Publications by authors named "Dean J Mikami"

39 Publications

Endoscopic treatments for GERD.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2020 12 15;1482(1):121-129. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Surgery, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition with increasing prevalence and morbidity in the United States and worldwide. Despite advances in medical and surgical therapy over the last 30 years, gaps remain in the therapeutic profile of options. Flexible upper endoscopy offers the promise of filling in these gaps in a potentially minimally invasive approach. In this concise review, we focus on the plethora of endoluminal therapies available for the treatment of GERD. Therapies discussed include injectable agents, electrical stimulation of the lower esophageal sphincter, antireflux mucosectomy, radiofrequency ablation, and endoscopic suturing devices designed to create a fundoplication. As new endoscopic treatments become available, we come closer to the promise of the incisionless treatment of GERD. The known data surrounding the indications, benefits, and risks of these historical, current, and emerging approaches are reviewed in detail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14511DOI Listing
December 2020

Predictors of Robotic Versus Laparoscopic Inguinal Hernia Repair.

J Surg Res 2019 09 28;241:247-253. Epub 2019 Apr 28.

Department of Surgery, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii. Electronic address:

Background: The advent of robotic-assisted surgery has added an additional decision point in the treatment of inguinal hernias. The goal of this study was to identify the patient, surgeon, and hospital demographic predictors of robotic inguinal hernia repair (IHR).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 102,241 IHRs (1096 robotic and 101,145 laparoscopic) from 2010 through 2015 with data collected in the Premier Hospital Database. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) of receiving a robotic IHR was calculated for each of several demographic factors using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: The rate of robotic IHR increased from 2010 through 2015. Age <65 y and Charlson comorbidity index were not predictors of a robotic IHR. Females were more likely to receive a robotic IHR (OR 1.69, confidence interval [CI] 1.40-2.05, P < 0.0001). Compared with white patients, black patients were more likely (OR 1.33, CI 1.06-1.68, P = 0.0138), and other race patients were less likely (OR 0.47, CI 0.38-0.58, P < 0.0001) to receive a robotic IHR. Compared with Medicare insurance, patients with all other types of insurance were more likely to receive a robotic IHR (OR > 1.00, lower limit of CI > 1.00, P < 0.05). Higher volume surgeons were less likely to perform robotic IHR (OR < 1.00, upper limit of CI < 1.00, P < 0.05). Nonteaching (OR 1.81, CI 1.53-2.13, P < 0.0001), larger (OR > 1.00, lower limit of CI > 1.00, P < 0.05), and rural (OR 1.27, CI 1.03-1.57, P = 0.025) hospitals were more likely to perform robotic IHR. Significant regional variation in the rate of robotic IHR was identified (OR > 1.00, lower limit of CI > 1.00, P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The rate of robotic IHR is increasing exponentially. This study found that female gender, black race, insurance other than Medicare, lower surgeon annual volume, larger hospital size, nonteaching hospital status, rural hospital location, and hospital region were predictors of robotic IHR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.03.056DOI Listing
September 2019

Predictors of laparoscopic versus open inguinal hernia repair.

Surg Endosc 2019 08 29;33(8):2612-2619. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Surgery, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, 1356 Lusitana St., Sixth Floor, Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA.

Background: Inguinal hernia repair (IHR) is among the most common general surgery procedures. Multiple studies have examined costs and benefits of laparoscopic approach versus open repair. This study aimed to identify patient, surgeon, and hospital demographic predictors of laparoscopic versus open IHR.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 342,814 IHRs (241,669 open; 101,145 laparoscopic) performed in adults (age ≥ 18) from 2010 to 2015 using the Premier Hospital Database. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratio of an IHR being laparoscopic versus open with respect to several demographic variables.

Results: The odds of an IHR being laparoscopic increased from 2010 to 2015. A laparoscopic procedure was more likely in patients who were < age 65 (OR 1.29, CI 1.24-1.31, p < 0.0001), male (OR 1.31, CI 1.27-1.34, p < 0.0001), privately insured (OR 1.36, CI 1.33-1.40, p < 0.0001), and neither white, black, nor Hispanic (OR 1.11, CI 1.09-1.14, p < 0.0001). The likelihood of a procedure being laparoscopic decreased 13% with each one-unit increase in Charlson comorbidity index value (OR 0.88, CI 0.87-0.89, p < 0.0001). Surgeons were more likely to perform a laparoscopic procedure if they had larger annual IHR caseloads (≥ 45/year; OR 1.57, CI 1.53-1.60, p < 0.0001), and operated at large hospitals (> 500 beds; OR 1.36, CI 1.33-1.39, p < 0.0001) in New England (OR 2.38, CI 2.29-2.47, p < 0.0001). Non-predictors of a laparoscopic procedure included urban/rural hospital location (OR 1.02, CI 0.10-1.05, p = 0.06) and hospital teaching status (OR 1.01, CI 0.99-1.03, p = 0.2084).

Conclusions: Use of laparoscopic IHR is increasing. Patient age, gender, race, and insurance type, as well as surgeon annual volume, hospital size, and hospital region were predictors of a laparoscopic procedure. Further studies are needed to explain and remedy underlying differences impacting these predictors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-018-6557-6DOI Listing
August 2019

Endoscopic stent placement for treatment of sleeve gastrectomy leak: a single institution experience with fully covered stents.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2018 04 19;14(4):453-461. Epub 2017 Dec 19.

Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:

Background: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has risen in prevalence as a standalone surgical option for treating obesity over the last 15 years. One of the most worrisome complications is development of a leak at the gastrectomy staple line.

Objective: The objective of this report is to describe our single-institution experience in managing SG staple-line leaks with fully covered endoscopic stents.

Setting: Academic medical center, United States.

Methods: Data for all patients who underwent endoscopic stent placement for an SG leak between 2010 and 2016 at a single academic institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patient medical history, perioperative information, stent placement details, outcomes, and subsequent interventions were recorded.

Results: Twenty-four patients with SG staple-line leaks treated with fully covered endoscopic stents were identified. Leaks were identified at a median of 31.5 days postoperatively (range, 1-1615 d). The majority of patients underwent other treatment(s) for their leak before stent placement at our institution. Stents remained in place for an average of 28.8 ± 16.8 days. Migration occurred in 22% of all stent placements. Three patients were lost to follow-up, and 14 of the remaining 21 patients (66.7%) healed after stent placement. Five patients (23.8%) ultimately required operative revision with partial gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy for management of persistent leaks.

Conclusion: Endoscopic management using fully covered stents for staple-line leaks after SG is effective in the majority of patients. However, algorithms are needed for the management of chronic staple-line leaks, which are less likely to heal with stent placement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2017.12.015DOI Listing
April 2018

Impact of minimally invasive surgery on healthcare utilization, cost, and workplace absenteeism in patients with Incisional/Ventral Hernia (IVH).

Surg Endosc 2017 11 31;31(11):4412-4418. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Department of Surgery, The University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine, Honolulu, HI, 96813, USA.

Background: Incisional hernia repair is one of the most common general surgery operations being performed today. With the advancement of laparoscopy since the 1990s, we have seen vast improvements in faster return to normal activity, shorter hospital stays and less post-operative narcotic use, to name a few.

Objective: The key aims of this review were to measure the impact of minimally invasive surgery versus open surgery on health care utilization, cost, and work place absenteeism in the patients undergoing inpatient incisional/ventral hernia (IVH) repair.

Methods: We analyzed data from the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database. Total of 2557 patients were included in the analysis.

Results: Of the patient that underwent IVH surgery, 24.5% (n = 626) were done utilizing minimally invasive surgical (MIS) techniques and 75.5% (n = 1931) were done open. Ninety-day post-surgery outcomes were significantly lower in the MIS group compared to the open group for total payment ($19,288.97 vs. $21,708.12), inpatient length of stay (3.12 vs. 4.24 days), number of outpatient visit (5.48 vs. 7.35), and estimated days off (11.3 vs. 14.64), respectively. At 365 days post-surgery, the total payment ($27,497.96 vs. $30,157.29), inpatient length of stay (3.70 vs. 5.04 days), outpatient visits (19.75 vs. 23.42), and estimated days off (35.71 vs. 41.58) were significantly lower for MIS group versus the open group, respectively.

Conclusion: When surgical repair of IVH is performed, there is a clear advantage in the MIS approach versus the open approach in regard to cost, length of stay, number of outpatient visits, and estimated days off.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-017-5488-yDOI Listing
November 2017

Stray energy transfer during endoscopy.

Surg Endosc 2017 Oct 15;31(10):3946-3951. Epub 2017 Feb 15.

Department of Surgery, The University of Colorado and The Denver VAMC, 1055 Clermont St, #112, Denver, CO, 80220, USA.

Introduction: Endoscopy is the standard tool for the evaluation and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. While the risk of complication is low, the use of energy devices can increase complications by 100-fold. The mechanism of increased injury and presence of stray energy is unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine if stray energy transfer occurs during endoscopy and if so, to define strategies to minimize the risk of energy complications.

Methods And Procedures: A gastroscope was introduced into the stomach of an anesthetized pig. A monopolar generator delivered energy for 5 s to a snare without contacting tissue or the endoscope itself. The endoscope tip orientation, energy device type, power level, energy mode, and generator type were varied to mimic in vivo use. The primary outcome (stray current) was quantified as the change in tissue temperature (°C) from baseline at the tissue closest to the tip of the endoscope. Data were reported as mean ± standard deviation.

Results: Using the 60 W coag mode while changing the orientation of the endoscope tip, tissue temperature increased by 12.1 ± 3.5 °C nearest the camera lens (p < 0.001 vs. all others), 2.1 ± 0.8 °C nearest the light lens, and 1.7 ± 0.4 °C nearest the working channel. Measuring temperature at the camera lens, reducing power to 30 W (9.5 ± 0.8 °C) and 15 W (8.0 ± 0.8 °C) decreased stray energy transfer (p = 0.04 and p = 0.002, respectively) as did utilizing the low-voltage cut mode (6.6 ± 0.5 °C, p < 0.001). An impedance-monitoring generator significantly decreased the energy transfer compared to a standard generator (1.5 ± 3.5 °C vs. 9.5 ± 0.8 °C, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Stray energy is transferred within the endoscope during the activation of common energy devices. This could result in post-polypectomy syndrome, bleeding, or perforation outside of the endoscopist's view. Decreasing the power, utilizing low-voltage modes and/or an impedance-monitoring generator can decrease the risk of complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-017-5427-yDOI Listing
October 2017

Preoperative chemical component relaxation using Botulinum toxin A: enabling laparoscopic repair of complex ventral hernia.

Surg Endosc 2017 02 28;31(2):761-768. Epub 2016 Jun 28.

Macquarie University Hospital, Technology Place, Macquarie, NSW, Australia.

Background: Repair of complex ventral hernia can be very challenging for surgeons. Closure of large defects can have serious pathophysiological consequences. Botulinum toxin A (BTA) has recently been described to provide flaccid paralysis to abdominal muscles prior to surgery, facilitating closure and repair.

Methods: This was a prospective observational study of 32 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided injections of BTA to the lateral abdominal wall muscles prior to elective repair of complex ventral hernia between January 2013 and December 2015. Serial non-contrast abdominal CT imaging was performed to measure changes in fascial defect size, abdominal wall muscle length and thickness. All hernias were repaired laparoscopically or laparoscopic-assisted with placement of intra-peritoneal mesh.

Results: Thirty-two patients received BTA injections which were well tolerated with no complications. A comparison of baseline (preBTA) CT imaging with postBTA imaging demonstrated an increase in mean baseline abdominal wall length from 16.4 to 20.4 cm per side (p < 0.0001), which translates to a gain in mean transverse length of the unstretched anterolateral abdominal wall muscles of 4.0 cm/side (range 0-11.7 cm/side). Fascial closure was achieved in all cases, with no instances of raised intra-abdominal pressures or its sequelae, and there have been no hernia recurrences to date.

Conclusions: Preoperative BTA injection to the muscles of the anterolateral abdominal wall is a safe and effective technique for the preoperative preparation of patients prior to laparoscopic mesh repair of complex ventral hernia. This technique elongates and thins the contracted and retracted musculature, enabling closure of large defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-016-5030-7DOI Listing
February 2017

Pharmacotherapy in Conjunction with a Diet and Exercise Program for the Treatment of Weight Recidivism or Weight Loss Plateau Post-bariatric Surgery: a Retrospective Review.

Obes Surg 2016 Feb;26(2):452-8

The Comprehensive Weight Management and Bariatric Surgery Program, Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 410 W. 10th Ave, Room 558, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Background: Bariatric surgery is an effective therapeutic option for management of obesity. However, weight recidivism (WR) and weight loss plateau (WLP) are common problems. We present our experience with the use of two pharmacotherapies in conjunction with our standard diet and exercise program in those patients who experienced WR or WLP.

Methods: From June 2010 to April 2014, bariatric surgery patients who experienced WR or WLP after undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) or laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), and who were treated with phentermine (Ph) or phentermine-topiramate (PhT), were reviewed retrospectively. Generalized estimating equations were used to compare patient weights through 90 days between initial surgery type and medication type. Patient weights, medication side effect, and co-morbidities were collected during the first 90 days of therapy.

Results: Fifty-two patients received Ph while 13 patients received PhT. Overall, patients in both groups lost weight. Among those whose weights were recorded at 90 days, patients on Ph lost 6.35 kg (12.8% excess weight loss (EWL); 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.25, 8.44) and those prescribed PhT lost 3.81 kg (12.9% EWL; CI 1.08, 6.54). Adjusting for baseline weight, time since surgery, and visit through 90 days, patients treated with Ph weighed significantly less than those on PhT throughout the course of this study (1.35 kg lighter; 95% CI 0.17, 2.53; p = 0.025). There were no serious side effects reported.

Conclusions: Phentermine and phentermine-topirimate in addition to diet and exercise appear to be viable options for weight loss in post-RYGB and LAGB patients who experience WR or WLP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-015-1979-xDOI Listing
February 2016

Effectiveness of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on obese class I type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2015 Nov-Dec;11(6):1220-6. Epub 2015 Feb 19.

Department of Minimally Invasive Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, Suzhou 215000, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Background: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) can dramatically improve type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) in obese class II and III patients. There is increasing evidence that shows bariatric surgery can also ameliorate T2D in patients with BMI between 30 kg/m(2) and 35 kg/m(2) (obese class I).

Objective: To compare the effectiveness of LRYGB on T2D in obese class I patients with that of obese class II and III T2D patients.

Setting: University Hospital, China

Methods: A prospective study was performed in the authors' center from March 2010 to July 2011. Forty-two consecutive obese patients were included in the study. Anthropometric and metabolism parameters were compared between obese class II and III patients and obese class I patients before and after LRYGB.

Results: No patients were lost to follow up. After 36 months, metabolic parameters significantly improved in both groups. Partial remission rates between the 2 groups at each time point (12 months, 24 months, and 36 months) were comparable. Obese class II and III patients had higher complete remission rates at 12 months and 24 months, but no difference was observed at 36 months.

Conclusion: Both obese class II and III patients and obese class I T2D patients showed significant improvement in multiple parameters after LRYGB. Obese class II and III patients had a higher complete remission rate than obese class I patients. Standardized remission criteria are needed to make outcomes form different centers comparable. Large prospective studies are needed and long-term outcomes have to be observed to better evaluate effectiveness of LRYGB on obese class I T2D patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2015.02.013DOI Listing
October 2016

Physiology and pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

Surg Clin North Am 2015 Jun 24;95(3):515-25. Epub 2015 Mar 24.

Department of Surgery, Abington Memorial Hospital, 1245 Highland Avenue, Price Building, Suite 604, Abington, PA 19001, USA. Electronic address:

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common problems treated by primary care physicians. Almost 20% of the population in the United States experiences occasional regurgitation, heartburn, or retrosternal pain because of GERD. Reflux disease is complex, and the physiology and pathogenesis are still incompletely understood. However, abnormalities of any one or a combination of the three physiologic processes, namely, esophageal motility, lower esophageal sphincter function, and gastric motility or emptying, can lead to GERD. There are many diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to GERD today, but more studies are needed to better understand this complex disease process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suc.2015.02.006DOI Listing
June 2015

β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide acts at prejunctional adenosine A1 receptors to suppress inhibitory musculomotor neurotransmission in guinea pig colon and human jejunum.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2015 Jun 26;308(11):G955-63. Epub 2015 Mar 26.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio;

Intracellular microelectrodes were used to record neurogenic inhibitory junction potentials in the intestinal circular muscle coat. Electrical field stimulation was used to stimulate intramural neurons and evoke contraction of the smooth musculature. Exposure to β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD) did not alter smooth muscle membrane potential in guinea pig colon or human jejunum. ATP, ADP, β-NAD, and adenosine, as well as the purinergic P2Y1 receptor antagonists MRS 2179 and MRS 2500 and the adenosine A1 receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine, each suppressed inhibitory junction potentials in guinea pig and human preparations. β-NAD suppressed contractile force of twitch-like contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in guinea pig and human preparations. P2Y1 receptor antagonists did not reverse this action. Stimulation of adenosine A1 receptors with 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine suppressed the force of twitch contractions evoked by electrical field stimulation in like manner to the action of β-NAD. Blockade of adenosine A1 receptors with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine suppressed the inhibitory action of β-NAD on the force of electrically evoked contractions. The results do not support an inhibitory neurotransmitter role for β-NAD at intestinal neuromuscular junctions. The data suggest that β-NAD is a ligand for the adenosine A1 receptor subtype expressed by neurons in the enteric nervous system. The influence of β-NAD on intestinal motility emerges from adenosine A1 receptor-mediated suppression of neurotransmitter release at inhibitory neuromuscular junctions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00430.2014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4451321PMC
June 2015

The perfect storm: a foreign body and splenic infarct mimicking a sleeve gastrectomy leak.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2014 Nov-Dec;10(6):e63-6. Epub 2014 Jun 7.

Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2014.06.002DOI Listing
August 2015

Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banded plication: case-matched study from a single U.S. center.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2015 Jan-Feb;11(1):119-24. Epub 2014 Jun 4.

Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:

Background: Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banded plication (LAGBP) is a novel technique for weight loss surgery. This study evaluates the safety and short-term efficacy of LAGBP in a U.S. population. The setting was an academic medical center in the United States.

Methods: Patients who underwent LAGBP between 2012 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Demographic characteristics, pre and perioperative details, body mass index (BMI), and percent excess weight loss (%EWL) were analyzed and compared to case-matched cohorts that had laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) during the same time period.

Results: Seventeen patients (14 females) underwent LAGBP during the study period and were case-matched based on age, sex, race, and preoperative BMI with patients having LAGB and LSG. Mean age and preoperative BMI for LAGBP cohort were 42.5±11.6 years and 47.7±6.5 kg/m2, respectively. Mean operative time and estimated blood loss were 72±16 minutes and 23±23 mL, respectively, compared to 49±16 minutes (P=.002) and 15±23 mL for LAGB, and 66±18 minutes and 36±22 mL for LSG. There were no perioperative deaths. Hospital length of stay was 1.1±.3 days for LAGBP, versus .7±.3 days (P=.004) for LAGB, and 2.7±1.4 days (P<.001) for LSG. At 12-month follow-up, patients in the LAGBP and LAGB groups had undergone similar number of band adjustments (4.7 versus 5.1; P=.68). The %EWL was 46.1±14.8% for the LAGBP cohort, compared to 38.9±20.6% for LAGB, and 57.7±16% for LSG.

Conclusion: LAGBP is technically feasible and safe, and offers weight loss results positioned between LAGB and LSG at 1 year. To date, this is the largest U.S. series to compare this novel technique to more traditional weight loss procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2014.05.030DOI Listing
January 2016

Bioabsorbable hernia plugs in laparoscopic inguinal herniorraphy: short-term and long-term results.

Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2015 Apr;25(2):163-7

Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, Division of General and Gastrointestinal Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH.

Purpose: To report our short-term and long-term experience with laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair (LIHR) using a bioabsorbable plug.

Methods: Patients who underwent LIHR from 2009 to 2011 using a bioabsorbable plug and synthetic mesh patch were reviewed retrospectively. Short-term follow-up information was obtained within 30 days of surgery, whereas long-term follow-up was obtained in 2014. Quality of life was assessed using the Carolinas Comfort Scale.

Results: Forty-four patients (43 male), including 6 (13.6%) with recurrent disease, underwent 52 LIHR with a bioabsorbable plug. Mean age and body mass index were 60.9 ± 10.5 years and 27.9 ± 4.7 kg/m, respectively. Among 39 (88.6%) patients available for short-term follow-up, early postoperative complications were seen in 10 (25.6%) patients, all of which resolved spontaneously. Mean long-term follow-up duration was 41.6 ± 4.1 months, among 30 (68.2%) patients (40 hernia repairs). There were 2 (5%) hernia recurrences, with 1 requiring a reoperation 12 months after initial repair. Only 2 (6.7%) patients reported moderate or bothersome chronic pain.

Conclusions: Bioabsorbable plug combined with a synthetic mesh is safe and effective for use during LIHR. The technique offers an acceptable incidence of chronic pain and recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLE.0000000000000107DOI Listing
April 2015

Innervation of enteric mast cells by primary spinal afferents in guinea pig and human small intestine.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2014 Oct 21;307(7):G719-31. Epub 2014 Aug 21.

Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio;

Mast cells express the substance P (SP) neurokinin 1 receptor and the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor in guinea pig and human small intestine. Enzyme-linked immunoassay showed that activation of intramural afferents by antidromic electrical stimulation or by capsaicin released SP and CGRP from human and guinea pig intestinal segments. Electrical stimulation of the afferents evoked slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in the enteric nervous system. The slow EPSPs were mediated by tachykinin neurokinin 1 and CGRP receptors. Capsaicin evoked slow EPSP-like responses that were suppressed by antagonists for protease-activated receptor 2. Afferent stimulation evoked slow EPSP-like excitation that was suppressed by mast cell-stabilizing drugs. Histamine and mast cell protease II were released by 1) exposure to SP or CGRP, 2) capsaicin, 3) compound 48/80, 4) elevation of mast cell Ca²⁺ by ionophore A23187, and 5) antidromic electrical stimulation of afferents. The mast cell stabilizers cromolyn and doxantrazole suppressed release of protease II and histamine when evoked by SP, CGRP, capsaicin, A23187, electrical stimulation of afferents, or compound 48/80. Neural blockade by tetrodotoxin prevented mast cell protease II release in response to antidromic electrical stimulation of mesenteric afferents. The results support a hypothesis that afferent innervation of enteric mast cells releases histamine and mast cell protease II, both of which are known to act in a diffuse paracrine manner to influence the behavior of enteric nervous system neurons and to elevate the sensitivity of spinal afferent terminals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00125.2014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4187066PMC
October 2014

Near-infrared fluorescent cholangiography facilitates identification of biliary anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Surg Endosc 2015 Feb 2;29(2):368-75. Epub 2014 Jul 2.

Division of General and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 558 Doan Hall, 410 West 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Background: Intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) is the current gold standard for biliary imaging during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). However, utilization of IOC remains low. Near-infrared fluorescence cholangiography (NIRF-C) is a novel, noninvasive method for real-time, intraoperative biliary mapping. Our aims were to assess the safety and efficacy of NIRF-C for identification of biliary anatomy during LC.

Methods: Patients were administered indocyanine green (ICG) prior to surgery. NIRF-C was used to identify extrahepatic biliary structures before and after partial and complete dissection of Calot's triangle. Routine IOC was performed in each case. Identification of biliary structures using NIRF-C and IOC, and time required to complete each procedure were collected.

Results: Eighty-two patients underwent elective LC with NIRF-C and IOC. Mean age and body mass index (BMI) were 42.6 ± 13.7 years and 31.5 ± 8.2 kg/m(2), respectively. ICG was administered 73.8 ± 26.4 min prior to incision. NIRF-C was significantly faster than IOC (1.9 ± 1.7 vs. 11.8 ± 5.3 min, p < 0.001). IOC was unobtainable in 20 (24.4 %) patients while NIRF-C did not visualize biliary structures in 4 (4.9 %) patients. After complete dissection, the rates of visualization of the cystic duct, common bile duct, and common hepatic duct using NIRF-C were 95.1, 76.8, and 69.5 %, respectively, compared to 72.0, 75.6, and 74.3 % for IOC. In 20 patients where IOC could not be obtained, NIRF-C successfully identified biliary structures in 80 % of the cases. Higher BMI was not a deterrent to visualization of anatomy with NIRF-C. No adverse events were observed with NIRF-C.

Conclusions: NIRF-C is a safe and effective alternative to IOC for imaging extrahepatic biliary structures during LC. This technique should be evaluated further under a variety of acute and chronic gallbladder inflammatory conditions to determine its usefulness in biliary ductal identification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-014-3677-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4415528PMC
February 2015

Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for treatment of symptomatic paraesophageal hernia in the morbidly obese: medium-term results.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2014 Nov-Dec;10(6):1063-7. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:

Background: The ideal surgical approach for treatment of symptomatic paraesophageal hernias (PEH) in obese patients remains elusive. The objective of this study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and effectiveness of combined laparoscopic PEH repair and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) for the management of symptomatic PEH in morbidly obese patients.

Methods: Fourteen patients with symptomatic PEH and morbid obesity (body mass index [BMI]>35 kg/m(2)) underwent laparoscopic PEH repair with RYGB between 2008 and 2011. Demographic characteristics and preoperative and perioperative details were analyzed. Patients were contacted in October 2013 for follow-up. BMI, reflux symptoms, and disease-specific quality of life (QoL) data were obtained.

Results: There were 11 females (79%). Median age and preoperative BMI were 48 years and 42 kg/m(2), respectively. Mean operative time was 180 minutes, with median length-of-stay of 4 days. There were no perioperative deaths, and 5 patients experienced postoperative complications including 1 gastrojejunostomy leak. Complete follow-up with a median follow-up interval of 35 months was available in 9 (64%) patients. The median % excess weight loss was 67.9%. Thirty-three percent required antisecretory medications for reflux control, compared to 89% preoperatively. Seventy-eight percent of patients reported good to excellent QoL outcomes assessed by the Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire. Overall, 89% of patients were satisfied with their operation and would undergo the procedure again.

Conclusion: Combined laparoscopic PEH repair and RYGB is a safe, feasible, and effective treatment option for morbidly obese patients with symptomatic PEH, and offers good to excellent disease-specific quality-of-life outcomes at medium-term follow-up. To date, this is the largest series with the longest follow-up in this unique patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2014.02.004DOI Listing
September 2015

Two-year outcomes for medicaid patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a case-control study.

Obes Surg 2014 Oct;24(10):1679-85

Department of Surgery, Wisconsin Surgical Outcomes Research Group (WiSOR), University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, H4/728 Clinical Science Center, Madison, WI, 53792-7375, USA,

Background: Millions of patients will be added to Medicaid programs throughout the country due to expansion driven by the Affordable Care Act. Since 90 % of state Medicaid programs cover bariatric surgery, the outcomes of Medicaid patients will be important to study. We performed a retrospective analysis to compare outcomes between Medicaid and non-Medicaid bariatric surgery patients over a two-year period.

Methods: All patients who underwent a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at The Ohio State University Medical Center from January 2008-April 2011 were identified. Of these 609 patients, 30 Medicaid patients were identified and compared to 90 randomly selected non-Medicaid patients (1:3 case-control). Preoperative data and postoperative outcome data (weight loss, comorbidity resolution, complications, and mortality) were obtained from electronic medical records. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed to compare categorical and continuous variables.

Results: Medicaid patients had a significantly higher average BMI (58.4 vs. 49.5; p < 0.001) and higher rates of comorbidities. Over a 90-day postoperative period, Medicaid patients experienced a higher wound complication rate (20.0 vs. 5.6 %; p = 0.03) and visited the ER more frequently (33.3 vs. 10.0 %; p = 0.007) but had similar rates of medical complications compared to non-Medicaid patients. The Medicaid cohort lost 52.1 % of its excess body weight vs. 64.6 % for the non-Medicaid cohort (p = 0.02) over a two-year period. There were no significant differences in comorbidity resolution, anastomotic complications, or mortality after 2 years of follow-up.

Conclusion: Despite being a higher risk cohort, Medicaid patients undergoing laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass had similar long-term outcomes compared to non-Medicaid patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-014-1236-8DOI Listing
October 2014

Current national practice patterns for inpatient management of ventral abdominal wall hernia in the United States.

Surg Endosc 2013 Nov 17;27(11):4104-12. Epub 2013 Jul 17.

Department of Surgery, Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA,

Background: The health-care burden related to ventral hernia management is substantial, with more than 3 billion dollars in expenditures annually in the US. Previous studies have suggested that the utilization of laparoscopic repair remains relatively low although national volume estimates have not been reported. We sought to estimate the inpatient national volume of elective ventral hernia surgery and characterize the proportion of laparoscopic versus open operations.

Methods: We analyzed data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to identify adults with a diagnosis of an umbilical, incisional, or ventral hernia who underwent an elective inpatient repair between 2009 and 2010. Cases that involved other major abdominal or pelvic operations were excluded. Covariates included patient demographics, surgical approach, and use of mesh. National surgical volume estimates were generated and length of stay and total hospital charges were compared for laparoscopic versus open repairs.

Results: A total of 112,070 ventral hernia repairs were included in the analysis: 72.1 % (n = 80,793) were incisional hernia repairs, while umbilical hernia repairs comprised only 6.9 % (n = 7,788). Laparoscopy was utilized in 26.6 % (n = 29,870) of cases. Mesh was placed in 85.8 % (n = 96,265) of cases, including 49.3 % (n = 3,841) of umbilical hernia repairs and 90.1 % (n = 72,973) of incisional hernia repairs. Length of stay and total hospital charges were significantly lower for laparoscopic umbilical, incisional, and "other" ventral hernia repairs (p values all <0.001). Total hospital charges during this 2-year period approached 4 billion dollars ($746 million for laparoscopic repair; $3 billion for open repair).

Conclusions: Utilization of laparoscopy for elective abdominal wall hernia repair remains relatively low in the US despite its excellent outcomes. Given the substantial financial burden associated with these hernias, future research focused on preventing the development and optimizing the surgical treatment of ventral abdominal wall hernias is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-013-3075-4DOI Listing
November 2013

Mast cell expression of the serotonin1A receptor in guinea pig and human intestine.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2013 May 21;304(10):G855-63. Epub 2013 Mar 21.

Dept. of Physiology and Cell Biology, College of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State Univ., 304 Hamilton Hall, 1645 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] is released from enterochromaffin cells in the mucosa of the small intestine. We tested a hypothesis that elevation of 5-HT in the environment of enteric mast cells might degranulate the mast cells and release mediators that become paracrine signals to the enteric nervous system, spinal afferents, and secretory glands. Western blotting, immunofluorescence, ELISA, and pharmacological analysis were used to study expression of 5-HT receptors by mast cells in the small intestine and action of 5-HT to degranulate the mast cells and release histamine in guinea pig small intestine and segments of human jejunum discarded during Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgeries. Mast cells in human and guinea pig preparations expressed the 5-HT1A receptor. ELISA detected spontaneous release of histamine in guinea pig and human preparations. The selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-PIPAT evoked release of histamine. A selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, WAY-100135, suppressed stimulation of histamine release by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT. Mast cell-stabilizing drugs, doxantrazole and cromolyn sodium, suppressed the release of histamine evoked by 5-HT or 8-hydroxy-PIPAT in guinea pig and human preparations. Our results support the hypothesis that serotonergic degranulation of enteric mast cells and release of preformed mediators, including histamine, are mediated by the 5-HT1A serotonergic receptor. Association of 5-HT with the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome) underlies a question of whether selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonists might have therapeutic application in disorders of this nature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00421.2012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3652070PMC
May 2013

The role of dumping syndrome in weight loss after gastric bypass surgery.

Surg Endosc 2013 May 12;27(5):1573-8. Epub 2012 Dec 12.

Division of General and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most commonly performed operation for the treatment of morbid obesity in the US. Dumping syndrome is an expected and desired part of the behavior modification caused by gastric bypass surgery; it can deter patients from consuming energy-dense food. In this study we assessed the role dumping has in weight loss and its relationship with the patient's eating behavior.

Methods: Fifty patients who underwent gastric bypass between January 2008 and June 2008 were enrolled. Two questionnaires, the dumping syndrome questionnaire and the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ), were used to record the patients' responses. The diagnosis of dumping syndrome was based on the Sigstad scoring system, where a score of 7 and above was considered positive. TFEQ evaluated the patients' eating behavior under three scales: cognitive restraint, uncontrolled eating, and emotional eating. The results were analyzed with descriptive and parametric statistics where applicable.

Results: The prevalence of dumping syndrome was 42 %, with 66.7 % of the subjects being women. The nondumpers were observed to have a greater mean decrease in body mass index than the dumpers at 1 and 2 years (18.5 and 17.8 vs. 14.4 and 13.7 respectively). There was no definite relationship between the presence of dumping syndrome and the eating behavior of the patient. However, the cognitive restraint scores, greater than 80 %, were associated with an average decrease in BMI of 19 and 20.8 at 1 and 2 years compared with 14.6 and 12.4 in those with scores less than 80 % (p = 0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively).

Conclusion: The presence of dumping syndrome after gastric bypass does not influence weight loss, though eating behaviors may directly influence it.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-012-2629-1DOI Listing
May 2013

Omental patch repair effectively treats perforated marginal ulcer following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

Surg Endosc 2013 Feb 31;27(2):384-9. Epub 2012 Aug 31.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University, 548 Doan Hall, 410 W. 10th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Background: Marginal ulcer formation remains a significant complication of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Up to 1 % of all RYGB patients will develop free perforation of a marginal ulcer. Classically, this complication has required anastomotic revision; however, this approach is associated with significant morbidity. Several small series have suggested that omental patch repair may be effective. The aim of this study was to examine the management of perforated marginal ulcers following RYGB.

Methods: All patients who underwent operative intervention for perforated ulcers between 2003 and 2011 were reviewed. Those with a history of RYGB with perforation of a marginal ulcer were included in the analysis. Data collected included operative approach, operative time, blood loss, length of hospital stay, complications, smoking history, and steroid or NSAID use.

Results: From January 2003 to December 2011, a total of 1,760 patients underwent RYGB at our institution. Eighteen (0.85 %) developed perforation of a marginal ulcer. Three patients' original procedure was performed at another institution. Eight patients (44 %) had at least one risk factor for ulcer formation. Treatment included omental patch repair (laparoscopic, n = 7; open, n = 9) or anastomotic revision (n = 2). Compared to anastomotic revision, omental patch repair had shorter OR time (101 ± 57 vs. 138 ± 2 min), decreased estimated blood loss (70 ± 72 vs. 250 ± 71 mL), and shorter total length of stay (5.6 ± 1.4 vs. 11.0 ± 5.7 days).

Conclusions: Perforated marginal ulcer represents a significant complication of RYGB. Patients should be educated to reduce risk factors for perforation, as prolonged proton pump inhibitor therapy may not prevent this complication in a patient with even just one risk factor. In our sample population we found laparoscopic or open omental patch repair to be a safe and effective treatment for this condition and it was associated with decreased operative time, blood loss, and length of stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-012-2492-0DOI Listing
February 2013

Transoral surgery for morbid obesity.

World J Gastrointest Endosc 2011 Nov;3(11):201-8

Sabrena F Noria, Dean J Mikami, Department of Surgery, Division of General and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, The Ohio State University, Colombus, OH 43210, United States.

Obesity is a serious health problem in the United States. Although laparoscopic surgical procedures are effective in achieving weight loss and improving obesity-related co-morbidities, they are not without their limitations and consequently there is a growing demand for less invasive approaches. Transoral techniques, as both primary and revisional procedures, are promising in this regard as they may provide a safer and more cost-effective means of achieving meaningful weight loss. The aim of this paper is to review the currently available transoral approaches to weight loss, with a particular focus on those applied in human trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4253/wjge.v3.i11.201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3221951PMC
November 2011

Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair: does primary repair in addition to placement of mesh decrease recurrence?

Surg Endosc 2012 May 15;26(5):1264-8. Epub 2011 Nov 15.

Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, The Ohio State University Medical Center, 747 Doan Hall, 410 W 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Background: The advent of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVHR) not only reduced the morbidity associated with open repair but also led to a decrease in the hernia recurrence rate. However, the rate continues to remain significant.

Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted on 193 patients who were treated with LVHR by two minimally invasive surgeons in a 24-month period. The patient population was broadly divided into two groups based on the laparoscopic repair of the fascial defect with mesh underlay, or with primary suture repair and mesh underlay (PSR + MU). Patient demographics, rates of hernia recurrence, and other associated complications were compared between the two groups. Patient variables and the clinical outcomes were analyzed with descriptive statistics and chi-square test.

Results: One hundred ninety-three consecutive patients underwent LVHR for incisional (n = 136), umbilical (n = 44), epigastric (n = 9), and parastomal (n = 4) hernia. Hernia recurrence was documented in eight patients (4.1%). The mean follow-up period was 10.5 months (range 1-36 months). Incisional hernias accounted for all eight recurrences. The rate of recurrence in those treated with PSR + MU was 3% (two of 67 cases) in comparison with 4.8% (six of 126 patients) associated with mesh alone. The rate of recurrence in the recurrent hernia group, treated with mesh only, was 10.5% (four of 38 patients) compared with 4.8% (one of 21 patients) in the PSR + MU group.

Conclusions: Primary laparoscopic repair along with mesh placement for the management of ventral hernia was found to be effective in selected cases as evidenced by the low rate of recurrence when compared with conventional laparoscopic repair with mesh alone. Further retrospective and prospective studies, with larger patient enrollment, are warranted to confirm the benefit of this technique over traditional repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-011-2024-3DOI Listing
May 2012

Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in patients with body mass index >70 kg/m2.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2011 Sep-Oct;7(5):587-91. Epub 2011 Mar 12.

Department of Surgery, Division of General and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

Background: Sparse published data support the optimal surgical management of megaobesity (body mass index >70 kg/m(2)). The purpose of the present study was to compare laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (ORYGB) in megaobese patients.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 89 consecutive patients with a body mass index >70 kg/m(2) who underwent LRYGB or ORYGB from January 2003 to May 2007 at the Ohio State University Medical Center.

Results: LRYGB was performed in 37 patients, with 3 conversions to open surgery, and 52 underwent ORYGB. No statistically significant demographic or preoperative co-morbidity differences were discerned. The mean intraoperative blood loss was lower in the LRYGB group (54 mL versus 211 mL; P < .0001). The median length of stay for both LRYGB and ORYGB groups was 4 days. One patient in the open group died. The postoperative complications were statistically equivalent between the 2 groups. The hernia rate for the LRYGB group was 3% and was 19% in the ORYGB group (P = .02). The patients who underwent LRYGB had greater excess body weight loss at 3 (22.7% versus 17.5%, P = .02) and 6 (37.5% versus 30.5%, P = .03) months. However, the average excess body weight loss at 12 and 24 months was similar (48% and 60%, respectively).

Conclusion: LRYGB is a technically feasible and safe surgical approach in the megaobese. The intraoperative blood loss was less with LRYGB than with ORYGB. The overall mortality and complications were not different, with the exception of hernia frequency, which was significantly greater after ORYGB. The percentage of excess body weight loss at 3 and 6 months was better for the LRYGB group. In both groups of patients, the 12- and 24-month excess body weight loss were similar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2011.02.010DOI Listing
January 2012

Parastomal hernia repair.

J Long Term Eff Med Implants 2010 ;20(2):133-8

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

Parastomal hernias remain a daunting challenge to general and colorectal surgeons. Their unique anatomy and alteration of abdominal wall mechanics contribute to a significant recurrence rate and associated morbidity in repair. Recent advances in synthetic and biologic meshes, as well as refinement of laparoscopic surgical techniques, may offer potential improvements in outcome for these patients. We conducted a review of the literature for parastomal hernia repair, including manuscripts specifically addressing the use of synthetic and biologic prostheses. We then chose selected references from these studies to include in this review. Results are summarized to reflect current evidence for use of prostheses and other techniques in the repair of parastomal hernias. Repair of parastomal hernias remains plagued by significant recurrence rates. Recurrence may be higher when other abdominal wall hernias are addressed simultaneously. Synthetic mesh repair appears to reduce recurrence compared with primary suture repair. The use of biologic prostheses may reduce recurrence rate and eliminate the potential for mesh infection. The laparoscopic approach should be individualized to both patient and surgeon factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/jlongtermeffmedimplants.v20.i2.60DOI Listing
June 2011

Transgastric endoscopic peritoneoscopy does not lead to increased risk of infectious complications.

Surg Endosc 2011 Jul 7;25(7):2186-91. Epub 2011 Feb 7.

Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, The Ohio State University School of Medicine and Public Health, 410 West 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1228, USA.

Background: It remains important to determine the risk of bacterial contamination and infectious complications of the peritoneal cavity as it pertains to transgastric natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) procedures. The infectious implications of such procedures have been quantified in animal models. This report discusses the infectious risks of transgastric endoscopic peritoneoscopy (TEP) in a human clinical trial.

Methods: Under institutional review board approval, 40 patients scheduled for laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) participated in this study. The TEP procedure was performed without preoperative gastric decontamination and without laparoscopic guidance. Preoperative intravenous antibiotics were given. Saline aspirates were taken from the gastric lumen before endoscopic gastrotomy creation and from the peritoneal cavity after transgastric access. Samples were sent for culture, identification, and bacterial counts. Subgroup analysis was performed on patients taking proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). These data were compared with data for "sterile" peritoneal aspirates from a historical cohort of 50 patients undergoing LRYGB.

Results: The median number of bacteria isolated from the gastric aspirates was 980 colony-forming units (CFU)/ml (n=40). The median number of bacteria isolated from the peritoneal aspirates was 323 CFU/ml. Cross-contamination from the stomach to the peritoneal cavity was documented in eight cases. No abscesses or anastomotic leaks were recorded. One port-site infection occurred. Subgroup analysis of 15 patients receiving PPIs showed elevated bacterial counts in gastric aspirates and the post-TEP peritoneal samples compared with patients not receiving PPIs (n=25). This subgroup on PPI's did not have an increase in infectious complications.

Conclusions: Contamination of the peritoneal cavity does occur with TEP, but this does not lead to an increased risk of infectious complications. Similarly, patients receiving PPIs have an increased gastric bacterial load and increased contamination after TEP but not an increased risk of infectious complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-010-1521-0DOI Listing
July 2011

A comparison of outcomes between open and laparoscopic surgical repair of recurrent inguinal hernias.

Surg Endosc 2011 Jul 7;25(7):2330-7. Epub 2011 Feb 7.

Center for Minimally Invasive Surgery, Ohio State University School of Medicine and Public Health, 548 Doan Hall, 410 West 10th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210-1228, USA.

Background: Inguinal hernia recurrence after surgical repair is a major concern. The authors report their experience with open and laparoscopic repair of recurrent inguinal hernias.

Methods: After institutional review board approval, a retrospective review was performed with the charts of 197 patients who had undergone surgical repair of recurrent inguinal hernias from January 2000 through August 2009, and the data for 172 patients who met the inclusion criteria were analyzed. Surgical variables and clinical outcomes were compared using Student's t test, the Mann-Whitney U test, chi-square, and Fisher's exact test as appropriate.

Results: The review showed that 172 patients had undergone either open mesh repair (n=61) or laparoscopic mesh repair (n=111) for recurrent inguinal hernias. Postoperative complications were experienced by 8 patients in the open group and 17 patients in laparoscopic group (p=0.70). Five patients (8.2%) in the open group and four patients (3.6%) in the laparoscopic group had re-recurrent inguinal hernias (p=0.28). Four patients in the open group (9.5%) and no patients in the laparoscopic group had recurrence during long-term follow-up evaluation (p=0.046). In the laparoscopic group, 76 patients (68.5%) underwent total extraperitoneal (TEP) repair, and 35 patients (31.5%) had transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) repair. Postoperative complications were experienced by 13 patients in the TEP group and 4 patients in the TAPP group (p=0.44). Two patients (2.6%) in the TEP group and two patients (5.7%) in the TAPP group had re-recurrent inguinal hernias (p=0.59).

Conclusions: This retrospective review showed no statistical difference in the re-recurrence rate between the two techniques during short-term follow-up evaluation. However, the laparoscopic technique had a significantly lower re-recurrence rate than the open technique during long-term follow-up evaluation. Both procedures were comparable in terms of intra- and postoperative complications. Among laparoscopic techniques, TEP and TAPP repair are acceptable methods for the repair of recurrent inguinal hernia. A multicenter prospective randomized control trial is needed to confirm the findings of this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-010-1564-2DOI Listing
July 2011