed, and milk samples were taken from up to three animals. These were tested using a commercial ELISA for antibodies against , and factors associated with herd seroprevalence were identified. In all, 164 out of 1163 cows (14.1%, 95% CI 12.2-16.2%) were seropositive for . In total, 91 out of 510 farms (17.8%, 95% CI 14.6-21.4%) had at least one positive animal, and out of these, just seven farmers stated that they had vaccinated against brucellosis. In four cities, the farm-level seroprevalence ranged between 1.4-5.2%, while the fifth city had a seroprevalence of 72.5%. This city had larger, zero-grazing herds, used artificial insemination to a much higher degree, replaced their animals by purchasing from their neighbors, were less likely to contact a veterinarian in case of sick animals, and were also judged to be less clean. Within the high-prevalence city, farms were at higher risk of being infected if they had a young owner and if they were judged less clean. In the low-prevalence cities, no risk factors could be identified. In conclusion, this study has identified that a city can have a high burden of infected animals in the peri-urban areas, but that seroprevalence is strongly influenced by the husbandry system. Increased intensification can be associated with increased risk, and thus the practices associated with this, such as artificial insemination, are also associated with increased risk. These results may be important to identify high-risk areas for prioritizing interventions and for policy decisions influencing the structure and development of the dairy industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4020070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6630281PMC
April 2019

Bacteriological quality and safety of ready-to-consume milk and naturally fermented milk in Borana pastoral area, southern Ethiopia.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2019 Sep 28;51(7):2079-2084. Epub 2019 Mar 28.

International Livestock Research Institute, P. O. Box 5689, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Milk and milk products play an important role in the diet of pastoralists in Ethiopia. However, only few studies have been conducted on the microbial contamination of milk and milk products in pastoral areas. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to assess the hygiene and safety of ready-to-consume milk and traditionally produced fermented milk products (yogurt) in Borana. A total of 203 raw milk and milk product samples collected from different points along the milk production and handling chains were tested for Escherichia coli, E. coli O157:H7, and Staphylococcus aureus. E. coli was detected in 51.7% of the analyzed samples with a mean count of 2.5 logCFU/ml. The study revealed that 10.8% and 2.5% of the milk and dairy product samples harbor S. aureus and E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Detection of E. coli O157:H7 in ready-to-consume milk has potential health implications for consumers in an area where raw milk consumption is common. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of E. coli O157:H7 from milk in pastoral systems in Ethiopia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-019-01872-8DOI Listing
September 2019