Publications by authors named "Delia Campanella"

10 Publications

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A cloud-based computer-aided detection system improves identification of lung nodules on computed tomography scans of patients with extra-thoracic malignancies.

Eur Radiol 2019 Jan 15;29(1):144-152. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

Department of Radiology at Candiolo Cancer Institute-FPO, IRCCS, Strada Provinciale 142 km 3.95, 10060, Candiolo, Turin, Italy.

Objectives: To compare unassisted and CAD-assisted detection and time efficiency of radiologists in reporting lung nodules on CT scans taken from patients with extra-thoracic malignancies using a Cloud-based system.

Materials And Methods: Three radiologists searched for pulmonary nodules in patients with extra-thoracic malignancy who underwent CT (slice thickness/spacing 2 mm/1.7 mm) between September 2015 and March 2016. All nodules detected by unassisted reading were measured and coordinates were uploaded on a cloud-based system. CAD marks were then reviewed by the same readers using the cloud-based interface. To establish the reference standard all nodules ≥ 3 mm detected by at least one radiologist were validated by two additional experienced radiologists in consensus. Reader detection rate and reporting time with and without CAD were compared. The study was approved by the local ethics committee. All patients signed written informed consent.

Results: The series included 225 patients (age range 21-90 years, mean 62 years), including 75 patients having at least one nodule, for a total of 215 nodules. Stand-alone CAD sensitivity for lesions ≥ 3 mm was 85% (183/215, 95% CI: 82-91); mean false-positive rate per scan was 3.8. Sensitivity across readers in detecting lesions ≥ 3 mm was statistically higher using CAD: 65% (95% CI: 61-69) versus 88% (95% CI: 86-91, p<0.01). Reading time increased by 11% using CAD (296 s vs. 329 s; p<0.05).

Conclusion: In patients with extra-thoracic malignancies, CAD-assisted reading improves detection of ≥ 3-mm lung nodules on CT, slightly increasing reading time.

Key Points: • CAD-assisted reading improves the detection of lung nodules compared with unassisted reading on CT scans of patients with primary extra-thoracic tumour, slightly increasing reading time. • Cloud-based CAD systems may represent a cost-effective solution since CAD results can be reviewed while a separated cloud back-end is taking care of computations. • Early identification of lung nodules by CAD-assisted interpretation of CT scans in patients with extra-thoracic primary tumours is of paramount importance as it could anticipate surgery and extend patient life expectancy.
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January 2019

Impact of a risk-based follow-up in patients affected by gastrointestinal stromal tumour.

Eur J Cancer 2017 06 24;78:122-132. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

Sarcoma Unit, Division of Medical Oncology Candiolo Cancer Institute - FPO, IRCCS, Strada Provinciale 142, Km 3.95, 10060 Candiolo, TO, Italy; University of Torino, Department of Oncology, Regione Gonzole, 10, 10043 Orbassano, TO, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: Follow-up aims to precociously identify recurrences, metastases or treatment-related adverse events so as to undertake the appropriate therapy. Guidelines admit lack of knowledge on optimal surveillance schedule, but suggest follow-up based on experts' opinion and risk stratification. To identify the impact, if any, of regular follow-up, we interrogated our prospectively collected database whether early detection of recurrences affected both clinical management and, likely, the outcome.

Patients And Methods: We required information to be available on primary surgery and ≥3°years of follow-up for non-recurring patients. We analysed recurrence characteristics (asymptomatic versus symptomatic, low- versus high tumour burden) and computed tomography (CT) scan counts to detect one recurrence. Kaplan-Meier method estimated recurrence-free survival (RFS), post-recurrence progression-free survival (PR-PFS), and disease-specific overall survival (OS). Comparisons used Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Multivariate analyses employed the Cox proportional hazards model. All tests were two-sided.

Results: Between 01/2001 and 12/2012 we found 233 study-eligible patients. Estimated 5- and 10-year RFS were 61.8% and 50.4%, respectively. After a 68-month median follow-up, we observed 94 (40.3%) recurrences [73/94 (77.7%) asymptomatic versus 21/94 (22.3%) symptomatic and 45/94 (47.9%) low- versus 49/94 (52.1%) high tumour burden]. Multivariate analysis revealed that symptomatic and high tumour burden recurrences were highly predictive of both worse PR-PFS (HR:3.19, P < 0.001; HR:2.80, P = 0.003, respectively) and OS (HR:3.65, P < 0.001; HR:2.38, P = 0.026, respectively). Finally, 29 second (primary) cancers were detected during follow-up.

Conclusions: Regular follow-up detects recurrences at an earlier stage and may be associated with a better PR-PFS and OS for these patients. In the absence of randomised trials, these evidences support follow-up effort and cost.
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June 2017

Successful treatment of gemcitabine-induced acute interstitial pneumonia with imatinib mesylate: a case report.

BMC Cancer 2016 10 12;16(1):793. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Department of Medical Oncology, University of Turin Medical School, Candiolo Cancer Institute, FPO, IRCCS, Str. Prov.le 142 Km 3.95, 10060, Candiolo, Turin, Italy.

Background: Gemcitabine is currently the standard chemotherapy for the adjuvant treatment of pancreatic cancer. This chemotherapeutic agent is generally well-tolerated, myelosuppression and gastrointestinal toxicity being common side effects. Nevertheless, gemcitabine-induced pulmonary toxicity has been rarely reported. Despite its low incidence, the spectrum of pulmonary injury is wide, including potentially fatal conditions. We report a case of acute interstitial pneumonia related to gemcitabine, completely solved with Imatinib Mesylate (IM).

Case Presentation: The patient was a 69-year-old man, who developed a hypoxemic respiratory distress during adjuvant treatment with gemcitabine for stage IIA pancreatic cancer. The nonspecific diffuse alveolar involvement found on computed tomography (CT), together with the negative tests for infectious aetiology and the continuing severe respiratory failure despite a long course of broad-spectrum therapy, suggested gemcitabine-induced acute pneumonia as the most likely diagnosis. Thus, after the failure of steroids and all other conventional therapies, the patient was treated with imatinib mesylate on the basis of its activity in the management of graft-versus-host-induced lung fibrosis. A follow-up CT scan of chest one month later showed complete resolution of pneumonia.

Conclusion: Despite the low frequency of serious pulmonary toxicity, gemcitabine widespread use warns clinicians to consider this life-threatening toxicity. The favourable clinical outcome with IM treatment was remarkable, warranting additional study of IM in the treatment of lung fibrosis.
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October 2016

Computer-aided detection for computed tomographic colonography screening: a prospective comparison of a double-reading paradigm with first-reader computer-aided detection against second-reader computer-aided detection.

Invest Radiol 2014 Mar;49(3):173-82

From the *Radiology Unit, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo; †im3D S.p.A., Torino; ‡AOU S Giovanni Battista, Torino; §Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit, Nuovo Regina Margherita Hospital, Rome; and ∥Gastroenterology and Endoscopy Unit, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo, Italy.

Objectives: The objective of this study was to prospectively compare diagnostic performance and time efficiency of a double-reading paradigm in which a first-reader computer-aided detection (CAD) is followed by a fast 2-dimensional review (DR FR-CAD) with those of a double reading with second-reader CAD (SR CAD).

Materials And Methods: The local ethical committee approved this study. Consecutive immunological patients who have positive results for fecal immunological test who were scheduled for colonoscopy were enrolled for a 10-month period. Computed tomographic colonography studies were read with CAD (CAD COLON-1.20; im3D, Turin, Italy) by using both SR CAD (applied after unassisted interpretation primary 2-dimensional) and DR FR-CAD (CAD-prompts evaluation followed by a fast 2-dimensional review) in randomized order with the radiologist for each reading paradigm masked to the other reader's results.Per-patient sensitivity and specificity of unassisted and CAD-assisted readings for detecting 6-mm adenomas or larger were calculated by using unblinding colonoscopy as reference standard. Reporting times were also calculated. Pairwise comparisons were performed.

Results: A total of 182 participants (median age, 65 years; range, 58-76) were included in the final analysis. Of these, 93 (51%) had at least 1 cancer or a 6-mm adenoma or larger. At the 6-mm threshold, sensitivity of unassisted reading (79.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 69.9-87.2) increased significantly with the use of both SR CAD (86.0%; 95% CI, 77.3%-92.3%) and DR FR-CAD (89.2%; 95% CI, 81.1%-94.7%), without differences between CAD readings (P = 0.500). No significant differences in specificity among the 3 paradigms were observed. Double reading with first-reader CAD required less reading time than that for SR CAD (378 vs 496; Δ118 seconds; P < 0.001) and was 59 seconds longer than the unassisted reading (P = 0.058).

Conclusions: When compared with unassisted reading, a double-reading paradigm in which first-reader CAD is followed by a fast 2-dimensional review improves the adenoma detection rate to the same level achieved by a second-reader CAD while decreasing reporting times.
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March 2014

CT colonography: preliminary assessment of a double-read paradigm that uses computer-aided detection as the first reader.

Radiology 2013 Sep 29;268(3):743-51. Epub 2013 Apr 29.

Radiology Unit, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, FPO, Strada Provinciale 142, Km 3,95, 10060 Candiolo, Italy; im3D S.p.A., Turin, Italy.

Purpose: To compare diagnostic performance and time efficiency of double-reading first-reader computer-aided detection (CAD) (DR FR CAD) followed by radiologist interpretation with that of an unassisted read using segmentally unblinded colonoscopy as reference standard.

Materials And Methods: The local ethical committee approved this study. Written consent to use examinations was obtained from patients. Three experienced radiologists searched for polyps 6 mm or larger in 155 computed tomographic (CT) colonographic studies (57 containing 10 masses and 79 polyps ≥ 6 mm). Reading was randomized to either unassisted read or DR FR CAD. Data sets were reread 6 weeks later by using the opposite paradigm. DR FR CAD consists of evaluation of CAD prompts, followed by fast two-dimensional review for mass detection. CAD sensitivity was calculated. Readers' diagnoses and reviewing times with and without CAD were compared by using McNemar and Student t tests, respectively. Association between missed polyps and lesion characteristics was explored with multiple regression analysis.

Results: With mean rate of 19 (standard deviation, 14; median, 15; range, 4-127) false-positive results per patient, CAD sensitivity was 90% for lesions 6 mm or larger. Readers' sensitivity and specificity for lesions 6 mm or larger were 74% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 65%, 84%) and 93% (95% CI: 89%, 97%), respectively, for the unassisted read and 77% (95% CI: 67%, 85%) and 90% (95% CI: 85%, 95%), respectively, for DR FR CAD (P = .343 and P = .189, respectively). Overall unassisted and DR FR CAD reviewing times were similar (243 vs 239 seconds; P = .623); DR FR CAD was faster when the number of CAD marks per patient was 20 or fewer (187 vs 220 seconds, P <01). Odds ratio of missing a polyp with CAD decreased as polyp size increased (0.6) and for polyps visible on both prone and supine scans (0.12); it increased for flat lesions (9.1).

Conclusion: DR FR CAD paradigm had similar performance compared with unassisted interpretation but better time efficiency when 20 or fewer CAD prompts per patient were generated.
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September 2013

Efficacy of computer-aided detection as a second reader for 6-9-mm lesions at CT colonography: multicenter prospective trial.

Radiology 2013 Jan 14;266(1):168-76. Epub 2012 Nov 14.

Radiology Unit, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo, Italy.

Purpose: To assess the effect of computer-aided detection (CAD) as a second reader on the sensitivity and specificity of computed tomographic (CT) colonography in detecting 6-9-mm colorectal cancer (CRC) lesions.

Materials And Methods: Individuals with clinical indications for colonoscopy--either for symptoms or as part of participating in a surveillance program or CRC screening--were prospectively enrolled at one of 10 academic centers between July 2007 and May 2009. Institutional review board approval was obtained at each clinical site, and all participants provided written informed consent. All participants underwent CT colonography and colonoscopy on the same day. Experienced readers interpreted the CT colonography images unassisted and then reviewed all colorectal lesion-like structures pinpointed by the CAD algorithm. Segmental unblinding of CT colonoscopy findings at colonoscopy was utilized. The sensitivity and specificity of unassisted and CAD-assisted reading in identifying individuals with 6-9-mm lesions were calculated and compared by means of pairwise analysis.

Results: A total of 618 participants (mean age, 57.9 years; 54.5% male) were included in the final analysis. Of these participants, 464 (75.1%) had no lesions 6 mm or larger, and 52 (8.4%) had 6-9-mm lesions. The sensitivity of CT colonography with unassisted reading and that with CAD-assisted reading in identifying individuals with 6-9-mm lesions was 65.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 50.9%, 78.0%) and 76.9% (95% CI: 63.2%, 87.5%; P = .016), respectively. No significant change in specificity was observed: The specificity of CT colonography with unassisted and that with CAD-assisted reading was 91.8% (95% CI: 88.9%, 94.1%) and 90.9% (95% CI: 88.0%, 93.4%; P = .063), respectively. Evaluation of CAD candidates required an additional 1.6 minutes (25th-75th percentile: 1.0 minute to 3.4 minutes).

Conclusion: The addition of CAD to reading performed by experienced readers resulted in a significant benefit in the detection of 6-9-mm polyps at CT colonography in this cohort.

Supplemental Material:
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January 2013

Induction gemcitabine and oxaliplatin therapy followed by a twice-weekly infusion of gemcitabine and concurrent external-beam radiation for neoadjuvant treatment of locally advanced pancreatic cancer: a single institutional experience.

Cancer 2013 Jan 6;119(2):277-84. Epub 2012 Jul 6.

University of Turin, Medical Oncology Department, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Candiolo, Italy.

Background: Chemoradiotherapy (CRT) may render curative resection feasible in patients with locally advanced pancreatic carcinoma (LAPC). The authors previously demonstrated the achievement of significant disease control and a median survival of 14 months by CRT in patients with LAPC. In this study, they evaluated the use of induction chemotherapy followed by a CRT neoadjuvant protocol.

Methods: Patients first received induction gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (GEMOX) (gemcitabine 1000 mg/m(2), oxaliplatin 100 mg/m(2)). Patients without disease progression then received gemcitabine twice weekly (50 mg/m(2) daily) concurrent with radiotherapy (50.4 grays) and were re-evaluated for resectability.

Results: Thirty-nine patients (15 with borderline resectable disease and 24 with unresectable disease) entered the study. The treatment was well tolerated. Disease control was obtained in 29 of 39 patients. Two patients progressed after GEMOX, and 7 progressed after CRT. After a median follow-up of 13 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.2 months. The median PFS of patients with borderline resectable and unresectable disease was 16.6 and 9.1 months, respectively (P = .056). For the whole group, the median overall survival (OS) was 16.7 months (27.8 months for patients with borderline resectable disease, 13.3 for patients with unresectable disease; P = .045). Eleven patients (9 with borderline resectable disease and 2 with unresectable disease at diagnosis) underwent successful resection. Patients who underwent resection had a significantly longer median PFS compared with nonresected patients (19.7 months vs 7.6 months, respectively). The median OS among resected and nonresected patients was 31.5 months and 12.3 months, respectively (P < .001).

Conclusions: The current results indicated that induction GEMOX followed by CRT is feasible in patients with LAPC. Both those with borderline resectable disease and those with unresectable disease received clinical benefit, a chance to obtain resectability, and improved survival. The authors concluded that this protocol warrants further evaluation.
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January 2013

Comparison of three different iodine-based bowel regimens for CT colonography.

Eur Radiol 2010 Feb 27;20(2):348-58. Epub 2009 Aug 27.

Radiology Unit, Institute for Cancer Research and Treatment, Strada Provinciale 142, Km 3,95, 10060 Candiolo, Italy.

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the computed tomographic colonography (CTC) image quality and patient acceptance of three iodine-based faecal tagging bowel preparations in 60 patients undergoing the following regimens: a 2-day regimen of meal-time administration of iodine and phospho-soda (GFPH); a 2-day regimen of meal-time mild laxative, followed by iodine administered 2 h before CTC (SD); and a 2-day regimen of meal-time administration of iodine (GF).

Methods: Two independent radiologists assessed tagging quality; quantitative measures included the tagged stool density, and computer-aided detection (CAD) false-positive rate.

Results: The GFPH and SD regimens provided better subjective quality than GF (p < 0.001). The latter regimen resulted in a higher proportion of insufficiently tagged segments: the measured average stool density was less than 200 HU in 10.7% in all segments vs 3.6% for SD and <0.5% for GFPH, respectively. Insufficient tagging occurred mostly in the ascending colon and the caecum. The CAD false-positive rate increased following the trend: GFPH < SD < GF (p = 0.00012). GFPH was worse tolerated than SD (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: Considering preparation quality alone, GFPH was the best regimen, but SD provided the best balance between bowel preparation quality and patient acceptability.
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February 2010

Magnetic resonance imaging and Orbscan assessment of the anterior chamber.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2005 Sep;31(9):1713-8

Dipartimento di Fisiopatologia Clinica, Clinica Oculistica dell'Università di Torino, Candiolo, Torino, Italy.

Purpose: To evaluate the correlation between white-to-white (WTW) distance as assessed by Orbscan II (Bausch & Lomb) and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sulcus-sulcus (S-S) measures and to analyze the correlation between age and anterior chamber parameters.

Setting: Istituto per la Ricerca e la Cura del Cancro, Candiolo, Torino, Italy.

Methods: Eighty-eight patients had MRI with a 1.5 Tesla imager (GE Medical Systems) using a 3-inch circular coil. T1 weighted fast spin-echo scans were performed on the axial plane. Orbscan II was also used to measure WTW distance, K, anterior chamber depth (ACD), and lens curvature. One eye was randomly selected for analysis. Measures were compared using Spearman correlation, paired Student t test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA; post hoc: Scheffé). Intersession variability was performed in 10 patients. Ten MRI images were randomly selected and measured by 2 operators in a masked fashion (intrasession variability).

Results: Intersession and intrasession correlation was good for MRI (r = 0.89 and r = 0.92, respectively), and intersession was good for Orbscan (r = 0.91). When comparing Orbscan II and MRI results, the ACD was well correlated and not significantly different, whereas the S-S and the WTW measures were not correlated and significantly different. Lens thickness and lens diameter were directly correlated with age; S-S, WTW, lens curvature, and ACD were inversely correlated with age.

Conclusions: Current methods of measuring the WTW were poorly correlated with anatomical measures. The S-S diameter and other anterior chamber structures significantly change with age, which could give rise to potential problems with posterior chamber phakic intraocular lens sizing position.
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September 2005