Publications by authors named "Deirdre Lemerle"

3 Publications

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Metabolomics differentiation of canola genotypes: toward an understanding of canola allelochemicals.

Front Plant Sci 2014 9;5:765. Epub 2015 Jan 9.

School of Agricultural and Wine Sciences, Faculty of Science, Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia ; Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation, Charles Sturt University Wagga Wagga, NSW, Australia.

Allelopathy is one crop attribute that could be incorporated in an integrated weed management system as a supplement to synthetic herbicides. However, the underlying principles of crop allelopathy and secondary metabolite production are still poorly understood including in canola. In this study, an allelopathic bioassay and a metabolomic analysis were conducted to compare three non-allelopathic and three allelopathic canola genotypes. Results from the laboratory bioassay showed that there were significant differences among canola genotypes in their ability to inhibit root and shoot growth of the receiver annual ryegrass; impacts ranged from 14% (cv. Atr-409) to 76% (cv. Pak85388-502) and 0% (cv. Atr-409) to 45% (cv. Pak85388-502) inhibition respectively. The root length of canola also differed significantly between genotypes, there being a non-significant negative interaction (r = -0.71; y = 0.303x + 21.33) between the root length of donor canola and of receiver annual ryegrass. Variation in chemical composition was detected between organs (root extracts, shoot extracts) and root exudates and also between canola genotypes. Root extracts contained more secondary metabolites than shoot extracts while fewer compounds were recorded in the root exudates. Individual compound assessments identified a total of 14 secondary metabolites which were identified from the six tested genotypes. However, only Pak85388-502 and Av-opal exuded sinapyl alcohol, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 3,5,6,7,8-pentahydroxy flavones in agar growth medium, suggesting that the synergistic effect of these compounds playing a role for canola allelopathy against annual ryegrass in vitro.
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January 2015

Intrusive trichome bases in the leaves of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium; Solanaceae) do not facilitate fluorescent tracer uptake.

Am J Bot 2013 Dec 9;100(12):2307-17. Epub 2013 Dec 9.

Graham Centre for Agricultural Innovation (NSW Department of Primary Industries and Charles Sturt University), School of Agricultural & Wine Sciences, Locked Bag 588, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga NSW 2678, Australia.

Premise Of The Study: Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade), having originated in the Americas, is now a serious summer-growing, perennial weed in many countries, including Australia. Most surfaces of the plants have a dense covering of trichomes, giving them a silvery-white appearance, hence the common name. We aimed to identify structural and functional properties of its leaves, especially the trichomes, that may affect the uptake of foliar-applied tracer dyes.

Methods: The structure of leaves of Solanum elaeagnifolium was examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The potential for transport of materials between trichomes and veins was studied with symplastic (carboxyfluorescein diacetate) and apoplastic (lucifer yellow) tracer dyes.

Key Results: Mature leaves had a dense covering of complex, stellate trichomes on both surfaces, particularly the abaxial. The basal cells of Solanum elaeagnifolium trichomes penetrated into the underlying palisade mesophyll layers. The innermost lobes of these basal cells sometimes contacted the bundle sheath of the veins, but were not observed to directly contact the xylem or phloem. We found that neither symplastic nor apoplastic dyes were transferred between the basal cells of the trichomes and the vascular tissues. The trichome layer repelled water-based tracer dyes, while one of four adjuvants tested facilitated entry of both symplastic and apoplastic dyes.

Conclusions: Our results did not support a transport function for the trichomes. The trichomes may protect the mesophytic leaves from invertebrate herbivory, while also probably decreasing radiation absorbed resulting in cooler leaves in this summer-growing species.
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December 2013

Biochemical basis for wheat seedling allelopathy on the suppression of annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum).

J Agric Food Chem 2002 Jul;50(16):4567-71

Farrer Centre for Conservation Farming, Charles Sturt University, Locked Bag 588, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678, Australia.

The chemical basis for wheat seedling allelopathy on the growth of annual ryegrass was investigated by the identification and quantification of multiple allelochemicals from wheat seedlings. Results indicated that 58 wheat accessions differed significantly in seedling allelopathy and inhibited the root growth of ryegrass from 10 to 91%, depending on accession. Analysis of allelochemicals by GC/MS/MS indicated that allelopathy was significantly correlated with the levels of measured allelochemicals in the shoots and roots of young wheat seedlings. Ryegrass root growth was also negatively correlated with the levels of p-hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, and trans-ferulic acids in root exudates. Wheat allelopathic potential was negatively correlated with the levels of the eight known allelochemicals quantified in the shoots, roots, and water-agar medium, with multiple regression coefficients (r) of -0.61, -0.71, and -0.71, respectively. In comparison with weakly allelopathic accessions, strongly allelopathic accessions produced significantly higher amounts of allelochemicals in the shoots and roots of the wheat seedlings and also exuded larger quantities of allelochemicals into the growth medium. Wheat accessions with strong seedling allelopathy might be useful for management of weeds during the establishment stage, thereby reducing the need for commercial herbicides in early-season application.
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July 2002