Publications by authors named "Deborah York"

6 Publications

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A Multiparametric MRI Protocol for Evaluation of Cognitive Insufficiency, Dementia and Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): A Case Series.

CNS Spectr 2021 04;26(2):179

Colorado Springs Neurological Associates, Colorado Springs, CO, USA.

Background: The purpose of this work was to determine the extent to which a multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to patients with dementia and/or traumatic brain injury (TBI) can help to determine the most likely diagnosis and the prognosis of these patients.

Objective: Volumetric brain MRI alone is recognized as a useful imaging tool to differentiate behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) from the more common Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our objective is to create a protocol that will provide additional non-standard, objective imaging data that can be utilized clinically to distinguish common and uncommon forms of dementia and TBI. As patients with these diseases are increasingly presenting to clinical practice, our ability to combine multiple parameters within the standard 30-minute or 45-minute (pre- and post-contrast) MRI exams has high potential to affect current and future clinical practice.

Methods: All MRI studies were performed on 1.5 T MRI GE 450w or GE HDx imagers. All patients were seen clinically in outpatient practices. All techniques are FDA approved. The 30 minute protocol utilized T2w FSE 3 mm, 2.5 mm SWAN, 3D T1 sagittal 1.2 mm, DWI 5 mm, 3D FLAIR 1.2 mm, 2.5 mm SWAN (susceptibility sensitive), 3D T1 sagittal 1.2 mm, arterial spin labeling perfusion, posterior cingulate single voxel PRESS MR spectroscopy and NeuroQuant automated volumetric analysis and LesionQuant automated lesion detection and measurement. The 45-minute TBI protocol added diffusion tensor imaging, MR spectroscopy (MRS) of normal appearing frontal white matter and 3D gadolinium enhanced technique.

Results: The combination of multiparametric data together with standard imaging and clinical information allowed radiologic interpretation that was able to focus on 1-2 specific diagnoses and to indicate those patients in which a combination of pathologies was most likely. Neurologists, gerontologists, neuropsychologists and psychiatric specialists used these data and our summary conclusions to develop more specific diagnoses, treatments and prognoses.

Conclusions: Readily available MRI techniques can be added to standard imaging to markedly improve the usefulness of the radiologic opinion in cases of subjective cognitive insufficiency, clinical mild cognitive insufficiency, behavioral pathologies, dementia and post-traumatic brain syndromes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1092852920002941DOI Listing
April 2021

The Challenge of Managing Patients Suffering from TBI: The Utility of Multiparametric MRI.

CNS Spectr 2021 04;26(2):178-179

Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a complex phenomenon affecting multiple areas of the brain in multiple ways. Both right and left hemispheres are affected as well as supratentorial and infratentorial compartments. These multifocal injuries are caused by many factors including acute mechanical injury, focal intracranial hemorrhage, blunt and rotational forces, epidural and subdural hematoma, hypoxemia, hypotension, edema, axonal damage, neuronal death, gliosis and blood brain barrier disruption. Clinicians and patients benefit by precise information about the neuroanatomical areas that are affected macroscopically, microscopically and biochemically in an individual patient.Standard imaging studies are frequently negative or grossly underestimate the severity of TBI and may exacerbate and prolong patient suffering with an imaging result of "no significant abnormality". Specifically, sophisticated imaging tools have been developed which reveal significant damage to the brain structure including atrophy, MRI spectroscopy showing variations in neuronal metabolite N-acetyl-aspartate, elevations of membrane related Choline, and the glial metabolite myo-inositol is often observed to be increased post injury. In addition, susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) has been shown to be more reliable for detecting microbleeds versus calcifications.We have selected two TBI patients with diffuse traumatic brain injury.The first patient is a 43-year-old male who suffered severe traumatic brain injury from a motorcycle accident in 2016. Following the accident, the patient was diagnosed with seizures, major depression, and intermittent explosive disorder. He has attempted suicide and has neurobehavioral disinhibition including severe anger, agitation and irritability. He denies psychiatric history prior to TBI and has negative family history. Following the TBI, he became physically aggressive and assaultive in public with minimal provocation. He denies symptoms of thought disorder and mania. He is negative for symptoms of  cognitive decline or encephalopathy.The second patient is a 49-year-old male who suffered at least 3 concussive blasts in the Army and a parachute injury. Following the last accident, the patient was diagnosed with major depressive disorder, panic disorder, PTSD and generalized anxiety disorder. He denies any psychiatric history prior to TBI including negative family history of psychiatric illness. In addition, he now suffers from nervousness, irritability, anger, emotional lability and concurrent concentration issues, problems completing tasks and alterations in memory.Both patients underwent 1.5T multiparametric MRI using standard T2, FLAIR, DWI and T1 sequences, and specialized sequences including susceptibility weighted (SWAN/SWI), 3D FLAIR, single voxel MRI spectroscopy (MRS), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), arterial spin labeling perfusion (ASL) and volumetric MRI (NeuroQuant). Importantly, this exam can be performed in 30-45 minutes and requires no injections other than gadolinium in some patients. We will discuss the insights derived from the MRI which detail the injured areas, validate the severity of the brain damage, and provide insight into the psychological, motivational and physical disabilities that afflict these patients. It is our expectation that this kind of imaging study will grow in value as we link specific patterns of injury to specific symptoms and syndromes resulting in more targeted therapies in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S109285292000293XDOI Listing
April 2021

Development and Pilot Testing of a Computerized Asthma Kiosk to Initiate Chronic Asthma Care in a Pediatric Emergency Department.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2018 Oct;34(10):e190-e195

Saint John's University, Queens, NY.

Objectives: Emergency department (ED) visits are an opportunity to initiate chronic asthma care. Ideally, this care should be implemented in a fashion that limits utilization of scarce ED resources. We developed, iteratively refined, and pilot tested the feasibility of a computerized asthma kiosk to (1) capture asthma information, (2) deliver asthma education, and (3) facilitate guideline-based chronic asthma management.

Methods: The following are the 4 phases of this study: (1) developing the content and structure of a computerized asthma kiosk, (2) iterative refinement through heuristic testing by human-computer interface experts, (3) usability testing with ED providers (n = 4) and caregivers of children with asthma (n = 4), and (4) pilot testing the kiosk with caregivers (n = 31) and providers in the ED (n = 18). Outcome measures for the pilot-testing phase were the proportion of ED providers who prescribed long-term controller medication (LTCM) and asthma action plans (AsAPs) and the proportion of children who took LTCMs and attended primary care providers follow-up.

Results: After kiosk development and refinement, pilot implementation resulted in LTCMs prescribing and AsAP provision for 19 (61%) of 31 and 17 (55%) of 31 patients, respectively. Before kiosk use, the proportion of the 18 ED providers who reported prescribing LTCM was 1 (5%) of 18, and providing AsAPs was 0 (0%) of 18. Eighteen (58%) of the 31 caregivers reported that their children used LTCMs after kiosk use and 13 (42%) of 31 reported following up with the primary care provider within 1 month of the ED visits.

Conclusions: A rigorously developed asthma kiosk showed promise for initiating chronic asthma care in the ED.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001630DOI Listing
October 2018

Asthma-Related Educational Needs of Families With Children With Asthma in an Urban Pediatric Emergency Department.

Pediatr Emerg Care 2018 Sep;34(9):636-640

Pediatric Pulmonary Division, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY.

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the educational needs of inner-city children with persistent asthma and their caregivers who utilize the emergency department (ED) for asthma care as well as determine their guideline adherence, factors associated with ED use, and comfort with computers.

Methods: Cross-sectional survey of children aged 2 to 18 years with previous diagnosis of asthma presenting with asthma-related complaints or acute asthma exacerbations to an urban pediatric ED. Data on demographics, families' response to acute asthma, approach to asthma prevention, access to care, educational topics of interest, and sources of health information were collected.

Results: Of approximately 1500 asthma-related visits, 218 caregivers were approached, and 200 completed the survey. In the past 12 months, 31% had experienced at least 1 asthma-related hospitalization, and 55.5% had had at least 3 ED visits. Although 184 (92.9%) of 198 caregivers were able to identify a primary physician, 37% reported they were more likely to take their child to the ED in response to acute asthma during the day as opposed to their physician (17%). Approximately half of patients were not on any preventive medication, with 57% not having had received an Asthma Action Plan. Caregivers expressed the most interest in learning about long-term controller medications (44.2%), use of metered dose inhalers or nebulizers (44.2%), and trigger avoidance (35.2%). Most caregivers (approximately 68%) reported ease of use with computers and the Internet.

Conclusion: There was discordance between caregivers' reports of primary care provider teaching on asthma management and the use of the controller medications and possession of the Asthma Action Plans for persistent asthma. Education could focus on caregiver concerns of the safety and benefits of the controller medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PEC.0000000000001607DOI Listing
September 2018

Accuracy and safety of dry needle placement in the piriformis muscle in cadavers.

J Man Manip Ther 2018 May 6;26(2):89-96. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, School of Health Professions, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, USA.

Objectives: The purpose of this anatomic investigation is to (1) establish accuracy of dry needle placement into the medial third of the piriformis muscle as it exits the pelvis from the greater sciatic notch in unembalmed cadaveric specimens, while avoiding puncture of the sciatic nerve, and (2) establish guidelines for dry needle length selection.

Methods: Dry needles were placed in nineteen unembalmed cadaveric posterior hips. Dissection of the posterior hip musculature was performed to confirm location of the needle. A binary decision (yes/no) was made to determine whether the needle reached the piriformis muscle, went through the piriformis muscle, and/or pierced the sciatic nerve. Additionally, mean adipose tissue thickness, gluteus maximus muscle thickness, and perpendicular distance from the needle to the exiting sciatic nerve were recorded.

Results: The needle reached the medial third of the piriformis in 16 out of 19 hips (84.2% accuracy) and never punctured the sciatic nerve. There was a fair ( = 0.493) and good ( = 0.759) correlation between the needle length and the mean fat thickness for the left and right hips, respectively.

Discussion: A physical therapist was able to use bony landmark palpation to locate the piriformis muscle and use estimated adipose tissue thickness to choose a sufficient needle length to reach the medial third of the piriformis muscle. While the needle placement technique was safe and no sciatic nerve puncture occurred, the proximity of the piriformis muscle to the sciatic nerve warrants caution during needle placement.

Level Of Evidence: 2c.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10669817.2017.1346745DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5901430PMC
May 2018

A Learning Collaborative Approach to Improve Primary Care STI Screening.

Clin Pediatr (Phila) 2018 07 13;57(8):895-903. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

1 Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

The Bronx Ongoing Pediatric Screening (BOPS) project sought to improve screening for sexual activity and sexually transmitted infections (gonorrhea and chlamydia [GCC] and HIV) in a primary care network, employing a modified learning collaborative, real-time clinical data feedback to practices, improvement coaching, and a pay-for-quality monetary incentive. Outcomes are compared for 11 BOPS-participating sites and 10 non-participating sites. The quarterly median rate for documenting sexual activity status increased from 55% to 88% (BOPS sites) and from 13% to 74% (non-BOPS sites). GCC screening of sexually active youth increased at BOPS and non-BOPS sites. Screening at non-health care maintenance visits improved more at BOPS than non-BOPS sites. Data from nonparticipating sites suggests that introduction of an adolescent EMR template or other factors improved screening rates regardless of BOPS participation; BOPS activities appear to promote additional improvement of screening during non-health maintenance visits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0009922817733702DOI Listing
July 2018
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