Publications by authors named "Deborah Ferriola"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

HLA Class I Polymorphisms Influencing Both Peptide Binding and KIR Interactions Are Associated with Remission among Children with Atopic Dermatitis: A Longitudinal Study.

J Immunol 2021 05 16;206(9):2038-2044. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA;

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a disease of immune dysregulation and skin barrier dysfunction with a relapsing, remitting course and has been associated with several different genetic risk variants. HLA represent a highly variable set of genes that code for cell surface protein molecules involved in the Ag-specific immune response, including the regulation or functioning of T cells, NK cells, and APCs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between HLA class I polymorphisms and the progression of AD over time. We evaluated the associations of AD symptoms and HLA class I polymorphisms based on high-resolution two-field typing in a longitudinal cohort of children with AD (up to 10 y of follow-up). Seven hundred and ninety-two children were evaluated every 6 mo, resulting in 12,752 AD evaluations. Using generalized estimating equations and corrected values, B*44:02 was found to be associated with AD remission (1.83 [1.35, 2.47]; = 0.0015). The HLA-B residues at position 116 (d-aspartate) and 80 (T-threonine) were associated with remission (1.42 [1.13, 1.76], = 0.003; corrected = 0.028) and (1.45 [1.17, 1.80], = 0.0008; corrected = 0.0024), respectively. B80T is a killer-cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) site. Our findings reveal that two axes of immune response (T cell and NK cell) may influence disease progression. Identifying binding pocket changes in addition to other factors (e.g., allergens) that increase the risk or severity of AD can improve our understanding of the immunologic mechanisms associated with AD and may lead to personalized therapies for improving patient care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2001252DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062288PMC
May 2021

Genomic characterization of MICA gene using multiple next generation sequencing platforms: A validation study.

HLA 2020 10 21;96(4):430-444. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

We have developed a protocol regarding the genomic characterization of the MICA gene by next generation sequencing (NGS). The amplicon includes the full length of the gene and is about 13 kb. A total of 156 samples were included in the study. Ninety-seven of these samples were previously characterized at MICA by legacy methods (Sanger or sequence specific oligonucleotide) and were used to evaluate the accuracy, precision, specificity, and sensitivity of the assay. An additional 59 DNA samples of unknown ethnicity volunteers from the United States were only genotyped by NGS. Samples were chosen to contain a diverse set of alleles. Our NGS approach included a first round of sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform and a second round of sequencing on the MinION platform by Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT), on selected samples for the purpose of either characterizing new alleles or setting phase among multiple polymorphisms to resolve ambiguities or generate complete sequence for alleles that were only partially reported in the IMGT/HLA database. Complete consensus sequences were generated for every allele sequenced with ONT, extending from the 5' untranslated region (UTR) to the 3' UTR of the MICA gene. Thirty-two MICA sequences were submitted to the IMGT/HLA database including either new alleles or filling up the gaps (exonic, intronic and/or UTRs) of already reported alleles. Some of the challenges associated with the characterization of these samples are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tan.13998DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589345PMC
October 2020

Utilizing nanopore sequencing technology for the rapid and comprehensive characterization of eleven HLA loci; addressing the need for deceased donor expedited HLA typing.

Hum Immunol 2020 Aug 25;81(8):413-422. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address:

The comprehensive characterization of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genomic sequences remains a challenging problem. Despite the significant advantages of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the field of Immunogenetics, there has yet to be a single solution for unambiguous, accurate, simple, cost-effective, and timely genotyping necessary for all clinical applications. This report demonstrates the benefits of nanopore sequencing introduced by Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) for HLA genotyping. Samples (n = 120) previously characterized at high-resolution three-field (HR-3F) for 11 loci were assessed using ONT sequencing paired to a single-plex PCR protocol (Holotype) and to two multiplex protocols OmniType (Omixon) and NGSgo®-MX6-1 (GenDx). The results demonstrate the potential of nanopore sequencing for delivering accurate HR-3F typing with a simple, rapid, and cost-effective protocol. The protocol is applicable to time-sensitive applications, such as deceased donor typings, enabling better assessments of compatibility and epitope analysis. The technology also allows significantly shorter turnaround time for multiple samples at a lower cost. Overall, the nanopore technology appears to offer a significant advancement over current next-generation sequencing platforms as a single solution for all HLA genotyping needs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2020.06.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870017PMC
August 2020

AnthOligo: automating the design of oligonucleotides for capture/enrichment technologies.

Bioinformatics 2020 08;36(15):4353-4356

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine.

Summary: A number of methods have been devised to address the need for targeted genomic resequencing. One of these methods, region-specific extraction (RSE) is characterized by the capture of long DNA fragments (15-20 kb) by magnetic beads, after enzymatic extension of oligonucleotides hybridized to selected genomic regions. Facilitating the selection of the most appropriate capture oligos for targeting a region of interest, satisfying the properties of temperature (Tm) and entropy (ΔG), while minimizing the formation of primer-dimers in a pooled experiment, is therefore necessary. Manual design and selection of oligos becomes very challenging, complicated by factors such as length of the target region and number of targeted regions. Here we describe, AnthOligo, a web-based application developed to optimally automate the process of generation of oligo sequences used to target and capture the continuum of large and complex genomic regions. Apart from generating oligos for RSE, this program may have wider applications in the design of customizable internal oligos to be used as baits for gene panel analysis or even probes for large-scale comparative genomic hybridization array processes. AnthOligo was tested by capturing the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) of a random sample.The application provides users with a simple interface to upload an input file in BED format and customize parameters for each task. The task of probe design in AnthOligo commences when a user uploads an input file and concludes with the generation of a result-set containing an optimal set of region-specific oligos. AnthOligo is currently available as a public web application with URL: http://antholigo.chop.edu.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7520035PMC
August 2020

Complex Linkage Disequilibrium Effects in HLA-DPB1 Expression and Molecular Mismatch Analyses of Transplantation Outcomes.

Transplantation 2021 03;105(3):637-647

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.

Background: HLA molecular mismatch (MM) is a risk factor for de novo donor-specific antibody (dnDSA) development in solid organ transplantation. HLA expression differences have also been associated with adverse outcomes in hematopoietic cell transplantation. We sought to study both MM and expression in assessing dnDSA risk.

Methods: One hundred three HLA-DP-mismatched solid organ transplantation pairs were retrospectively analyzed. MM was computed using amino acids (aa), eplets, and, supplementarily, Grantham/Epstein scores. DPB1 alleles were classified as rs9277534-A (low-expression) or rs9277534-G (high-expression) linked. To determine the associations between risk factors and dnDSA, logistic regression, linkage disequilibrium (LD), and population-based analyses were performed.

Results: A high-risk AA:GX (recipient:donor) expression combination (X = A or G) demonstrated strong association with HLA-DP dnDSA (P = 0.001). MM was also associated with HLA-DP dnDSA when evaluated by itself (eplet P = 0.007, aa P = 0.003, Grantham P = 0.005, Epstein P = 0.004). When attempting to determine the relative individual effects of the risk factors in multivariable analysis, only AA:GX expression status retained a strong association (relative risk = 18.6, P = 0.007 with eplet; relative risk = 15.8, P = 0.02 with aa), while MM was no longer significant (eplet P = 0.56, aa P = 0.51). Importantly, these risk factors are correlated, due to LD between the expression-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphism and polymorphisms along HLA-DPB1.

Conclusions: The MM and expression risk factors each appear to be strong predictors of HLA-DP dnDSA and to possess clinical utility; however, these two risk factors are closely correlated. These metrics may represent distinct ways of characterizing a common overlapping dnDSA risk profile, but they are not independent. Further, we demonstrate the importance and detailed implications of LD effects in dnDSA risk assessment and possibly transplantation overall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000003272DOI Listing
March 2021

Resolving MiSeq-Generated Ambiguities in HLA-DPB1 Typing by Using the Oxford Nanopore Technology.

J Mol Diagn 2019 09 4;21(5):852-861. Epub 2019 Jun 4.

Immunogenetics Laboratory, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

The technical limitations of current next-generation sequencing technologies, combined with an ever-increasing number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles, form the basis for the additional ambiguities encountered at an increasing rate in clinical practice. HLA-DPB1 characterization, particularly, generates a significant percentage of ambiguities (25.5%), posing a challenge for accurate and unambiguous HLA-DPB1 genotyping. Phasing of exonic heterozygous positions between exon 2 and all other downstream exons has been the major cause of ambiguities. In this study, the Oxford Nanopore MinION, a third-generation sequencing technology, was used to resolve the phasing. The accurate MiSeq sequencing data, combined with the long reads obtained from the MinION platform, allow for the resolution of the tested ambiguities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2019.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6734860PMC
September 2019

Next-generation HLA typing of 382 International Histocompatibility Working Group reference B-lymphoblastoid cell lines: Report from the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop.

Hum Immunol 2019 Jul 4;80(7):449-460. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Pathology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Extended molecular characterization of HLA genes in the IHWG reference B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCLs) was one of the major goals for the 17th International HLA and Immunogenetics Workshop (IHIW). Although reference B-LCLs have been examined extensively in previous workshops complete high-resolution typing was not completed for all the classical class I and class II HLA genes. To address this, we conducted a single-blind study where select panels of B-LCL genomic DNA samples were distributed to multiple laboratories for HLA genotyping by next-generation sequencing methods. Identical cell panels comprised of 24 and 346 samples were distributed and typed by at least four laboratories in order to derive accurate consensus HLA genotypes. Overall concordance rates calculated at both 2- and 4-field allele-level resolutions ranged from 90.4% to 100%. Concordance for the class I genes ranged from 91.7 to 100%, whereas concordance for class II genes was variable; the lowest observed at HLA-DRB3 (84.2%). At the maximum allele-resolution 78 B-LCLs were defined as homozygous for all 11 loci. We identified 11 novel exon polymorphisms in the entire cell panel. A comparison of the B-LCLs NGS HLA genotypes with the HLA genotypes catalogued in the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database Cell Repository, revealed an overall allele match at 68.4%. Typing discrepancies between the two datasets were mostly due to the lower-resolution historical typing methods resulting in incomplete HLA genotypes for some samples listed in the IPD-IMGT/HLA Database Cell Repository. Our approach of multiple-laboratory NGS HLA typing of the B-LCLs has provided accurate genotyping data. The data generated by the tremendous collaborative efforts of the 17th IHIW participants is useful for updating the current cell and sequence databases and will be a valuable resource for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2019.03.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6599558PMC
July 2019

Assessing the utilization of high-resolution 2-field HLA typing in solid organ transplantation.

Am J Transplant 2019 07 22;19(7):1955-1963. Epub 2019 Feb 22.

Immunogenetics Laboratory, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

HLA typing in solid organ transplantation (SOT) is necessary for determining HLA-matching status between donor-recipient pairs and assessing patients' anti-HLA antibody profiles. Histocompatibility has traditionally been evaluated based on serologically defined HLA antigens. The evolution of HLA typing and antibody identification technologies, however, has revealed many limitations with using serologic equivalents for assessing compatibility in SOT. The significant improvements to HLA typing introduced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) require an assessment of the impact of this technology on SOT. We have assessed the role of high-resolution 2-field HLA typing (HR-2F) in SOT by retrospectively evaluating NGS-typed pre- and post-SOT cases. HR-2F typing was highly instructive or necessary in 41% (156/385) of the cases. Several pre- and posttransplant scenarios were identified as being better served by HR-2F typing. Five different categories are presented with specific case examples. The experience of another center (Temple University Hospital) is also included, whereby 21% of the cases required HR-2F typing by Sanger sequencing, as supported by other legacy methods, to properly address posttransplant anti-HLA antibody issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15258DOI Listing
July 2019

Characterization of 108 Genomic DNA Reference Materials for 11 Human Leukocyte Antigen Loci: A GeT-RM Collaborative Project.

J Mol Diagn 2018 09 26;20(5):703-715. Epub 2018 Jun 26.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The highly polymorphic human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes, located in the human major histocompatibility complex, encode the class I and II antigen-presenting molecules, which are centrally involved in the immune response. HLA typing is used for several clinical applications, such as transplantation, pharmacogenetics, and diagnosis of autoimmune disease. HLA typing is highly complex because of the homology of HLA genes and pseudogenes and the extensive polymorphism in the population. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention established the Genetic Testing Reference Materials Coordination Program (GeT-RM) in partnership with the genetics community to improve the availability of genomic DNA reference materials necessary for quality assurance of genetic laboratory testing. The GeT-RM together with three clinical laboratories and the Coriell Cell Repositories have characterized genomic DNA obtained from a panel of 108 cell lines for all HLA classic polymorphic loci: HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, DQA1, DQB1, DPA1, and DPB1. The goal was to develop a publicly available and renewable source of well-characterized genomic DNA reference materials to support molecular HLA typing assay development, validation, and verification, quality control, and proficiency testing. These genomic DNA samples are publicly available from the National Institutes of General Medical Science Repository at the Coriell Cell Repositories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2018.05.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6939753PMC
September 2018

Somatic HLA Mutations Expose the Role of Class I-Mediated Autoimmunity in Aplastic Anemia and its Clonal Complications.

Blood Adv 2017 Oct;1(22):1900-1910

Comprehensive Bone Marrow Failure Center, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3615 Civic Center Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104.

Acquired aplastic anemia (aAA) is an acquired deficiency of early hematopoietic cells, characterized by inadequate blood production, and a predisposition to myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and leukemia. Although its exact pathogenesis is unknown, aAA is thought to be driven by Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA)-restricted T cell immunity, with earlier studies favoring HLA class II-mediated pathways. Using whole exome sequencing (WES), we recently identified two aAA patients with somatic mutations in HLA class I genes. We hypothesized that HLA class I mutations are pathognomonic for autoimmunity in aAA, but were previously underappreciated because the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region is notoriously difficult to analyze by WES. Using a combination of targeted deep sequencing of HLA class I genes and single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-A) genotyping we screened 66 aAA patients for somatic HLA class I loss. We found somatic HLA loss in eleven patients (17%), with thirteen loss-of-function mutations in *33:03, *68:01, *14:02 and *40:02 alleles. Three patients had more than one mutation targeting the same HLA allele. Interestingly, *14:02 and *40:02 were significantly overrepresented in aAA patients, compared to ethnicity-matched controls. Patients who inherited the targeted HLA alleles, regardless of HLA mutation status, had a more severe disease course with more frequent clonal complications as assessed by WES, SNP-A, and metaphase cytogenetics, and more frequent secondary MDS. The finding of recurrent HLA class I mutations provides compelling evidence for a predominant HLA class I-driven autoimmunity in aAA, and establishes a novel link between aAA patients' immunogenetics and clonal evolution.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5621748PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2017010918DOI Listing
October 2017

Assessing a single targeted next generation sequencing for human leukocyte antigen typing protocol for interoperability, as performed by users with variable experience.

Hum Immunol 2017 Oct 18;78(10):642-648. Epub 2017 Jul 18.

Cleveland Clinic, United States; Baylor University Medical Center, United States.

Background: A simplified protocol for HLA-typing -by NGS, developed for use with the Illumina MiSeq, was performed by technologists with varying NGS experience to assess accuracy and reproducibility.

Methods: Technologists from six laboratories typed the same 16 samples at HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, and DQB1. The protocol includes long range PCR, library preparation, and paired-end 250bp sequencing. Two indexing strategies were employed: locus-specific indexing whereby each locus was tagged uniquely and sample-specific indexing whereby all 5 loci for a sample were pooled prior to library preparation. Sequence analysis was performed with two software packages, Target HLA (Omixon) and NGSengine (GenDx).

Results: The average number of sequence reads per library was 387,813; however, analysis was limited to 40,000 reads for locus-indexed libraries and 200,000 reads for sample-indexed libraries resulting in an average depth of coverage of 1444 reads per locus. Sufficient reads for genotype analysis were obtained for 98.4% of libraries. Genotype accuracy was >97% in pooled amplicons and >99% in individual amplicons by both software analysis. Inter-laboratory reproducibility was 99.7% and only cause of discordance was cross-contamination of a single amplicon.

Conclusions: This NGS HLA-typing protocol is simple, reproducible, scalable, highly accurate and amenable to clinical testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2017.07.012DOI Listing
October 2017

Targeted Next-Generation Sequencing for Human Leukocyte Antigen Typing in a Clinical Laboratory: Metrics of Relevance and Considerations for Its Successful Implementation.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2017 Jun 24;141(6):806-812. Epub 2017 Feb 24.

From the Division of Transfusion Medicine, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (Dr Gandhi); the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Ms Ferriola and Drs Huang, Duke, and Monos); and the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (Dr Monos).

Context: - Numerous feasibility studies to type human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) by next-generation sequencing (NGS) have led to the development of vendor-supported kits for HLA typing by NGS. Some clinical laboratories have introduced HLA-NGS, and many are investigating the introduction. Standards from accrediting agencies form the regulatory framework for introducing this test into clinical laboratories.

Objectives: - To provide an assessment of metrics and considerations relevant to the successful implementation of clinical HLA-NGS typing, and to provide as a reference a validated HLA-NGS protocol used clinically since December 2013 at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).

Data Sources: - The HLA-NGS has been performed on 2532 samples. The initial 1046 and all homozygous samples were also typed by an alternate method. The HLA-NGS demonstrated 99.7% concordance with the alternate method. Ambiguous results were most common at the DPB1 locus because of a lack of phasing between exons 2 and 3 or the unsequenced exon 1 (533 of 2954 alleles; 18.04%) and the DRB1 locus because of not sequencing exon 1 (75 of 3972 alleles; 1.89%). No ambiguities were detected among the other loci. Except for 2 false homozygous samples, all homozygous samples (1891) demonstrated concordance with the alternate method. The article is organized to address the critical elements in the preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic phases of introducing this assay into the clinical laboratory.

Conclusions: - The results demonstrate that HLA typing by NGS is a highly accurate, reproducible, efficient method that provides more-complete sequencing information for the length of the HLA gene and can be the single methodology for HLA typing in clinical immunogenetics laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2016-0537-RADOI Listing
June 2017

Generation of Full-Length Class I Human Leukocyte Antigen Gene Consensus Sequences for Novel Allele Characterization.

Clin Chem 2016 Dec 27;62(12):1630-1638. Epub 2016 Sep 27.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA;

Background: Routine, high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotyping by next generation sequencing within clinical immunogenetics laboratories can now provide the full-length gene sequence characterization of fully phased HLA alleles. This powerful technique provides insights into HLA variation beyond the traditionally characterized antigen recognition domain, providing sequence annotation across the entire gene including untranslated and intronic regions and may be used to characterize novel alleles from massively parallel sequencing runs.

Methods: We evaluated the utility of the Omixon Holotype HLA assay to generate credible, fully phased full-length gene consensus sequences for 50 individuals at major histocompatibility complex, class I, A (HLA-A), HLA-B, and HLA-C loci (300 genotyped alleles in total) to identify and characterize novel class I HLA alleles using our downstream analytical pipeline.

Results: Our analysis revealed that 7.7% (23/300) of genotyped class I HLA alleles contain novel polymorphisms. Interestingly, all of the novel alleles identified by our analysis were found to harbor sequence variations within intronic regions of the respective locus. In total our analysis identified 17 unique novel class I HLA alleles from 23 of the 300 genotyped alleles and generated full-length gene sequence annotations for 9 previously incompletely annotated HLA class I allele sequences derived from 14 of the 300 genotyped alleles.

Conclusions: The demonstrated utility of the Omixon Holotype HLA assay in combination with our downstream analytical framework to generate fully phased, full-length gene consensus sequences for the identification and characterization of novel HLA alleles, facilitates the study of HLA polymorphism beyond the antigen recognition domain in human health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1373/clinchem.2016.260661DOI Listing
December 2016

The next generation of target capture technologies - large DNA fragment enrichment and sequencing determines regional genomic variation of high complexity.

BMC Genomics 2016 07 9;17:486. Epub 2016 Jul 9.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, USA.

Background: The ability to capture and sequence large contiguous DNA fragments represents a significant advancement towards the comprehensive characterization of complex genomic regions. While emerging sequencing platforms are capable of producing several kilobases-long reads, the fragment sizes generated by current DNA target enrichment technologies remain a limiting factor, producing DNA fragments generally shorter than 1 kbp. The DNA enrichment methodology described herein, Region-Specific Extraction (RSE), produces DNA segments in excess of 20 kbp in length. Coupling this enrichment method to appropriate sequencing platforms will significantly enhance the ability to generate complete and accurate sequence characterization of any genomic region without the need for reference-based assembly.

Results: RSE is a long-range DNA target capture methodology that relies on the specific hybridization of short (20-25 base) oligonucleotide primers to selected sequence motifs within the DNA target region. These capture primers are then enzymatically extended on the 3'-end, incorporating biotinylated nucleotides into the DNA. Streptavidin-coated beads are subsequently used to pull-down the original, long DNA template molecules via the newly synthesized, biotinylated DNA that is bound to them. We demonstrate the accuracy, simplicity and utility of the RSE method by capturing and sequencing a 4 Mbp stretch of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). Our results show an average depth of coverage of 164X for the entire MHC. This depth of coverage contributes significantly to a 99.94 % total coverage of the targeted region and to an accuracy that is over 99.99 %.

Conclusions: RSE represents a cost-effective target enrichment method capable of producing sequencing templates in excess of 20 kbp in length. The utility of our method has been proven to generate superior coverage across the MHC as compared to other commercially available methodologies, with the added advantage of producing longer sequencing templates amenable to DNA sequencing on recently developed platforms. Although our demonstration of the method does not utilize these DNA sequencing platforms directly, our results indicate that the capture of long DNA fragments produce superior coverage of the targeted region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12864-016-2836-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4938946PMC
July 2016

Microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 regulates the Balbiani body and animal-vegetal polarity of the zebrafish oocyte.

PLoS Genet 2010 Aug 19;6(8):e1001073. Epub 2010 Aug 19.

Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Although of fundamental importance in developmental biology, the genetic basis for the symmetry breaking events that polarize the vertebrate oocyte and egg are largely unknown. In vertebrates, the first morphological asymmetry in the oocyte is the Balbiani body, a highly conserved, transient structure found in vertebrates and invertebrates including Drosophila, Xenopus, human, and mouse. We report the identification of the zebrafish magellan (mgn) mutant, which exhibits a novel enlarged Balbiani body phenotype and a disruption of oocyte polarity. To determine the molecular identity of the mgn gene, we positionally cloned the gene, employing a novel DNA capture method to target region-specific genomic DNA of 600 kb for massively parallel sequencing. Using this technique, we were able to enrich for the genomic region linked to our mutation within one week and then identify the mutation in mgn using massively parallel sequencing. This is one of the first successful uses of genomic DNA enrichment combined with massively parallel sequencing to determine the molecular identity of a gene associated with a mutant phenotype. We anticipate that the combination of these technologies will have wide applicability for the efficient identification of mutant genes in all organisms. We identified the mutation in mgn as a deletion in the coding sequence of the zebrafish microtubule actin crosslinking factor 1 (macf1) gene. macf1 is a member of the highly conserved spectraplakin family of cytoskeletal linker proteins, which play diverse roles in polarized cells such as neurons, muscle cells, and epithelial cells. In mgn mutants, the oocyte nucleus is mislocalized; and the Balbiani body, localized mRNAs, and organelles are absent from the periphery of the oocyte, consistent with a function for macf1 in nuclear anchoring and cortical localization. These data provide the first evidence for a role for spectraplakins in polarization of the vertebrate oocyte and egg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2924321PMC
August 2010

Tyrosine kinase blockers: new hope for successful cancer therapy.

Anticancer Agents Med Chem 2009 Jan;9(1):66-76

Department of Molecular Genetics University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16 street, 90-237 Lodz, Poland.

Tyrosine kinases (TKs) are attractive targets for cancer therapy, as quite often their abnormal signaling has been linked with tumor development and growth. Constitutive activated TKs stimulate multiple signaling pathways responsible for DNA repair, apoptosis, and cell proliferation. During the last few years, thorough analysis of the mechanism underlying tyrosine kinase's activity led to novel cancer therapy using TKs blockers. These drugs are remarkably effective in the treatment of various human tumors including head and neck, gastric, prostate and breast cancer and leukemias. The most successful example of kinase blockers is Imatinib (Imatinib mesylate, Gleevec, STI571), the inhibitor of Bcr/Abl oncoprotein, which has become a first-line therapy for chronic myelogenous leukemia. The introduction of STI571 for the treatment of leukemia in clinical oncology has had a dramatic impact on how this disease is currently managed. Others kinase inhibitors used recently in cancer therapy include Dasatinib (BMS-354825) specific for ABL non-receptor cytoplasmic kinase, Gefitinib (Iressa), Erlotinib (OSI-774, Tarceva) and Sunitinib (SU 11248, Sutent) specific for VEGF receptor kinase, AMN107 (Nilotinib) and INNO-406 (NS-187) specific for c-KIT kinase. The following TK blockers for treatment of various human tumors are in clinical development: Lapatinib (Lapatinib ditosylate, Tykerb, GW-572016), Canertinib (CI-1033), Zactima (ZD6474), Vatalanib (PTK787/ZK 222584), Sorafenib (Bay 43-9006, Nexavar), and Leflunomide (SU101, Arava). Herein, we discuss the chemistry, biological activity and clinical potential of new drugs with tyrosine kinase blockers for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/187152009787047752DOI Listing
January 2009

SNP-specific extraction of haplotype-resolved targeted genomic regions.

Nucleic Acids Res 2008 Sep 8;36(15):e94. Epub 2008 Jul 8.

Generation Biotech, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648, USA.

The availability of genotyping platforms for comprehensive genetic analysis of complex traits has resulted in a plethora of studies reporting the association of specific single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with common diseases or drug responses. However, detailed genetic analysis of these associated regions that would correlate particular polymorphisms to phenotypes has lagged. This is primarily due to the lack of technologies that provide additional sequence information about genomic regions surrounding specific SNPs, preferably in haploid form. Enrichment methods for resequencing should have the specificity to provide DNA linked to SNPs of interest with sufficient quality to be used in a cost-effective and high-throughput manner. We describe a simple, automated method of targeting specific sequences of genomic DNA that can directly be used in downstream applications. The method isolates haploid chromosomal regions flanking targeted SNPs by hybridizing and enzymatically elongating oligonucleotides with biotinylated nucleotides based on their selective binding to unique sequence elements that differentiate one allele from any other differing sequence. The targeted genomic region is captured by streptavidin-coated magnetic particles and analyzed by standard genotyping, sequencing or microarray analysis. We applied this technology to determine contiguous molecular haplotypes across a approximately 150 kb genomic region of the major histocompatibility complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkn345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2528194PMC
September 2008
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