Publications by authors named "Delia Cangini"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Gemtuzumab ozogamicin in acute myeloid leukemia: past, present and future.

Minerva Med 2020 Oct 21;111(5):395-410. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Unit of Hematology, IRCCS Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST), Meldola, Forlì-Cesena, Italy.

After being in the therapeutic wilderness for several decades, acute myeloid leukemia has been recently thrust into the limelight with a series of drug approvals. Technical refinements in production, genetic manipulation and chemical modification of monoclonal antibodies led to growing interest in antibodies-based treatment strategies. Much of the focus of these efforts in acute myeloid leukemia has been on CD33 as a target. On September 2, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved gemtuzumab ozogamicin for treatment of relapsed or refractory CD33+ acute myeloid leukemia. This signals a new chapter in the long and unusual story of gemtuzumab ozogamicin, which was the first antibody-drug conjugate approved for human use by the Food and Drug Administration. In this review we have analyzed the history of this drug which, among several mishaps, is experiencing a second youth and still represents a field to be further explored.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.20.07019-6DOI Listing
October 2020

Tagraxofusp and anti-CD123 in blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: a new hope.

Minerva Med 2020 Oct 21;111(5):467-477. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Unit of Hematology, IRCCS Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST), Meldola, Forlì-Cesena, Italy -

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare hematological malignancy, characterized by poor prognosis if treated with conventional therapy. Allogenic hematologic stem cell transplant can improve survival and can be curative, but it is available in a small percentage of patients given that the median age at diagnosis is 70 years. In this scenario it is assumed that only the development of precision medicine-driven therapy will change BPDCN patient prognosis. CD123 (the α-subunit of interleukin (IL)-3 receptor) is over-expressed on BPDCN cells surface and seems to be the ideal marker to develop antibody-based therapies. Tagraxofusp (Elzonris®), a recombinant immunotoxin consisting of human interleukin-3 fused to a truncated diphtheria toxin, has been approved by FDA in December 2018 for the treatment of BPDCN in adult and pediatric patients. tagraxofusp has shown promising clinical activity, with a high overall response rate and quite manageable safety profile even in elderly patients. It seems to improve overall survival too, but comparative trials are necessary to confirm this. Adverse events are commonly reported and the most important are transaminitis, thrombocytopenia and capillary leak syndrome (CLS). Therefore, to prevent the onset of severe CLS is recommended to reserve tagraxofusp for patients with preserved hepatic and cardiac functions, and to strictly observe serum albumin level. Further studies are required to resolve many several unanswered questions about tagraxofusp. In this review, we will resume and discuss pharmacological characteristic of tagraxofusp, results of clinical trials leading to its approval by FDA in 2018 and future perspectives about its use in BPDCN and other hematological malignancies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.20.07018-4DOI Listing
October 2020

CPX-351 daunorubicin-cytarabine liposome: a novel formulation to treat patients with newly diagnosed secondary acute myeloid leukemia.

Minerva Med 2020 Oct 21;111(5):455-466. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Unit of Hematology, IRCCS Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST), Meldola, Forlì-Cesena, Italy -

Over the last few years, we assisted to an increasing knowledge about acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathobiology. However, outcomes remain unsatisfactory particularly for adult patients over 60 years old. Not surprisingly several cases of therapy-related AML (tAML) and secondary AML, both characterized by poorer prognosis, are more common in older population. For several decades initial therapy for AML remained unchanged and typically treatment consisted of an anthracycline combined with continuous infusion of cytarabine for 7 days, the so-called "7+3" standard regimen. The efforts made by the researchers to improve this standard schedule, have led to only modest improvement in the response rate (RR) but no change in overall survival (OS), until the recent evolution seen with new target specific mutation therapies. In 2017, a new liposomal-encapsulated formulation with daunorubicin and cytarabine (CPX-351) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of newly diagnosed tAML or AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRCs). Based on the findings that ratiometric delivery may be more effective than administration of either drug at their maximum tolerated dose (MTD), CPX-351 was designed to deliver a fixed 5:1 molar ratio of the two molecules historically used in the standard "7+3" regimen, cytarabine and daunorubicin respectively. CPX-351 did show improvements of overall survival compared to traditional "7+3" in newly diagnosed secondary and therapy-related AML in adult patients. However, questions remain regarding how to select across AML patient subgroups to maximize the clinical benefit. Possible future directions include evaluating CPX-351 dose intensification, combining this liposomal formulation with targeted therapies and not least important a better understanding about the mechanism of improved responses in tAML and AML-MRC, two entities recognized to be less chemo-sensitive than other hematologic malignancies. In summary, CPX-351 offers finally something new in the landscape of AML therapy. Herein we will review the rationale behind this new drug product development, the main pharmacological characteristics, and discuss the results of clinical trials that led to its FDA approval at first and by EMA in 2018.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4806.20.07017-2DOI Listing
October 2020

Combined Oral Fentanyl Citrate and Midazolam as Premedication for Bone Marrow Aspiration and Biopsy in Patients with Hematological Malignancies: A Randomized, Controlled and Patient-Blinded Clinical Trial.

J Clin Med 2020 Feb 1;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 1.

Hematology, Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, AOU Federico II, 80131 Naples, Italy.

Bone marrow aspiration and biopsy (BMAB) is a painful procedure, and the routinely used local infiltration anesthesia (LIA) with lidocaine is unable to provide pain relief during the most uncomfortable phases. The primary endpoint of the present randomized, patient-blinded trial was to evaluate the efficacy of an opioid and benzodiazepine combination plus LIA (sedoanalgesia) in patients undergoing BMAB for hematological malignancies. The secondary endpoint was the safety of the procedure in an outpatient setting. Ancillary assessments were anticipatory anxiety related to pain recall in the event of re-biopsy, and adequacy of bone tissue harvested. Patients were randomly assigned to one of 2 arms to receive either sedoanalgesic placebo plus LIA (standard group) or oral fentanyl citrate 200 μg plus oral midazolam 5 mg plus LIA (combo group) during BMAB. Pre-procedural anxiety and procedural pain were assessed according to the Numerical Rating Scale (NRS: 0-10), dividing the time of the procedure into five intervals (T0, T1, T2a, T2b and T3) and evaluating the degree of discomfort at each time (T) in both groups. One hundred and sixteen patients were eligible for the study. At T2b (time of biopsy) and T3 (time after biopsy), a significantly lower perception of pain was registered in the combo group. Moreover, there were no significant sedoanalgesia-related side-effects. Finally, histological specimens were higher in quality in the combo group. Sedoanalgesia was highly effective in reducing pain during biopsy, diminished anticipatory anxiety in patients undergoing re-biopsy and led to fewer non-diagnostic specimens being harvested.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020395DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7074337PMC
February 2020

Pentoxifylline-Induced Apoptosis in Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: New Insights into Molecular Mechanism.

Mini Rev Med Chem 2018 ;18(3):287-294

Hematology Unit, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Meldola (FC). Italy.

Background: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an indolent B-lineage neoplasm, characterized by clonal expansion of CD5 positive B cells with constitutive activation of survival pathways including NF-kB. Pentoxifylline, a xanthine-derivative compound indicated for the treatment of microvascular disturbancies, has been suggested to have anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic activities in various types of cancer. In the present study we extend these data showing one of the potential molecular mechanisms through which Pentoxifylline may promote apoptosis in CLL clonal lymphocytes.

Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 15 CLL patients 0 RAI stage and 15 healthy volunteers and treated for 24 and 48 hours with Pentoxifylline. Apoptosis induction was evaluated through Annexin V and TUNEL assays. Mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization analysis, active Caspase-3 assay, reactive oxygen species generation and Western Blot were assessed to further investigate the alterations induced by Pentoxifylline.

Results: We observed a statistically significant occurrence of apoptosis, DNA fragmentation and active Caspase-3 in lymphocytes from CLL patients compared to healthy volunteers after 48 hours of Pentoxifylline treatment. To clarify the molecular mechanism of the drug, we also evaluated the expression levels of NF-kB/p65 and its related proteins. In treated CLL cells, NF-kB/p65 was significantly decreased in comparison to normal cells, whereas we observed a less marked reduction of Bcl-2 expression. The treatment also induced a decrease of Mcl-1 in CLL cells with a greater down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic alternatively spliced isoform.

Conclusion: These findings showed that Pentoxifylline induced apoptosis in leukemic cells through a molecular mechanism that involves the NF-kB signaling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389557517666171002162258DOI Listing
February 2018

IL-17/IL-10 double-producing T cells: new link between infections, immunosuppression and acute myeloid leukemia.

J Transl Med 2015 Jul 15;13:229. Epub 2015 Jul 15.

Biosciences Laboratory, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori (IRST) IRCCS, Meldola, Italy.

Background: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an incurable disease with fatal infections or relapse being the main causes of death in most cases. In particular, the severe infections occurring in these patients before or during any treatment suggest an intrinsic alteration of the immune system. In this respect, IL-17-producing T helper (Th17) besides playing a key role in regulating inflammatory response, tumor growth and autoimmune diseases, have been shown to protect against bacterial and fungal pathogens. However, the role of Th17 cells in AML has not yet been clarified.

Methods: T cell frequencies were assessed by flow cytometry in the peripheral blood of 30 newly diagnosed AML patients and 30 age-matched healthy volunteers. Cytokine production was determined before and after culture of T cells with either Candida Albicans or AML blasts. Statistical analyses were carried out using the paired and unpaired two-tailed Student's t tests and confirmed with the non parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.

Results: A strong increase of Th17 cells producing immunosuppressive IL-10 was observed in AML patients compared with healthy donors. In addition, stimulation of AML-derived T cells with a Candida albicans antigen induced significantly lower IFN-γ production than that observed in healthy donors; intriguingly, depletion of patient Th17 cells restored IFN-γ production after stimulation. To address the role of AML blasts in inducing Th17 alterations, CD4+ cells from healthy donors were co-cultured with CD33+ blasts: data obtained showed that AML blasts induce in healthy donors levels of IL-10-producing Th17 cells similar to those observed in patients.

Conclusions: In AML patients altered Th17 cells actively cause an immunosuppressive state that may promote infections and probably tumor escape. Th17 cells could thus represent a new target to improve AML immunotherapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-015-0590-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4502949PMC
July 2015

Prolonged 18FDG-PET negative complete remission in a heavily pretreated, elderly patient with diffuse large B cell lymphoma treated with lenalidomide, low dose dexamethasone, and colony stimulating factor (Rd-G).

Am J Hematol 2011 Jan 15;86(1):79-80. Epub 2010 Oct 15.

Department of Hematology, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per Studio e Cura dei Tumori, Meldola, Italy.

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common lymphoid malignancy among adults in the developed world and accounts for about a third of all patients newly diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma each year. The prognosis of patients with DLBCL has improved over the past 10 years since the advent of chemoimmunotherapy regimens such as R-CHOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone). However, a significant number of patients still experience disease relapse or progression after first or second line therapy, and ~40% of patients will die within 5 years. In particular, elderly patients and those ineligible for high-dose chemotherapy due to comorbidities require effective salvage treatment options with favorable toxicity profile. Several novel therapeutic approaches have been proposed for these patients including monoclonal antibodies, radioimmunotherapy, proteasome inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, and the immunomodulatory drugs such as thalidomide and lenalidomide.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.21869DOI Listing
January 2011

Reversible, PET-positive, generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly during high-dose interferon-alpha-2b adjuvant therapy for melanoma.

J Immunother 2008 Sep;31(7):675-8

Immunotherapy and Somatic Cell Therapy Unit, Cancer Institute of Romagna IRST, Meldola, Italy.

A patient with resected stage III nodular melanoma treated with high-dose interferon-alpha-b2 adjuvant therapy went on to develop generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly. The total body positron emission tomography showed a high F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (standardized uptake values >9), indicating possible lymph node and spleen malignancies. Histologic examinations of an axillary lymph node biopsy and an osteomedullar biopsy were negative, excluding both melanoma metastases and hematopoietic tumors. The symptoms completely regressed after suspension of treatment and a follow-up positron emission tomography was negative. It remains to be seen whether this unusual event can be ascribed to an autoimmune phenomenon linked to potential treatment efficacy and survival.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CJI.0b013e3181824d79DOI Listing
September 2008

Prospective, randomized study of single compared with double autologous stem-cell transplantation for multiple myeloma: Bologna 96 clinical study.

J Clin Oncol 2007 Jun 7;25(17):2434-41. Epub 2007 May 7.

Istituto di Ematologia ed Oncologia Medica [Seràgnoli], Università di Bologna, Bologn, Italy.

Purpose: We performed a prospective, randomized study of single (arm A) versus double (arm B) autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) for younger patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM).

Patients And Methods: A total of 321 patients were enrolled onto the study and were randomly assigned to receive either a single course of high-dose melphalan at 200 mg/m2 (arm A) or melphalan at 200 mg/m2 followed, after 3 to 6 months, by melphalan at 120 mg/m2 and busulfan at 12 mg/kilogram (arm B).

Results: As compared with assignment to the single-transplantation group (n = 163 patients), random assignment to receive double ASCT (n = 158 patients) significantly increased the probability to attain at least a near complete response (nCR; 33% v 47%, respectively; P = .008), prolonged relapse-free survival (RFS) duration of 18 months (median, 24 v 42 months, respectively; P < .001), and significantly extended event-free survival (EFS; median, 23 v 35 months, respectively; P = .001). Administration of a second transplantation and of novel agents for treating sequential relapses in up to 50% of patients randomly assigned to receive a single ASCT likely contributed to prolong the survival duration of the whole group, whose 7-year rate (46%) was similar to that of the double-transplantation group (43%; P = .90). Transplantation-related mortality was 3% in arm A and 4% in arm B (P = .70).

Conclusion: In comparison with a single ASCT as up-front therapy for newly diagnosed MM, double ASCT effected superior CR or nCR rate, RFS, and EFS, but failed to significantly prolong overall survival. Benefits offered by double ASCT were particularly evident among patients who failed at least nCR after one autotransplantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2006.10.2509DOI Listing
June 2007

A prospective comparison of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and whole-body planar radiographs in the assessment of bone disease in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

Haematologica 2007 Jan;92(1):50-5

Istituto di Ematologia ed Oncologia Medica "Seràgnoli" Università degli Studi di Bologna, Policlinico S. Orsola-Malpighi, via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Background And Objectives: Bone lesions in multiple myeloma (MM) have been traditionally detected by whole body X-ray (WBXR) survey although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become the gold standard for detecting MM involvement of the spine and pelvis. The aim of this study was to compare a new technique, positron emission tomography (PET) with 18F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) integrated with computed tomography (18F-FDG PET-CT), with MRI and WBXR for baseline assessment of bone disease in MM.

Design And Methods: We prospectively compared 18F-FDG PET-CT, MRI of the spine-pelvis and WBXR in a series of 46 patients with newly diagnosed MM. In 23 patients who received up front autologous transplantation, we also compared post-treatment PET-CT scans with MR images of the spine and pelvis.

Results: Overall, PET-CT was superior to planar radiographs in 46% of patients, including 19% with negative WBXR. In 30% of patients, PET-CT scans of the spine and pelvis failed to show abnormal findings in areas in which MRI revealed an abnormal pattern of bone marrow involvement, more frequently of diffuse type. In contrast, in 35% of patients PET-CT enabled the detection of myelomatous lesions in areas which were out of the field of view of MRI. By combining MRI of the spine- pelvis and 18F-FDG PET-CT, the ability to detect sites of active MM, both medullary and extramedullary, was as high as 92%. Following transplantation, 15 patients had negative PET-CT scans (including 13 with a very good partial response or at least a near complete response), but only 8 had normal MRI.

Interpretation And Conclusions: MRI of the spine and pelvis still remains the gold standard imaging technique for the detection of bone marrow involvement in MM. 18F-FDG PET-CT provides additional and valuable information for the assessment of myeloma bone disease in areas not covered by MRI.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.10554DOI Listing
January 2007

First-line therapy with thalidomide, dexamethasone and zoledronic acid decreases bone resorption markers in patients with multiple myeloma.

Eur J Haematol 2006 May 15;76(5):399-404. Epub 2006 Feb 15.

Institute of Hematology and Medical Oncology L. e A. Seràgnoli Bologna University, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Bone involvement is frequently observed in multiple myeloma (MM) patients both at diagnosis and during the course of the disease. The evaluation of biochemical markers of bone turnover could allow a dynamic evaluation of the effects of a given therapy on bone metabolism.

Methods: In the present study, markers of bone resorption [urinary free pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyridinoline (DPYD), N-terminal telopeptide of collagen I (NTX) and C-terminal telopeptide (serum crosslaps)] and of bone formation [bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP) and osteocalcin] were evaluated at diagnosis and after induction therapy in 40 patients (23M, 17F, median age = 53.5 yr) enrolled in the 'Bologna 2002' clinical trial. By study design, all patients received 4 months of combined thalidomide (100 mg/d for 2 wk then 200 mg/d), dexamethasone (40 mg/d on days 1-4, 9-12, 17-20/28 on odd cycles and on days 1-4 on even cycles) and zoledronic acid (4 mg/28 d).

Results: At diagnosis, although bone resorption markers were increased in more than 40% of the patients, only NTX (P = 0.029) and crosslaps (P = 0.000) were significantly related to the extent of skeletal lesions, as assessed by X-ray. After 4 months of therapy, a significant decrease in mean (+/-SE) urinary NTX (52.7 +/-6.9 nmol/mmol creatinine +/-6.9 vs. 14 +/- 1.42 nmol/mmol creatinine, P = 0.000) and serum crosslaps (6242.4 +/-945 pmol/L vs. 1414.9 +/- 173.8 pmol/L, P = 0.000) was observed in patients obtaining > or =partial response, at variance to what has been detected in patients showing
Conclusions: Among all bone resorption markers, urinary NTX and serum crosslaps seem to be strictly related to the extent of bone involvement in MM. Combined thalidomide + dexamethasone and zoledronic acid seem to be highly effective in reducing bone resorption in sensitive patients, although the relative contribution of each drug cannot yet be determined.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0902-4441.2005.t01-1-EJH2520.xDOI Listing
May 2006

Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in the assessment of bone involvement in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: preliminary results.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2006 May 2;33(5):525-31. Epub 2006 Feb 2.

UO Medicina Nucleare, Policlinico S.Orsola-Malpighi, Via Massarenti, 40100, Bologna, Italy.

Purpose: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant B cell and plasma cell disorder which involves the skeleton in more than 80% of patients at diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare whole-body X-ray (WBXR), MRI and (18)F-FDG PET/CT in patients with MM.

Methods: The study population comprised 28 newly diagnosed MM patients. Findings of (18)F-FDG PET/CT were compared with those of WBXR and MRI with regard to the number and site of lesions detected.

Results: Comparing (18)F-FDG PET/CT and WBXR, it was found that in 16/28 pts (57%) (18)F-FDG PET/CT detected more lesions, all of which were located in the skeleton. Nine of these 16 patients had a completely negative WBXR survey. In 12/28 pts (43%) the two methods yielded equivalent findings. Comparing (18)F-FDG PET/CT and MRI, it was found that in 7/28 pts (25%), (18)F-FDG PET/CT detected more lytic bone lesions, all of which were located outside the field of view of MRI (bone lesions in six cases and a soft tissue lesion in one). In 14/28 pts (50%), (18)F-FDG PET/CT and MRI detected the same number of lesions in the spine and pelvis, while in 7/28 pts (25%) MRI detected an infiltrative pattern in the spine whereas (18)F-FDG PET/CT was negative.

Conclusion: (18)F-FDG PET/CT appears to be more sensitive than WBXR for the detection of small lytic bone lesions, whereas it has the same sensitivity as MRI in detecting bone disease of the spine and pelvis. On the other hand, MRI may be superior to (18)F-FDG PET/CT in diagnosing an infiltrative pattern in the spine. Therefore, careful evaluation of MM bone disease at diagnosis should include both MRI of the spine and (18)F-FDG PET/CT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-005-0004-3DOI Listing
May 2006

Superiority of thalidomide and dexamethasone over vincristine-doxorubicindexamethasone (VAD) as primary therapy in preparation for autologous transplantation for multiple myeloma.

Blood 2005 Jul 10;106(1):35-9. Epub 2005 Mar 10.

Institute of Hematology and Medical Oncology Seràgnoli, via Massarenti 9, 40138, Bologna, Italy.

The aim of the present study was to compare thalidomide-dexamethasone (Thal-Dex) and vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone (VAD) as primary therapy in preparation for autologous peripheral blood stem-cell (PBSC) transplantation for multiple myeloma (MM). For this purpose, we performed a retrospective matched case-control analysis of 200 patients who entered 2 consecutive studies from 1996 to 2004 and received Thal-Dex (n = 100) or VAD (n = 100) administered for 4 months before collection of PBSCs and autologous transplantation. Matching criteria included age, clinical stage, and serum beta2-microglobulin levels. In comparison with VAD, Thal-Dex resulted in a significantly higher response rate (52% versus 76%, respectively; P < .001) and effected more profound reduction in myeloma cell mass of both immunoglobulin G (IgG; P = .02) and IgA (P = .03) type. More frequent toxicities included nonfatal deep vein thrombosis with Thal-Dex (15%) and granulocytopenia with VAD (12%). In each of the 2 treatment groups, 91% of patients proceeded to PBSC mobilization. The median number of collected CD34+ cells was 7.85 x 10(6)/kg in the Thal-Dex group and 10.5 x 10(6)/kg in the control group. Thal-Dex may be considered an effective and relatively well-tolerated oral alternative to the more complex VAD regimen as front-line therapy for MM patients who are candidates for subsequent autologous transplantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2005-02-0522DOI Listing
July 2005

Neurological toxicity of long-term (>1 yr) thalidomide therapy in patients with multiple myeloma.

Eur J Haematol 2005 Mar;74(3):212-6

Institute of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Seragnoli University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

Objective: Thalidomide is remarkably active in advanced relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM), so that its use has been recently proposed either in newly diagnosed patients or as maintenance treatment after conventional or high-dose therapy. This latter therapeutic approach has risen the concern of side-effects of long-term therapy with this drug.

Methods: We analysed long-term toxicity of 40 patients (27 M, 13 F, median age = 61.5 yr) who received salvage therapy with thalidomide +/- dexamethasone for longer than 12 months (median 15, range 12-44) at our centre. All the patients had achieved at least a stable disease upon treatment with thalidomide alone (200-400 mg/d, n = 20) or thalidomide (200 mg/d) and dexamethasone (40 mg/d for 4 d every 4 wk) (n = 20).

Results And Conclusions: Neurotoxicity was the most troublesome and frequent toxic effect that was observed after long-term treatment, the incidence averaging 75%. Among these 30 patients symptoms included paraesthesias, tremor and dizziness. Neurotoxicity was grade 1 in six patients (15%); grade 2 in 13 patients (32.5%), thus determining thalidomide dose reduction to 100 mg/d; and grade 3 in 11 patients (27.5%) who had subsequently to interrupt therapy despite their response. Electromyographic study, performed in patients with grade >/=2 neurotoxicity, revealed a symmetrical, mainly sensory peripheral neuropathy, with minor motor involvement. The severity of neurotoxicity was not related to cumulative or daily thalidomide dose, but only to the duration of the disease prior to thalidomide treatment, although no patients presented neurological symptoms at study entry. These results suggest that long-term thalidomide therapy in MM may be hampered by the remarkable neurotoxicity of the drug, and that a neurological evaluation should be mandatory prior to thalidomide treatment, in order to identify patients at risk of developing a peripheral neuropathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0609.2004.00382.xDOI Listing
March 2005

First-line therapy with thalidomide and dexamethasone in preparation for autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.

Haematologica 2004 Jul;89(7):826-31

Institute of Hematology and Medical Oncology Seràgnoli, via Massarenti 9, 40138, Bologna, Italy.

Background And Objectives: The marked synergy of thalidomide and dexamethasone in advanced and refractory multiple myeloma (MM) provided the basis for a phase 2 clinical study aimed at investigating the efficacy and toxicity of this combination as first-line therapy for patients less than 65 years old with newly diagnosed disease.

Design And Methods: Both thalidomide and dexamethasone were administered for 4 months in an attempt to reduce tumor cell mass before collection of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) and subsequent double autologous transplantation. Thalidomide was given at the fixed dose of 200 mg/day; dexamethasone was administered at the dose of 40 mg/day on days 1-4, 9-12 and 17- 20 in odd cycles and 40 mg/day on days 1-4 in even cycles, repeated monthly.

Results: Seventy-one patients with symptomatic MM were evaluated for response and toxicity. On an intent-to-treat basis, the overall response (>or= partial remission) rate was 66%, including 17% of patients who attained a complete remission or a very good partial remission. In addition to common toxicity of thalidomide, deep-vein thrombosis was a troublesome adverse event (16%). Nine patients (13%) required thalidomide discontinuation because of toxicity, including 3 patients who died during the study treatment. Fifty-nine patients proceeded to PBSC mobilization and yielded a median number of 7.1x10(6) CD 34(+ ) cells/kg.

Interpretation And Conclusions: The combination of thalidomide and dexamethasone is an effective and relatively well tolerated induction regimen for previously untreated patients with MM. This combination may provide an oral alternative to vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone in preparation for autologous stem cell transplantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
July 2004

Thalidomide alone or in combination with dexamethasone in patients with advanced, relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma and renal failure.

Eur J Haematol 2004 Aug;73(2):98-103

Institute of Haematology and Medical Oncology L. & A. Seràgnoli, Bologna University, Bologna, Italy.

Salvage therapy of patients with advanced, relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (MM) is often limited by poor marrow reserve and multi-organ impairment. In particular, renal failure occurs in up to 50% of such patients, and this further limits the use of conventional chemotherapy. Thalidomide, both alone and in combination with dexamethasone, has been demonstrated to be useful in patients with advanced MM, as responses could be achieved in 30-60% of the cases. From May 2000 to November 2003, 20 consecutive MM patients (15 males, five females, median age 66.5 yr) with stage III relapsed/refractory MM and renal failure, defined as serum creatinine >130 mmol/L, gave their informed consent to be enrolled in a clinical trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy and the toxic effects of thalidomide. Three patients were undergoing chronic haemodialysis during the time of entry in the study. Eight patients have been treated with thalidomide as a single agent, at a starting dose of 100 mg/d, that was to be increased to 400 mg/d in case of good tolerance. Twelve patients have been treated with thalidomide at the maximum dose of 200 mg/d plus dexamethasone 40 mg/d for four consecutive days every 4 wk. A >50% decrease in serum or urine M component was observed in nine patients (45%), seven of whom have been treated with thalidomide + dexamethasone and three with thalidomide alone. Six additional patients achieved a minor response (>25% paraprotein decrease); the total response rate was thus 75%. Median response duration was 7 months (range 2-24 months). Four patients were refractory to treatment. Recovery of a normal renal function was observed in 12 of 15 responsive patients, two additional patients, in chronic haemodialysis, showed a reduction of serum creatinine. Toxicity profile of thalidomide with or without dexamethasone was comparable with that observed in patients with a normal renal function. In conclusion, our data show that thalidomide can be safely administered in patients with advanced MM and renal failure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0609.2004.00272.xDOI Listing
August 2004

Cyclin D1 overexpression is a favorable prognostic variable for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and single or double autologous transplantation.

Blood 2003 Sep 1;102(5):1588-94. Epub 2003 May 1.

Institute of Hematology and Medical Oncology Seràgnoli, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 9-40138 Bologna, Italy.

We used a sensitive real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay to quantify cyclin D1 mRNA levels in bone marrow samples collected at diagnosis from 74 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients who were randomized to undergo either single or double autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation as part of first-line therapy for their malignancy. In 46 cases, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis and/or conventional cytogenetics were performed to detect chromosome 11 abnormalities. Patients with the t(11;14) or trisomy 11 significantly overexpressed cyclin D1 (P <.0001) in comparison with patients without 11q abnormalities, who had cyclin D1 mRNA levels similar to healthy donors. Overall, 32 (43%) of 74 patients showed cyclin D1 overexpression. No difference was found between cyclin D1-positive (group A) and cyclin D1-negative (group B) patients with respect to presenting clinical and laboratory characteristics, including chromosome 13 abnormalities, as well as to response to therapy and overall survival, both of which were calculated on an intent-to-treat basis. Patients who overexpressed cyclin D1 had significantly longer duration of remission in comparison with patients who did not (41 vs 26 months, respectively; P =.02). As a result, median event-free survival (EFS) was longer in group A than in group B (33 vs 24 months, respectively; P =.055). We concluded that cyclin D1 overexpression is closely associated with 11q abnormalities and identifies a subset of MM patients who are more likely to have prolonged duration of remission and EFS following autologous transplantation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-12-3789DOI Listing
September 2003

Salvage therapy with thalidomide in patients with advanced relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

Haematologica 2002 Apr;87(4):408-14

Istituto di Ematologia e Oncologia Medica "L. e A. Seràgnoli", Policlinico S. Orsola, via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna, Italy.

Background And Objectives: Few therapeutic options are presently available for patients with multiple myeloma (MM) who relapse after autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation, or for patients who are refractory to conventional chemotherapy and not eligible for salvage high-dose therapy. Thalidomide, a glutamic acid derivative with anti-angiogenic properties, has been recently proposed as an effective therapy for patients with advanced refractory disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of thalidomide in a large series of MM patients.

Design And Methods: From October 1999 to January 2001, 65 patients (46 males/19 females) from 8 Italian institutions were treated with thalidomide. Twenty-six patients had relapsed after autologous stem cell transplantation, either single (n = 12) or double (n= 12); 38 patients had shown disease progression after >= 2 lines of conventional chemotherapy, 2 patients had relapsed after allotransplant, one single patient had not received previous treatment. Sixty-one (93.8%) patients were in stage III, median b2 microglobulin was 2.9 mg/L, and median bone marrow plasma cell infiltration was 50%. Thalidomide was initially administered at a dose of 100 mg/day; if well tolerated, the dose was to be increased serially by 200mg every other week to a maximum of 800 mg/day.

Results: The median administered dose of thalidomide was 400 mg/day. WHO grade > II toxic effects were constipation (52%), lethargy (34%), skin rash (11%), peripheral neuropathy (14%) and leukopenia (3%). Sixty patients are presently evaluable for response; of these, 17 (28.3%) showed > or = 50% reduction in serum or urinary M protein concentration and 11 (18.3%) showed > or = 25% tumor reduction, for a total response rate averaging 46.6%. After a median of 8 months' follow-up, 15/28 patients are alive and progression-free (at 2 to 16 months), 12 patients have relapsed, and 1 patient died of pulmonary edema while still in partial remission. Among pre-treatment variables that were analyzed for their potential relationship with tumor response, only the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the conditioned media obtained upon culture of bone marrow plasma cells was statistically significant. Plasma cells from patients who responded favorably to thalidomide secreted a significantly lower amount of VEGF than plasma cells from resistant patients (126.45 165 pg/mL vs 227.11 70 pg/mL, p=0.04).

Interpretation And Conclusions: These data confirm that thalidomide is active in patients with advanced relapsed/refractory MM and represent the basis for ongoing clinical trials aimed at testing the role of this drug as front line therapy for newly diagnosed disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
April 2002