Publications by authors named "Deana Davalos"

33 Publications

Surviving and Thriving: Qualitative Results from a Multi-Year, Multidimensional Intervention to Promote Well-Being among Caregivers of Adults with Dementia.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 29;18(9). Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

(1) Introduction: Caring for an adult with dementia is both challenging and rewarding. Research indicates that community-based, social support, and/or arts engagement interventions can play a key role in ameliorating the negative outcomes associated with caregiving while enhancing its more positive attributes. This study explores the psychosocial outcomes experienced by dementia caregivers who participated in a multi-year, multidimensional intervention aimed at promoting caregiver and care recipient well-being. This intervention included bringing caregivers and people with Alzheimer's disease or related dementias (ADRD) to local symphony performances, hosting a social reception prior to the performance, and assessing the outcomes of participation for both caregiver and the care recipient. (2) Materials, Methods, and Analysis: Qualitative data from participant phone interviews ( = 55) as well as focus groups are analyzed using thematic analysis from a phenomenological perspective. (3) Results: Across three years of participation, caregivers reported three main program benefits: relationship building (both with other participants as well as within the broader community); restored humanity (experiencing a greater sense of personal dignity and momentary return to normalcy), and positivity (experiencing positive emotions during the program). (4) Discussion: These findings point to the value of creating caregiver programming that brings together multiple dimensions of successful interventions in order to enhance caregiver experiences and positive intervention outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094755DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125580PMC
April 2021

B Sharp-The cognitive effects of a pilot community music program for people with dementia-related disorders.

Alzheimers Dement (N Y) 2019 11;5:592-596. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Sociology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Introduction: Dementia has been described as the greatest global challenge for healthcare in the 21st century. Pharmaceutical interventions have dominated dementia treatment despite limited efficacy. There is increasing interest in alternatives to delay the progression of cognitive decline, such as community-based programs, promoting social and stimulating experiences. This article discusses a pilot music-based community program (B Sharp) for persons with dementia-related disorders.

Method: In the pilot study, we assessed 23 persons with dementia-related disorders who, with their caregivers, attended the symphony season and accompanying social hours over a 10-month period. Participants completed a baseline and follow-up brief neuropsychological test to assess cognitive changes.

Results: Significant improvements were observed between the pre- and post-B Sharp program assessments ( < .010).

Discussion: Results support the feasibility of the B Sharp program as a community-based program to target cognitive decline. Additional research is needed to understand the mechanisms involved in the improvements observed in this program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trci.2019.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6804583PMC
October 2019

Editorial: Time Perception and Dysfunction: Clinical and Practical Implications.

Front Hum Neurosci 2018 23;12:435. Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnhum.2018.00435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206297PMC
October 2018

Attentional and Neural Processing of Affective and Alcohol-Related Images in University-Attending Emerging Adults.

Emerg Adulthood 2018 Jun 9;6(3):213-218. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

High-risk drinking is prevalent in university-attending emerging adults. This coincides with a critical time for the development of higher level cognitive and emotional processing and underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Cognitive and emotional processing seems to have a particularly sensitive relationship with alcohol. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol use and neurophysiology in an emerging adult, university-attending population. Neurophysiological response, defined as event-related potentials, to alcohol-related and emotionally affective images were evaluated in 23 drinkers and 21 nondrinkers. Drinkers had a greater attentional response to alcohol, positive, and negative images compared to nondrinkers. No differences were found between groups for attentional response (P2) to neutral images or for later emotional processing (late positive potential) for any stimuli type. These data suggest that this drinking population processes alcohol stimuli and affective images similarly and more robustly than nondrinking peers. These data support a relationship between alcohol and emotional processing in emerging adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2167696817737933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518450PMC
June 2018

Cognitive functioning, aging, and work: A review and recommendations for research and practice.

J Occup Health Psychol 2017 Jul 30;22(3):314-336. Epub 2017 Mar 30.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University.

There is a larger proportion and number of older adults in the labor force than ever before. Furthermore, older adults in the workforce are working until later ages. Although a great deal of research has examined physical health and well-being of working older adults, less research has focused on cognitive functioning. The purpose of this article is to provide a broad contemporary and multidisciplinary review of the intersection between cognitive functioning, aging, and work as a follow-up to a paper previously written by Fisher et al. (2014). We begin by providing definitions and background about cognitive functioning and how it changes over the life span. Next we discuss theories relevant to the intersection of cognitive functioning and work, including the use-it-or-lose-it hypothesis, the cognitive reserve hypothesis, hypotheses regarding environmental influences on intellectual functioning, and the job-demands-resources model. Then we summarize recent research about the effects of work on cognitive functioning, as well as ways that cognitive functioning may influence work motivation, learning, development, training, and safety. We conclude by emphasizing the importance of person-environment fit, suggesting avenues for future research, and discussing practical implications for the field of occupational health psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000086DOI Listing
July 2017

Neurophysiology for Detection of High Risk for Psychosis.

Schizophr Res Treatment 2016 7;2016:2697971. Epub 2016 Aug 7.

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Campus Box 1876, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

Schizophrenia is a complex and often disabling disorder that is characterized by a wide range of social, emotional, and cognitive deficits. Increasing research suggests that the greatest social and cognitive therapeutic impact comes from early identification. The present study applied a well-established neurophysiological paradigm in the schizophrenia literature, mismatch negativity (MMN), to college students identified as high risk (HR) for psychosis to investigate MMN as a potential biomarker for the onset of psychosis. The hypothesis was that HR would exhibit attenuated MMN amplitudes compared to controls, as has been established in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Participants (N = 121) were separated into Group 1 (controls) (n 1 = 72) and Group 2 (HR) (n 2 = 49) based on the established cutoff score of the 16-item Prodromal Questionnaire. Participants then completed a time based MMN paradigm during which brain activity was recorded with EEG. For all electrode locations, controls demonstrated significantly more negative amplitudes than HR (Cz: F(1,119) = 8.09, p = .005; Fz: F(1, 119) = 5.74, p = .018; Pz: F(1,119) = 5.88, p = .017). Results suggested that MMN may assist in identifying those who appear high-functioning but may be at risk for later development of psychosis or cognitive and psychological difficulties associated with psychosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2697971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4992535PMC
August 2016

Investigating metacognition, cognition, and behavioral deficits of college students with acute traumatic brain injuries.

J Am Coll Health 2016 07 23;64(5):390-6. Epub 2016 Mar 23.

a Department of Psychology , Colorado State University , Fort Collins , Colorado , USA.

Objective: Executive dysfunction in college students who have had an acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) was investigated. The cognitive, behavioral, and metacognitive effects on college students who endorsed experiencing a brain injury were specifically explored.

Participants: Participants were 121 college students who endorsed a mild TBI, and 121 college students with no history of a TBI were matched on sex and ethnicity to examine potential differences between groups.

Methods: Participants completed the Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX).

Results: A Rasch analysis indicated that the TBI group had significantly higher total scores on the DEX than the control group. Moreover, when compared with the control group, the students with a TBI had higher scores on all 3 subcomponents of the DEX.

Conclusion: These findings suggest that students who endorse brain injuries may experience more difficulty with specific facets of college. Thus, the importance of academic and personal resources available for students with a TBI is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.2016.1167057DOI Listing
July 2016

A Systematic Review of Metacognitive Differences Between Alzheimer's Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia.

Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 2016 08 24;31(5):381-8. Epub 2015 Dec 24.

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Clinicians often have difficulty distinguishing between various forms of dementia to achieve a correct diagnosis. Little research has been done to examine whether awareness of one's cognitive deficits, or metacognitive monitoring, might differ between dementia diagnoses, thereby providing an additional means of differentiating between dementia subtypes. We review articles examining metacognitive comparisons between two of the most common dementia subtypes: Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia. Greater monitoring deficits were apparent in frontotemporal dementia than in Alzheimer's disease, and participants with frontotemporal dementia were less likely to utilize task experience to update and improve the accuracy of subsequent monitoring judgments. Results provide evidence for the utility of metacognitive measures as a means of distinguishing between Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1533317515618899DOI Listing
August 2016

Levels of attention and task difficulty in the modulation of interval duration mismatch negativity.

Front Psychol 2015 27;6:1619. Epub 2015 Oct 27.

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University , Fort Collins, CO, USA.

Time perception has been described as a fundamental skill needed to engage in a number of higher level cognitive processes essential to successfully navigate everyday life (e.g., planning, sequencing, etc.) Temporal processing is often thought of as a basic neural process that impacts a variety of other cognitive processes. Others, however, have argued that timing in the brain can be affected by a number of variables such as attention and motivation. In an effort to better understand timing in the brain at a basic level with minimal attentional demands, researchers have often employed use of the mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN, specifically duration MMN (dMMN) and interval MMN (iMMN) have been popular methods for studying temporal processing in populations for which attention or motivation may be an issue (e.g., clinical populations, early developmental studies). There are, however, select studies which suggest that attention may in fact modify both temporal processing in general and the MMN event-related potential. It is unclear the degree to which attention affects MMN or whether the effects differ depending on the complexity or difficulty of the MMN paradigm. The iMMN indexes temporal processing and is elicited by introducing a deviant interval duration amid a series of standards. A greater degree of difference in the deviant from the standard elicits a heightened iMMN. Unlike past studies, in which attention was intentionally directed toward a closed-captioned move, the current study had participants partake in tasks involving varying degrees of attention (passive, low, and high) with varying degrees of deviants (small, medium, and large) to better understand the role of attention on the iMMN and to assess whether level of attention paired with changes in task difficulty differentially influence the iMMN electrophysiological responses. Data from 19 subjects were recorded in an iMMN paradigm. The amplitude of the iMMN waveform showed an increase with attention, particularly for intervals that were the most distinct from a standard interval (p < 0.02). Results suggest that the role of attention on the iMMN is complex. Both the degree of attention paid as well as the level of difficulty of the MMN task likely influence the neuronal response within a timing network. These results suggest that electrophysiological perception of time is modified by attention and that the design of the iMMN study is critical to minimize the possible confounding effects of attention. In addition, the implications of these results for future studies assessing interval duration-based MMN in clinical populations is also addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01619DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4621395PMC
November 2015

Prospective memory in schizophrenia: a review.

Schizophr Res 2014 May 31;155(1-3):77-89. Epub 2014 Mar 31.

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, United States.

The wide range of psychological and cognitive symptoms associated with schizophrenia can often affect the level of independence that individuals with schizophrenia can achieve in their lives. Prospective memory (PM), or memory associated with future intentions, has been proposed as a useful indicator of select independent living skills. Currently, there is limited research with regards to prospective memory in schizophrenia. The current review systematically summarizes the literature focusing on prospective memory in schizophrenia and concludes that individuals with schizophrenia exhibited both an impairment in PM when compared to healthy controls and a general lack of awareness regarding these deficits. The existing research also suggests that PM deficits are not related to chronicity of illness or medications associated with schizophrenia. Limited findings suggest that PM deficits in individuals with schizophrenia may be associated with the ability to live independently and instrumental activities of daily living.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2014.03.008DOI Listing
May 2014

Neuropsychological functioning in childhood-onset psychosis and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

J Child Psychol Psychiatry 2014 Jul 24;55(7):811-8. Epub 2014 Jan 24.

University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA.

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset psychosis (COP) are chronic, heterogeneous disorders with symptoms that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of their comorbidity is unknown. Studies of each disorder indicate that both ADHD and COP are associated with a range of neuropsychological weaknesses, but few neuropsychological studies have directly compared groups with ADHD and COP.

Methods: Groups with ADHD only (32 F, 48 M), COP only (5 F, 5 M), ADHD + COP (9 F, 21 M), and a control group with neither disorder (25 F, 44 M) completed a neuropsychological battery that included measures of verbal working memory, response inhibition, response speed and variability, and selective attention.

Results: All three clinical groups exhibited significantly lower performance versus the control group on all neuropsychological measures, whereas the only significant difference between the clinical groups was a significantly larger weakness in verbal working memory in the groups with COP.

Conclusions: The frequent co-occurrence between COP and ADHD may reflect shared neuropsychological weaknesses that are most pronounced on measures of working memory and response variability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4065620PMC
July 2014

Cognitive function predicts neural activity associated with pre-attentive temporal processing.

Neuropsychologia 2013 Jan 26;51(2):211-9. Epub 2012 Sep 26.

University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Department of Psychology, 1420 Austin Bluffs Pkwy, Colorado Springs, CO 80918, USA.

Temporal processing, or processing time-related information, appears to play a significant role in a variety of vital psychological functions. One of the main confounds to assessing the neural underpinnings and cognitive correlates of temporal processing is that behavioral measures of timing are generally confounded by other supporting cognitive processes, such as attention. Further, much theorizing in this field has relied on findings from clinical populations (e.g., individuals with schizophrenia) known to have temporal processing deficits. In this study, we attempted to avoid these difficulties by comparing temporal processing assessed by a pre-attentive event-related brain potential (ERP) waveform, the mismatch negativity (MMN) elicited by time-based stimulus features, to a number of cognitive functions within a non-clinical sample. We studied healthy older adults (without dementia), as this population inherently ensures more prominent variability in cognitive function than a younger adult sample, allowing for the detection of significant relationships between variables. Using hierarchical regression analyses, we found that verbal memory and executive functions (i.e., planning and conditional inhibition, but not set-shifting) uniquely predicted variance in temporal processing beyond that predicted by the demographic variables of age, gender, and hearing loss. These findings are consistent with a frontotemporal model of MMN waveform generation in response to changes in the temporal features of auditory stimuli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.09.017DOI Listing
January 2013

The impact of verbal framing on brain activity evoked by emotional images.

J Integr Neurosci 2011 Dec;10(4):513-24

Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Parkway, Colorado Springs, CO 80918, USA.

Emotional stimuli generally command more brain processing resources than non-emotional stimuli, but the magnitude of this effect is subject to voluntary control. Cognitive reappraisal represents one type of emotion regulation that can be voluntarily employed to modulate responses to emotional stimuli. Here, the late positive potential (LPP), a specific event-related brain potential (ERP) component, was measured in response to neutral, positive and negative images while participants performed an evaluative categorization task. One experimental group adopted a "negative frame" in which images were categorized as negative or not. The other adopted a "positive frame" in which the exact same images were categorized as positive or not. Behavioral performance confirmed compliance with random group assignment, and peak LPP amplitude to negative images was affected by group membership: brain responses to negative images were significantly reduced in the "positive frame" group. This suggests that adopting a more positive appraisal frame can modulate brain activity elicited by negative stimuli in the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S0219635211002816DOI Listing
December 2011

Untreated prenatal maternal depression and the potential risks to offspring: a review.

Arch Womens Ment Health 2012 Feb 4;15(1):1-14. Epub 2012 Jan 4.

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80525, USA.

Research exploring the effects of prenatal maternal depression on a developing fetus and child is underrepresented in the literature. Empirical papers have typically focused on the effects of postpartum depression (after birth) instead of prepartum depression (before birth). Disparate empirical findings have produced ongoing debate regarding the effects of prenatal depression on a developing fetus and later in infancy and early childhood. Even more controversial is determining the role of antidepressant medication on offspring outcomes and whether research that does not include the proper control population (e.g., unmedicated depressed participants) can adequately address questions about risks and benefits of treatment during pregnancy. The current review systematically summarizes the literature focusing on unmedicated prenatal depression and offspring outcome and concludes that prepartum depression is highly prevalent, is associated with negative outcomes in offspring, and remains understudied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00737-011-0251-1DOI Listing
February 2012

Metacognition and depressive realism: evidence for the level-of-depression account.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2011 Sep 24;16(5):461-72. Epub 2011 May 24.

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, USA.

Introduction. The present study examined the relationship between metacognition (i.e., "thinking about thinking") and depression. More specifically, the depressive realism hypothesis (Alloy & Abramson, 1979), which posits that depressed people have a more accurate view of reality than nondepressed people, was tested. Methods. Nondepressed, mildly depressed, and moderately depressed individuals predicted their memory performance by making judgements of learning after each studied item. These predictions were then compared with actual performance on a free recall task to assess calibration, an index of metacognitive accuracy. Results and conclusions. Consistent with the depressive realism hypothesis, mild depression was associated with better calibration than nondepression. However, this "sadder but wiser" phenomenon appears to only exist to point, as moderate depression and nondepression showed no calibration differences. Thus, the level-of-depression account of depressive realism is supported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13546805.2011.557921DOI Listing
September 2011

Temporal processing in schizophrenia: effects of task-difficulty on behavioral discrimination and neuronal responses.

Schizophr Res 2011 Apr 1;127(1-3):123-30. Epub 2010 Aug 1.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Denver, 13001 E. 17th Place, Box F546, Aurora, Colorado 80045, United States.

Deficits in temporal judgment in schizophrenia have been observed in behavioral and electrophysiological studies for years. The functional neuroanatomy of temporal judgment in schizophrenia is, however, poorly understood. Recent neurophysiological research suggests that timing deficits in this population may not be widespread across all timing tasks, but specifically associated with high levels of difficulty. We evaluated differences between individuals with schizophrenia (N=16) and healthy subjects (N=18) during a temporal discrimination task at two levels of difficulty. Subjects were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at 3T while discriminating tone durations. Behaviorally, the schizophrenia group performed worse than the control group at both levels of difficulty. Similarly, group differences in patterns of brain activation were observed across both difficulty conditions. In the easy condition, individuals with schizophrenia showed less activation in the supplementary motor area and insula/opercula, regions known to be involved in temporal processing. These group differences increased in the difficult condition. In addition, the striatum was less active in individuals with schizophrenia in the difficult condition. Comparing the difficult to easy conditions revealed robust differences in the bilateral striatum and the insula/opercula, suggesting that the striatum plays a key role in temporal processing deficits in schizophrenia, especially under difficult conditions. These observations suggest that temporal judgment deficits reflect widespread neuroanatomical network involvement in schizophrenia, some of which are not directly related to task difficulty. These findings shed light on disparate findings in the timing literature regarding the role of task difficulty in temporal judgment deficits in schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2010.06.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4105224PMC
April 2011

P50 sensory gating is related to performance on select tasks of cognitive inhibition.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2009 Dec;9(4):448-58

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, 80521, USA.

P50 suppression deficits have been documented in clinical and nonclinical populations, but the behavioral correlates of impaired auditory sensory gating remain poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the relationship between P50 gating and healthy adults' performance on cognitive inhibition tasks. On the basis of load theory (Lavie, Hirst, de Fockert, & Viding, 2004), we predicted that a high perceptual load, a possible consequence of poor auditory P50 sensory gating, would have differential (i.e., positive vs. negative) effects on performance of cognitive inhibition tasks. A dissociation was observed such that P50 gating was negatively related to interference resolution on a Stroop task and positively related to response inhibition on a go/no-go task. Our findings support the idea that a high perceptual load may be beneficial to Stroop performance because of the reduced processing of distractors but detrimental to performance on the go/no-go task because of interference with stimulus discrimination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/CABN.9.4.448DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2810148PMC
December 2009

Nicotine enhances automatic temporal processing as measured by the mismatch negativity waveform.

Nicotine Tob Res 2009 Jun 12;11(6):698-706. Epub 2009 May 12.

Research Service, Denver Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East Ninth Avenue, C268-71, Denver, CO 80262, USA.

Introduction: Cholinergic agonists and, more specifically, nicotine, have been found to enhance a number of cognitive processes. The effect of nicotine on temporal processing is not known. The use of behavioral measures of temporal processing to measure its effect could be confounded by the general effects of nicotine on attention. Mismatch negativity (MMN) has been used as a physiological measure of automatic temporal processing to avoid this potential confound.

Methods: A total of 20 subjects (11 nonsmokers and 9 smokers following 2 hr of abstinence) participated in a two-visit single-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of the effect of nicotine on MMN indices in response to an interstimulus interval deviant.

Results: Nicotine-enhanced MMN amplitudes from baseline recording to postdrug recording greater than did the placebo condition. This enhancement was seen in both nonsmokers and smokers. Nicotine had no significant effect on MMN latency or N100 amplitude or latency.

Discussion: This is the first study to demonstrate a nicotine-related enhancement of MMN amplitude to an interstimulus interval duration deviant and confirms our hypothesis that nicotine enhances preattentive temporal processing. Nicotinic agonists may represent a potential therapeutic option for individuals with abnormalities in early sensory or temporal processing related to cholinergic system abnormalities. Methodologically, our paradigm of nicotine administration in abstinent smokers is important because it resulted in both minimal withdrawal symptoms and meaningful data that are not attributable solely to relief of withdrawal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ntr/ntp052DOI Listing
June 2009

Age differences in Stroop interference: contributions of general slowing and task-specific deficits.

Neuropsychol Dev Cogn B Aging Neuropsychol Cogn 2007 Mar;14(2):155-67

Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA.

This study examined the contributions of general slowing and task-specific deficits to age-related changes in Stroop interference. Nine hundred thirty-eight participants aged 20 to 89 years completed an abbreviated Stroop color-naming task and a subset of 281 participants also completed card-sorting, simple reaction time, and choice reaction time tasks. Age-related increases in incongruent color-naming latency and card-sorting perseverative errors were observed. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that the processing speed measures accounted for significant variance on both dependent measures, but that there was also a significant residual effect of age. An additional regression analysis showed that some of the variance in incongruent color-naming, after controlling for processing speed, was shared with the variance in perseverative errors. Overall, findings suggest that the age difference in Stroop interference is partially attributable to general slowing, but is also attributable to age-related changes in task-specific processes such as inhibitory control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/138255891007065DOI Listing
March 2007

Increased hemodynamic response in the hippocampus, thalamus and prefrontal cortex during abnormal sensory gating in schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2007 May 2;92(1-3):262-72. Epub 2007 Mar 2.

VISN19/MIRECC, Denver VA Medical Center, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Objective: Deficits in sensory gating are a common feature of schizophrenia. Failure of inhibitory gating mechanisms, shown by poor suppression of evoked responses to repeated auditory stimuli, has been previously studied using EEG methods. These methods yield information about the temporal characteristics of sensory gating deficits, but do not identify brain regions involved in the process. Hence, the neuroanatomical substrates of poor sensory gating in schizophrenia remain largely unknown. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the functional neuroanatomy of sensory gating deficits in schizophrenia.

Methods: Twelve patients with schizophrenia and 12 healthy comparison subjects were scanned at 3 Tesla while performing a sensory gating task developed for fMRI. P50 EEG evoked potential recordings from a paired-stimulus conditioning-test paradigm were obtained from the same subjects.

Results: Compared to healthy comparison subjects, patients with schizophrenia exhibited greater activation in the hippocampus, thalamus, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during the fMRI sensory gating task. No group difference was observed in the superior temporal gyrus. Schizophrenia subjects also showed decreased P50 suppression as measured with EEG. Hemodynamic response in the fMRI measure was positively correlated with test/conditioning ratios from the EEG sensory gating measure.

Conclusions: Poor sensory gating in schizophrenia is associated with dysfunction of an apparent network of brain regions, including the hippocampus, thalamus and DLPFC. Greater activation of these regions is consistent with evidence for diminished inhibitory function in schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2006.12.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2726714PMC
May 2007

Effect of task difficulty on the functional anatomy of temporal processing.

Neuroimage 2006 Aug 19;32(1):307-15. Epub 2006 Apr 19.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Campus Box C268-71, 4200 E. 9th Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA.

Temporal processing underlies many aspects of human perception, performance and cognition. The present study used fMRI to examine the functional neuroanatomy of a temporal discrimination task and to address two questions highlighted by previous studies: (1) the effect of task difficulty on neuronal activation and (2) the involvement of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in timing. Twenty healthy subjects were scanned while either judging whether the second in a pair of tones was shorter or longer in duration than the standard tone or simply responding to the presentation of two identical tones as a control condition. Two levels of difficulty were studied. Activation during the less difficult condition was observed only in the cerebellum and superior temporal gyrus. As difficulty increased, additional activation of the supplementary motor area, insula/operculum, DLPFC, thalamus and striatum was observed. These results suggest the cerebellum plays a critical role in timing, particularly in gross temporal discrimination. These results also suggest that recruitment of frontal and striatal regions during timing tasks is load-dependent. Additionally, robust activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex under conditions of minimal working memory involvement supports the specific involvement of this region in temporal processing rather than a more general involvement in working memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.02.036DOI Listing
August 2006

Age differences in fluid intelligence: contributions of general slowing and frontal decline.

Brain Cogn 2006 Oct 5;62(1):9-16. Epub 2006 Apr 5.

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, USA.

The current study examined the contributions of general slowing and frontal decline to age differences in fluid intelligence. Participants aged 20-89 years completed Block Design, Matrix Reasoning, simple reaction time, choice reaction time, Wisconsin Card Sorting, and Tower of London tasks. Age-related declines in fluid intelligence, speed of processing, and frontal function were observed. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that the processing speed and frontal function measures accounted for significant variance in fluid intelligence performance, but there was also a residual effect of age after controlling for each variable individually as well as both variables. An additional analysis showed that the variance in fluid intelligence that was attributable to processing speed was not fully shared with the variance attributable to frontal function. These findings suggest that the age-related decline in fluid intelligence is due to general slowing and frontal decline, as well as other unidentified factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2006.02.006DOI Listing
October 2006

Deficits in auditory and visual temporal perception in schizophrenia.

Cogn Neuropsychiatry 2002 Nov;7(4):273-82

University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 80262, USA.

Introduction: Characteristics of time perception have not been well documented in patients with schizophrenia. The current study investigated time estimation to (1) test whether visual and auditory time perception varied between patients and controls, (2) assess the degree to which patients and controls can differentiate changes in experimental intervals, and (3) explore whether the temporal deficits suggest a general time perception deficit versus modality-specific differences.

Methods: Participants were asked to decide whether temporal intervals were shorter or longer than standard intervals on computer-based auditory and visual temporal perception tasks. Data are presented for a sample of 10 patients with schizophrenia and 10 normal controls.

Results: Data suggest that patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficits in differentiating subtle differences in intervals in the tens of milliseconds range, compared to their normal control peers on both auditory (p < .01) and visual perception tasks (p < .01).

Conclusions: Preliminary data suggest that there is a general temporal processing deficit in schizophrenia. However, future research using complementary techniques may provide useful information regarding the specific types of temporal deficits that affect patients with schizophrenia and the physiology of the dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13546800143000230DOI Listing
November 2002

Behavioral and electrophysiological indices of temporal processing dysfunction in schizophrenia.

J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 2005 ;17(4):517-25

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.

Timing deficits in schizophrenia have been noted in several behavioral studies. However, the involvement of mediating factors, such as inattention, has not been ruled out as contributing to these effects. Mismatch negativity (MMN), an electrophysiological measure, may provide a more direct index of stimulus processing ability in individuals with schizophrenia. The current study explored the relationship between behavioral time judgments and a time-based MMN paradigm. Participants were administered two MMN paradigms consisting of an "easy" or "difficult" deviant and an analogous behavioral measure of time processing. Matched against a healthy comparison group, patients exhibited decreased MMN amplitude on the "difficult" deviant interval only. However, on the behavioral paradigm, the patients made significantly more errors across all conditions. These results suggest that behavioral measures of time processing may reflect different processes than those captured by preattentive physiological measures in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/jnp.17.4.517DOI Listing
February 2006

Age-related change in neural processing of time-dependent stimulus features.

Brain Res Cogn Brain Res 2005 Dec 27;25(3):913-25. Epub 2005 Oct 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Parkway, Colorado Springs, CO 80933-7150, USA.

Aging is associated with changes in automatic processing of task-irrelevant stimuli, and this may lead to functional disturbances including repeated orienting to nonnovel events and distraction from task. The effect of age on automatic processing of time-dependent stimulus features was investigated by measurement of the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) in younger (18-23) and older (55-85) adults. Amplitude of MMN recorded during a paradigm involving low-probability deviation in interstimulus interval (from 500 ms to 250 ms) was found to be reduced in the older group at fronto-central sites. This effect was paralleled by, and correlated to, decreased sensory gating efficiency for component N1 recorded during a separate paradigm involving alternate presentation of auditory stimuli at long (9 s) and short (0.5 s) interstimulus intervals. Further, MMN amplitude was correlated to behavioral performance on a small subset of neuropsychological tests, including the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, within a group of healthy older adults. The results support the hypothesis that aging is associated with declines in automatic processing of time-dependent stimulus features, and this is related to cognitive function. These conclusions are considered in the context of age-related declines in prefrontal cortex function and associated increases in susceptibility to task-irrelevant stimuli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2005.09.014DOI Listing
December 2005

Effects of perceived parental school support and family communication on delinquent behaviors in latinos and white non-latinos.

Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol 2005 Feb;11(1):57-68

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, CO 80262, USA.

The authors examined the roles of perceived parental school support and family communication in the context of delinquent behaviors in Mexican American and White non-Latino adolescents. Family communication was defined as the degree to which adolescents endorsed that they communicated with their parents about a variety of topics. The Parental School Support scale was administered to assess adolescents' perceptions of parental support for academic pursuits. Data analysis included the relationship between these variables and their predictive relationship to delinquency, and the relationship to gender and ethnicity. Results demonstrated that adolescents' perceptions of family communication and parental school support were related to the likelihood of committing delinquent acts. There were no significant differences in gender or ethnicity in perceived levels of family communication and parental school support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1099-9809.11.1.57DOI Listing
February 2005

Working memory, inhibition, and fluid intelligence as predictors of performance on Tower of Hanoi and London tasks.

Brain Cogn 2004 Dec;56(3):286-92

Department of Psychology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80543, USA.

The contributions of working memory, inhibition, and fluid intelligence to performance on the Tower of Hanoi (TOH) and Tower of London (TOL) were examined in 85 undergraduate participants. All three factors accounted for significant variance on the TOH, but only fluid intelligence accounted for significant variance on the TOL. When the contribution of fluid intelligence was accounted for, working memory and inhibition continued to account for significant variance on the TOH. These findings support argument that fluid intelligence contributes to executive functioning, but also show that the executive processes elicited by tasks vary according to task structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2004.07.003DOI Listing
December 2004

Small changes in temporal deviance modulate mismatch negativity amplitude in humans.

Neurosci Lett 2004 Apr;358(3):197-200

Department of Psychology, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 1420 Austin Bluffs Parkway, Colorado Springs, CO 80933-7150, USA.

The relative sensitivity of mismatch negativity (MMN) amplitude to small changes in temporal (i.e. timing) deviance of an ongoing stimulus train was investigated. MMN was measured at Fz in response to 3.75-15% decrements of inter-stimulus interval from a 400 ms standard with a deviant probability of 1/15. This parameter space represents the smallest degree of deviance and the narrowest range of variation that has been tested in the context of MMN sensitivity to temporal variables. Waveform amplitude was found to significantly increase with degree of temporal deviance even within this relatively narrow parameter space. This finding is consistent with the view that the MMN corresponds to pre-attentive neural activity that subsequently allows the conscious perception of time during temporal discrimination tasks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2004.01.042DOI Listing
April 2004

Neuropsychological deficits in children associated with increased familial risk for schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2004 Apr;67(2-3):123-30

Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 4200 East 9th Avenue, Denver, CO 80262, USA.

By studying neuropsychological performance in children genetically at-risk for schizophrenia, greater understanding may be obtained regarding the developmental processes of schizophrenia and associated cognitive weaknesses. A variety of cognitive deficits in genetically at-risk children have been reported. The present study was designed to examine cognitive tasks that have traditionally differentiated children genetically at-risk for schizophrenia (e.g. working memory) from normal children, while also assessing abilities that have received scant attention in this population. Aspects of emotional perception, verbal abilities, inhibition, visuo-spatial skills, and working memory were assessed in children of schizophrenic parents and normal children. Significant differences in performances were identified in at-risk children on measures of verbal skills, working memory and inhibition. Findings suggest that children genetically at-risk for developing schizophrenia exhibit neurocognitive weaknesses generally consistent with those noted in the literature. However, inhibition also appeared to be a cognitive process that significantly differentiated the groups. The possibility of a developmental expression of neurocognitive deficits is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0920-9964(03)00187-7DOI Listing
April 2004

Effects of interval duration on temporal processing in schizophrenia.

Brain Cogn 2003 Aug;52(3):295-301

Denver VA Medical Center, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, USA.

Introduction: Temporal processing has received scant attention in the literature pertaining to cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia. Previous research suggests that patients with schizophrenia exhibit temporal perception deficits on both auditory and visual stimuli. The current study investigated the effects of interval manipulation to (1) replicate the original findings with a larger sample and an increased number of trials (2) assess the degree to which both patients and controls can differentiate temporal changes in a range of experimental interstimulus intervals, and (3) explore whether different interstimulus interval durations pose different levels of difficulty for the patients with schizophrenia.

Methods: Participants were asked to decide whether temporal intervals were shorter or longer than standard intervals on a computer-based auditory temporal perception task. The standard interval remained the same duration throughout the various tasks. The interstimulus interval separating the standard and experimental intervals varied in the range of 500, 1000, or 3000 ms. Data are presented for a sample of 16 patients with schizophrenia and 15 controls.

Results: Data suggest that patients with schizophrenia exhibit deficits in differentiating interval durations across all paradigms compared to their control-group peers on a range of auditory tasks (p<.001).

Conclusions: These results are consistent with a general temporal deficit in schizophrenia. However, the roles of medication and localization are also addressed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0278-2626(03)00157-xDOI Listing
August 2003