Publications by authors named "Deborah Schooler"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Psychometric properties of the SAFE-D: A measure of acculturative stress among deaf undergraduate students.

Rehabil Psychol 2020 May 9;65(2):173-185. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Psychology.

Purpose/objective: Members of minority groups may face stress as they navigate between their native culture and the dominant culture. No measure exists for evaluating acculturative stress among deaf individuals in the United States. The current study examined the psychometric properties of a modified version of the 24-item Social Attitudinal Familial and Environmental Acculturative Stress Scale (SAFE; Mena, Padilla, & Maldonado, 1987) for use with deaf undergraduate students (SAFE-D). Research Method/Design: 145 (88 females and 57 males), deaf, undergraduate students ( = 20.0; = 4.9) from a bilingual, multicultural university were included in the study. Seventy-four percent were White, 10.4% Hispanic/Latino, 9.7% Black/African American, 0.7% Asian, and 9% multiracial. The SAFE-D included 23 items. Ten items were modified, 2 items were deleted, and 1 item was added.

Results: The SAFE-D demonstrated high internal reliability (α = .931). Four factors were identified: Perceived Societal Barriers, Social Difficulties, Family Marginalization, and Discrimination. Evidence for construct validity was demonstrated through the association of SAFE-D scores with Deaf and Hearing acculturation.

Conclusions/implications: Levels of acculturative stress in the current sample were close to those reported among late immigrant and English as a Second Language undergraduate students. The 4 factors did not match those of the original SAFE scale but reflected a bidirectional model of acculturative stress unique to deaf individuals. These findings suggest that acculturative stress is a serious concern among deaf undergraduate students and that the SAFE-D can be used to assess deaf acculturative stress in this population. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rep0000315DOI Listing
May 2020

Culture and Deaf Women's Body Image.

J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ 2019 01;24(1):11-24

Gallaudet University.

The sociocultural model of eating disorders highlights the role of internalization of the thin ideal in the development of negative body image and disordered eating. Considering the limited diversity of models in mainstream media, individuals belonging to minoritized cultural groups may resist identifying with and internalizing mainstream beauty messages. The extent of internalization may also depend on an individual's acculturation status and experiences of acculturative stress. This study applied the sociocultural model to culturally Deaf women. Data were collected from 96 deaf, female, undergraduate students. Results support the sociocultural model; higher rates of internalization were associated with negative body image and disordered eating behaviors. However, neither Deaf nor Hearing acculturation predicted internalization. Despite this finding, stronger acculturation with either Deaf or Hearing culture predicted more positive body image, and higher rates of acculturative stress predicted negative body image and disordered eating behaviors. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/deafed/eny028DOI Listing
January 2019

"I am not a skinny toothpick and proud of it": Latina adolescents' ethnic identity and responses to mainstream media images.

Body Image 2014 Jan 11;11(1):11-8. Epub 2013 Oct 11.

Oregon State University Cascades, Bend, OR, United States.

Using a quasi-experimental design, 118 Latina girls, ages 13-18, viewed five color photographs of White women. Girls viewed either images of sexualized women or images of non-sexualized women. After viewing the images, girls were asked to complete the sentence stem, "I am…" 20 times. Thirty percent of girls spontaneously described their ethnicity in one of their sentence completions. Spontaneous use of ethnicity was taken as an indicator of the salience of ethnic identity. Among girls who viewed sexualized, thin-ideal White media images, spontaneously using an ethnic descriptor was related to more positive descriptions of one's own body and appearance. Analyses supported the premise that ethnic identity may act as a protective factor, buffering Latina girls from the negative effects of viewing sexualized, thin-ideal White media images.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.09.001DOI Listing
January 2014

Longitudinal associations between television viewing patterns and adolescent body satisfaction.

Body Image 2011 Jan 2;8(1):34-42. Epub 2010 Nov 2.

Department of Psychology, University of the Pacific, 3601 Pacific Ave., Stockton, CA 95211, USA.

This study addressed profiles of adolescent television use and associations between television viewing profiles and the development of body satisfaction. A sample of 841 adolescent boys and girls, ages 11-17, was recruited for participation in a longitudinal study of adolescent media use. Prior research established eight adolescent television profiles among this sample, reflecting unique patterns of consumption of certain genres, character types, and themes (e.g., romance). This study examined whether an adolescent's television profile predicted Time 2 body satisfaction, after controlling for Time 1 body satisfaction. Among boys, television viewing was unrelated to Time 2 body satisfaction. After controlling for initial body satisfaction, hours spent watching television marginally predicted lower Time 2 body satisfaction among girls. After including television profiles alongside television hours, however, television profile emerged as the stronger predictor. Specifically, a group of girls who watched television frequently and indiscriminately reported the most severe drop in body satisfaction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2010.09.001DOI Listing
January 2011

A mixed-method exploration of body image and sexual health among adolescent boys.

Am J Mens Health 2008 Dec 19;2(4):322-39. Epub 2008 May 19.

Department of Psychology, University of the Pacific, Stockton, California 95211, USA.

This study uses a mixed-method approach to examine the relationship between body image and sexual health among adolescent boys. In Study 1, eight 12th-grade boys participated in semistructured interviews focusing on dating and sexuality. Qualitative analyses revealed several differences between boys who were satisfied with their bodies and boys who were not. Specifically, boys who were satisfied with their bodies indicated that they were clear about what they wanted sexually and were comfortable communicating those wants with partners. In contrast, boys with low body satisfaction were often unclear about their sexual choices and resisted talking about sexuality with partners. Study 2 examined these same themes using quantitative data from 149 boys from the 12th grade who completed surveys assessing body image, sexual experiences, and sexual attitudes. Body satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual agency and with clarity of personal sexual values. Implications for promoting adolescent sexual health are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1557988308318508DOI Listing
December 2008

Perceptions of women's infertility: what do physicians see?

Fertil Steril 2010 Mar 26;93(4):1066-73. Epub 2009 Jan 26.

University of Michigan, Department of Psychology, 530 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Objective: To assess physicians' awareness of the infertility risk associated with race, age, and education, and to elicit their clinical management recommendations for a hypothetical patient.

Design: Cross-sectional survey.

Setting: Surveys were mailed to 1,000 randomly selected primary care physicians in the state of Michigan.

Patient(s): None.

Interventions(s): None.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Self-reported questionnaire asking the relative prevalence of infertility among women based on race, education, and age. Physicians were also asked what interventions they would recommend for one of four hypothetical female infertility patients who were either European American or African American and either a working professional or receiving Medicaid.

Result(s): Although most physicians did not correctly identify the associations between age, race, and socioeconomic status and women's infertility, their suggested clinical interventions did not vary based on a hypothetical patient's race or socioeconomic status. Female physicians, obstetrician/gynecologists, and physicians with more infertility experience or who had seen more infertile patients recommended more components of a model standard of care.

Conclusion(s): A questionnaire using a hypothetical patient model suggests that primary care physicians may not be sufficiently aware of the infertility risk of African American women and women with lower socioeconomic status to ensure that women in need of services are identified.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.11.019DOI Listing
March 2010

Girls' relationship authenticity and self-esteem across adolescence.

Dev Psychol 2008 May;44(3):722-33

Institute of Personality and Social Research, University of California-Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.

Feminist psychologists have long posited that relationship authenticity (i.e., the congruence between what one thinks and feels and what one does and says in relational contexts) is integral to self-esteem and well-being. Guided by a feminist developmental framework, the authors investigated the role of relationship authenticity in promoting girls' self-esteem over the course of adolescence. Latent growth curve modeling was used to test the association between relationship authenticity and self-esteem with data from a 5-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of 183 adolescent girls. Results revealed that both relationship authenticity and self-esteem increased steadily in a linear fashion from the 8th to the 12th grade. Girls who scored high on the measure of relationship authenticity in the 8th grade experienced greater increases in self-esteem over the course of adolescence than girls who scored low on relationship authenticity. Further, girls who increased in authenticity also tended to increase in self-esteem over the course of adolescence. The importance of a feminist developmental framework for identifying and understanding salient dimensions of female adolescence is discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.44.3.722DOI Listing
May 2008

From sex to sexuality: exposing the heterosexual script on primetime network television.

J Sex Res 2007 May;44(2):145-57

California Status University, Department of Child and Adolescent Studies, Fullerton. P.O. Box 6868, Fullerton, CA 92834, USA.

Although it is widely recognized that sexual content pervades television, research rarely examines how television's sexual messages are gendered and occur in a relational context. This study describes the development and implementation of a new coding scheme to evaluate sexual content from a feminist perspective. Merging scripting theory (Gagnon and Simon, 1987) with the theory of compulsory heterosexuality (Rich, 1980), we explicate a heteronormative and dominant sexual script, the Heterosexual Script, and assessed its presence in the 25 primetime television programs viewed most frequently by adolescents. Our codes captured depictions of boys/men and girls/women thinking, feeling, and behaving in relational and sexual encounters in ways that sustain power inequalities between men and women. Male characters most frequently enacted the Heterosexual Script by actively and aggressively pursuing sex. Less frequently but still at high rates were depictions of female characters willingly objectifying themselves and being judged by their sexual conduct.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224490701263660DOI Listing
May 2007

Rethinking the associations between television viewing and adolescent sexuality development: bringing gender into focus.

J Adolesc Health 2007 Jan 5;40(1):84.e9-16. Epub 2006 Oct 5.

San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94110, USA.

Purpose: To investigate associations between adolescents' television viewing, their sexual behavior, and their perceptions of having power and control in sexual situations (i.e., sexual agency). This study incorporates results from a recent content analysis of television and attends to the different motives for and consequences of girls' and boys' sexual and relational behavior.

Methods: Adolescents (n = 703) aged 11 to 17 years from two public school districts in the Northeastern United States completed surveys assessing their television habits and sexual experiences. Survey data were combined with two content analyses, which assessed the frequency of sexual talk and behavior and the prevalence of gendered messages about sexuality (i.e., the Heterosexual Script) on primetime network television.

Results: Adolescents' sexual behavior and feelings of sexual agency were not associated with viewing sexual talk and sexual behavior on television, but were related to viewing the Heterosexual Script, particularly among girls. Girls who saw sexually objectified women and portrayals of men avoiding commitment more often reported less sexual agency. Girls who saw women acting as sexual gatekeepers more often were less sexually experienced and reported more sexual agency. Boys who saw men actively asserting their sexuality more often were less sexually experienced.

Conclusions: The relationship between adolescents' television viewing and sexual experiences depends on the type of sexual messages viewed, the sexual outcome considered, and the gender of the viewer. Parents and practitioners should learn to identify the Heterosexual Script on television and encourage young people to negotiate sexual encounters in safe and positive ways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.08.002DOI Listing
January 2007

To be seen and not heard: femininity ideology and adolescent girls' sexual health.

Arch Sex Behav 2006 Apr 26;35(2):131-44. Epub 2006 Apr 26.

Center for Research on Gender and Sexuality, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, California 94110, USA.

This study used a feminist developmental framework to test the hypothesis that internalizing conventional ideas about femininity in two domains--inauthenticity in relationships and body objectification--is associated with diminished sexual health among adolescent girls. In this study, sexual health was conceptualized as feelings of sexual self-efficacy (i.e., a girl's conviction that she can act upon her own sexual needs in a relationship) and protection behavior (i.e., from both STIs and unwanted pregnancy). A total of 116 girls (aged 16-19) completed measures of femininity ideology, sexual self-efficacy, sexual experiences, and protection behavior. Results revealed that inauthenticity in relationships and body objectification were associated with poorer sexual self-efficacy and sexual self-efficacy, in turn, predicted less sexual experience and less use of protection. Further, the two components of femininity ideology were associated with different forms of protection. The importance of a feminist developmental framework for identifying and understanding salient dimensions of sexual health for female adolescents is discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10508-005-9016-0DOI Listing
April 2006

Cycles of shame: menstrual shame, body shame, and sexual decision-making.

J Sex Res 2005 Nov;42(4):324-34

Center for Research on Gender and Sexuality, San Francisco State University, 2017 Mission Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, CA 94110, USA.

Although numerous factors have been implicated in women's sexual decision-making, less attention has been focused on how their feelings about their bodies and reproductive functions affect these processes. Recent findings link menstrual shame to lower levels of sexual activity and higher levels of sexual risk; however the mechanisms behind these relations remain unexplored. Accordingly, this study investigates the contributions of menstrual shame and global body shame to sexual decision-making among 199 undergraduate women. Using structural equation modeling, we evaluated a mediated model, whereby menstrual shame is indirectly associated with sexual decision-making via body shame. As expected, women who reported feeling more comfort about menstruation also reported more body comfort and, in turn, more sexual assertiveness, more sexual experience, and less sexual risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00224490509552288DOI Listing
November 2005