Publications by authors named "Daygen Finch"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effectiveness of first-line abiraterone versus enzalutamide among patients ≥80 years of age with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: A retrospective propensity score-weighted comparative cohort study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jul 12;152:215-222. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Medicine, Medical Oncology Division, BC Cancer, Vancouver Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) disproportionately affects the elderly. There is limited data assessing the efficacy and tolerability of abiraterone acetate (AA) versus enzalutamide in this population.

Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy and tolerability of AA versus enzalutamide in patients ≥ 80 years with mCRPC.

Design, Setting And Participants: A retrospective propensity-weighted comparative cohort study of first-line AA versus enzalutamide among patients with mCRPC aged ≥80 years.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Inverse probability treatment weights based on propensity scores were generated to assess the treatment effect of AA versus enzalutamide on time to PSA progression (TTPP), time to progression (TTP) (first of PSA/radiographic/clinical progression) and overall survival using a weighted Cox proportional hazards model. PSA response rate (PSA RR) was compared between groups using Χ.

Results And Limitations: One hundred fifty-three patients received AA, and 125 received enzalutamide. Enzalutamide was associated with higher PSA RR (61.6% vs 43.8%, P < 0.004), and TTP (hazard ratio [HR] 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50-0.88, P = 0.01) but not TTPP (HR 0.73, 95% CI 0.53-1.01, P = 0.06). There were significantly more dose reductions with enzalutamide (22.9% vs 44.8%, P > 0.001) but there was no interaction between median proportion of full dose received and TTPP or TTP for either drug. Rates of treatment discontinuation (for reasons other than progression) were also significantly different between AA and enzalutamide (28.8% vs 40.8%, respectively, P = 0.04). The most common reason for dose reductions and discontinuation of enzalutamide was fatigue (30.4% and 5.6%, respectively).

Conclusions: Despite more dose reductions and a higher treatment discontinuation rate, enzalutamide was associated with a higher PSA RR and longer time to progression, than AA. Given that clinical outcomes were not adversely impacted by decreased treatment exposure, dose modification may be a useful treatment strategy to balance toxicity and tolerance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.05.003DOI Listing
July 2021

Evolution of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer in CtDNA during Sequential Androgen Receptor Pathway Inhibition.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Vancouver Prostate Centre, Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada.

Purpose: Cross-resistance renders multiple lines of androgen receptor (AR) signaling inhibitors increasingly futile in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). We sought to determine acquired genomic contributors to cross-resistance.

Experimental Design: We collected 458 serial plasma cell-free DNA samples at baseline and progression timepoints from 202 patients with mCRPC receiving sequential AR signaling inhibitors (abiraterone and enzalutamide) in a randomized phase II clinical trial (NCT02125357). We utilized deep targeted and whole-exome sequencing to compare baseline and posttreatment somatic genomic profiles in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA).

Results: Patient ctDNA abundance was correlated across plasma collections and independently prognostic for sequential therapy response and overall survival. Most driver alterations in established prostate cancer genes were consistently detected in ctDNA over time. However, shifts in somatic populations after treatment were identified in 53% of patients, particularly after strong treatment responses. Treatment-associated changes converged upon the gene, with an average 50% increase in copy number, changes in mutation frequencies, and a 2.5-fold increase in the proportion of patients carrying AR ligand binding domain truncating rearrangements.

Conclusion: Our data show that the dominant genotype continues to evolve during sequential lines of AR inhibition and drives acquired resistance in patients with mCRPC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-1625DOI Listing
June 2021

Optimal sequencing of enzalutamide and abiraterone acetate plus prednisone in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 2, crossover trial.

Lancet Oncol 2019 12 11;20(12):1730-1739. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Division of Medical Oncology, BC Cancer, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Vancouver Prostate Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone and enzalutamide are both used for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We aimed to determine the best sequence in which to use both drugs, as well as their second-line efficacy.

Methods: In this multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 2, crossover trial done in six cancer centres in British Columbia, Canada, we recruited patients aged 18 years or older with newly-diagnosed metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer without neuroendocrine differentiation and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 2 or less. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) using a computer-generated random number table to receive either abiraterone acetate 1000 mg orally once daily plus prednisone 5 mg orally twice daily until PSA progression followed by crossover to enzalutamide 160 mg orally once daily (group A), or the opposite sequence (group B). Treatment was not masked to investigators or participants. Primary endpoints were time to second PSA progression and PSA response (≥30% decline from baseline) on second-line therapy, analysed by intention-to-treat in all randomly assigned patients and in patients who crossed over, respectively. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02125357.

Findings: Between Oct 21, 2014, and Dec 13, 2016, 202 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to either group A (n=101) or group B (n=101). At the time of data cutoff, 73 (72%) patients in group A and 75 (74%) patients in group B had crossed over. Time to second PSA progression was longer in group A than in group B (median 19·3 months [95% CI 16·0-30·5] vs 15·2 months [95% CI 11·9-19·8] months; hazard ratio 0·66, 95% CI 0·45-0·97, p=0·036), at a median follow-up of 22·8 months (IQR 10·3-33·4). PSA responses to second-line therapy were seen in 26 (36%) of 73 patients for enzalutamide and three (4%) of 75 for abiraterone (χ p<0·0001). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events throughout the trial were hypertension (27 [27%] of 101 patients in group A vs 18 [18%] of 101 patients in group B) and fatigue (six [10%] vs four [4%]). Serious adverse events were reported in 15 (15%) of 101 patients in group A and 20 (20%) of 101 patients in group B. There were no treatment-related deaths.

Interpretation: Enzalutamide showed activity as a second-line novel androgen receptor pathway inhibitor, whereas abiraterone acetate did not, leading to a longer time to second PSA progression for the sequence of abiraterone followed by enzalutamide than with the opposite treatment sequence. Our data suggest that using a sequencing strategy of abiraterone acetate followed by enzalutamide provides the greatest clinical benefit.

Funding: Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute, Prostate Cancer Canada, Movember Foundation, Prostate Cancer Foundation, Terry Fox New Frontiers Program, BC Cancer Foundation, Jane and Aatos Erkko Foundation, Janssen, and Astellas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(19)30688-6DOI Listing
December 2019

A Phase II Study of PX-866 in Patients With Recurrent or Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: Canadian Cancer Trials Group Study IND205.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2019 06 15;17(3):201-208.e1. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Canadian Cancer Trials Group, Kingston, ON, Canada.

Background: In PTEN-loss models, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and androgen receptor signaling pathways cross-regulate by reciprocal feedback whereby inhibition of one activates the other, creating a rationale for co-targeting. We studied the irreversible, pan-isoform inhibitor of Class I PI-3K PX-866 singly (part A) and with abiraterone acetate (AA) in patients on AA with rising prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (part B).

Patients And Methods: The primary endpoint was lack of progression at 12 weeks. Exploratory endpoints included changes in circulating tumor cells (CTC), pharmacodynamic studies on platelets (part A), and archival tumor exploration of PTEN as predictor of response (part B).

Results: A total of 43 and 25 patients accrued to parts A and B, respectively. In part A, 14 (33%) patients were progression-free at 12 weeks, with 2 partial objective responses and 1 confirmed PSA response. Favorable CTC conversion (< 5 CTC/7.5 mL) occurred in 6 (24%) of 25 evaluable patients. In part B, 11 of 25 patients had measurable disease. Six (24%) patients were progression-free at 12 weeks. No objective or PSA responses were observed. For all 68 patients, the most common toxicities were diarrhea (53 patients), nausea (36), anorexia (24), fatigue (22), and vomiting (20). Among 17 patients for whom PTEN testing was possible, 3 had PTEN homozygous deletion and 14 had no change. No correlation between PTEN status and response was seen.

Conclusions: PX-866 had modest single agent activity. Adding AA to PX-866 showed no evidence of resistance reversal. Strategies to combine PI3K inhibition with androgen receptor-targeted therapies could consider initiation earlier, combination with other agents, and/or recruiting a selected population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2019.03.005DOI Listing
June 2019

Health-related Quality of Life for Abiraterone Plus Prednisone Versus Enzalutamide in Patients with Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer: Results from a Phase II Randomized Trial.

Eur Urol 2019 06 24;75(6):940-947. Epub 2018 Dec 24.

Department of Medical Oncology, BC Cancer Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Department of Urological Sciences, The Vancouver Prostate Centre, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Abiraterone and enzalutamide are associated with side effects that may impair health-related quality of life (HRQoL).

Objective: To assess patient-reported HRQoL, depression symptoms, and cognitive function for abiraterone versus enzalutamide.

Design, Setting, And Participants: We randomized 202 patients in a phase II study of abiraterone versus enzalutamide for first-line treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02125357).

Intervention: Patients completed Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) questionnaires, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) cognitive assessments at baseline and on treatment.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: To compare the change in FACT-P scores over time between treatment arms, we used a mixed model for repeated measures (MMRM). For FACT-P domains where there was an interaction between the treatment arm and age, we constructed separate models for patients aged <75 and ≥75yr. We compared the proportion of patients with clinically meaningful change from baseline for FACT-P, and the proportion of patients with an abnormal score and median change from baseline for PHQ-9 and MoCA using Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney U test.

Results And Limitations: In the MMRM analysis, there was a positive test for interaction in the treatment arm by age for total FACT-P (p=0.048). FACT-P change from baseline over time was better for abiraterone than for enzalutamide in the ≥75-yr model (p=0.003), with no difference in the <75-yr model (p>0.9). A higher proportion of patients experienced clinically meaningful worsening with enzalutamide for the physical and functional well-being domains (37% vs 21%, p=0.013; 39% vs 23%, p=0.015). The distribution of change in PHQ-9 scores from baseline favored abiraterone at weeks 4, 8, and 12. These analyses were not prespecified, and results should be considered to be hypothesis generating.

Conclusions: Patient-reported outcomes favored abiraterone compared with enzalutamide with differences in FACT-P HRQoL and PHQ-9 depression scores. Differences in the total FACT-P scores were seen only in the elderly patient subgroup.

Patient Summary: In this report, we examined the change in patient-reported quality-of-life scores from the start of treatment over time for patients treated with abiraterone versus enzalutamide for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. We found that elderly patients treated with abiraterone had better quality of life over time, with no difference between treatments for the younger subgroup of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2018.12.015DOI Listing
June 2019

Clinical effectiveness of docetaxel for castration-sensitive prostate cancer in a real-world population-based analysis.

Prostate 2019 02 28;79(3):281-287. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Division of Medical Oncology, University of British Columbia, BC Cancer, Vancouver, British Columbia.

Background: Adding docetaxel to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for the treatment of metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) has known efficacy, with an overall survival benefit in Phase III clinical trials. The effectiveness of docetaxel with ADT in the general patient population remains undefined.

Patients And Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective review using the British Columbia Provincial Pharmacy Database. To be included, patients had to have castration-sensitive prostate cancer not previously treated (except in the adjuvant setting) and have received at least one cycle of docetaxel, with complete records available for review. Safety and clinical effectiveness were evaluated.

Results: From April 2015 to February 2017, we identified 183 cases; 156 met inclusion criteria. Most patients had high-volume disease (80%). All 6 planned docetaxel cycles were delivered in 126 cases (81%). Dose reductions and delays were required in 39% and 16% of cases. Grade 3-4 adverse events were noted in 40%, with no treatment-related deaths. The rate of febrile neutropenia was 18% and was significantly associated with the presence of high-volume disease (P = 0.038). PSA ≤ 0.2 ng/L was achieved in 27% of patients after 6 months of ADT and maintained in 16% after 12 months. Patients with over 20 bone metastases had worse time to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and time to treatment for CRPC, and a trend toward worse overall survival. CRPC developed in 41% within 1 year, with a median time to CRPC of 14.4 months. Treatment for CRPC was given in 84 cases, with 90% receiving either abiraterone or enzalutamide in the first-line, with a PSA decline ≥50% occurring in 47%.

Conclusions: The effectiveness of docetaxel with ADT in a general population of patients with mCSPC was associated with poorer outcomes and high rates of toxicity compared to the published studies. Response rates to first-line treatment for mCRPC with abiraterone or enzalutamide appear similar to reported outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23733DOI Listing
February 2019

A prognostic model for stratifying clinical outcomes in chemotherapy-naive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients treated with abiraterone acetate.

Can Urol Assoc J 2018 Feb 1;12(2):E47-E52. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Department of Medical Oncology, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Introduction: Recently, a prognostic index including six risk factors (RFs) (unfavourable Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status [ECOG PS], presence of liver metastases, short response to luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone [LHRH] agonists/antagonists, low albumin, increased alkaline phosphatase [ALP] and lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) was developed from the COU-AA-301 trial in post-chemotherapy metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients treated with abiraterone acetate. Our primary objective was to evaluate this model in a cohort of chemotherapy-naive mCRPC patients receiving abiraterone.

Methods: We identified 197 chemotherapy-naive patients who received abiraterone at six BC Cancer Agency centres and who had complete information on all six RFs. Study endpoints were prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response rate (RR), time to PSA progression, time on treatment, and overall survival (OS). PSA RR and survival outcomes were compared using Χ test and log-rank test. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard analysis was performed to identify RFs independently associated with OS.

Results: Patients were classified into good (0-1 RFs), intermediate (2-3 RFs), and poor (4-6 RFs) prognostic groups (33%, 52%, and 15%, respectively). For good-, intermediate-, and poor-risk patients, PSA RR (≥50% decline) was 60% vs. 42% vs. 40% (p=0.05); median time to PSA progression was 7.3 vs. 5.3 vs. 5.0 months (p=0.02); and median OS was 29.4 vs. 13.8 vs. 8.7 months (p<0.0001).

Conclusions: The six-factor prognostic index model stratifies clinical outcomes in chemotherapy-naive mCRPC patients treated with abiraterone. Identifying patients at risk of poor outcome is important for informing clinical practice and clinical trial design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.4600DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5937410PMC
February 2018

Circulating Tumor DNA Genomics Correlate with Resistance to Abiraterone and Enzalutamide in Prostate Cancer.

Cancer Discov 2018 04 24;8(4):444-457. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Vancouver Prostate Centre, Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Primary resistance to androgen receptor (AR)-directed therapies in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is poorly understood. We randomized 202 patients with treatment-naïve mCRPC to abiraterone or enzalutamide and performed whole-exome and deep targeted 72-gene sequencing of plasma cell-free DNA prior to therapy. For these agents, which have never been directly compared, time to progression was similar. Defects in and were strongly associated with poor clinical outcomes independently of clinical prognostic factors and circulating tumor DNA abundance. Somatic alterations in , previously linked to reduced tumor dependency on AR signaling, were also independently associated with rapid resistance. Although detection of amplifications did not outperform standard prognostic biomarkers, gene structural rearrangements truncating the ligand binding domain were identified in several patients with primary resistance. These findings establish genomic drivers of resistance to first-line AR-directed therapy in mCRPC and identify potential minimally invasive biomarkers. Leveraging plasma specimens collected in a large randomized phase II trial, we report the relative impact of common circulating tumor DNA alterations on patient response to the most widely used therapies for advanced prostate cancer. Our findings suggest that liquid biopsy analysis can guide the use of AR-targeted therapy in general practice. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-17-0937DOI Listing
April 2018

Final report of a phase 2 clinical trial of lenalidomide monotherapy for patients with T-cell lymphoma.

Cancer 2015 Mar 29;121(5):716-23. Epub 2014 Oct 29.

Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada.

Background: Patients with T-cell lymphomas face a poorer prognosis compared with patients with B-cell lymphomas. New therapeutic approaches need to be developed to improve outcomes for these patients.

Methods: Forty patients with recurrent and refractory T-cell lymphomas other than mycosis fungoides and patients with untreated T-cell lymphoma who were not candidates for combination chemotherapy were prescribed oral lenalidomide at a dose of 25 mg daily on days 1 to 21 of each 28-day cycle, with standardized dose reductions for toxicity. The primary endpoint was overall response rate (ORR), and secondary endpoints were complete and partial response rates, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. The authors also determined duration of response (DoR).

Results: A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the current study; 1 patient was subsequently deemed ineligible. The ORR was 10 of 39 patients (26%); 3 patients (8%) achieved complete responses and 7 patients achieved partial responses. Three patients had stable disease for ≥5 cycles. The median OS was 12 months (range <1 month to ≥69 months), the median PFS was 4 months (range, <1 month to ≥50 months), and the median DoR was 13 months (range 2 months to ≥37 months), including 5 responses that lasted >1 year. Toxicity was in keeping with the known safety profile of lenalidomide. Among the patients who had recurrent/refractory peripheral T-cell lymphoma (29 patients), the ORR was 24%, the median OS was 12 months, the median PFS was 4 months, and the median DoR was 5 months (range, 2 months to ≥37 months).

Conclusions: In the current study, the use of oral lenalidomide monotherapy demonstrated clinically relevant efficacy among patients with systemic T-cell lymphomas. It appears to have excellent potential as an agent in combination therapy for patients with T-cell lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.29103DOI Listing
March 2015

Referral and treatment rates of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in muscle-invasive bladder cancer before and after publication of a clinical practice guideline.

Can Urol Assoc J 2010 Aug;4(4):263-7

School of Medicine, Queen's University, Kingston, ON;

Introduction: The objective of this study was to compare referral and treatment rates of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer before and after publication of a clinical practice guideline.

Methods: This was a retrospective comparative cohort study of 236 patients diagnosed with clinical stage >/= T2 bladder cancer in Alberta, Canada. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the time of diagnosis relative to the publication of the Alberta Genitourinary Oncology Group Clinical Practice Guideline on Bladder Cancer (CPG), which recommends cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy for muscle-invasive disease. The pre-CPG group included patients (n = 129) diagnosed prior to publication of the CPG (November 1, 2002 to October 31, 2004, inclusively). The post-CPG group included patients (n = 107) diagnosed after publication of the CPG (November 1, 2005 to October 31, 2007). There was an accrual blackout period of 6 months before and after the CPG release date. The primary analysis compared the two groups with respect to neoadjuvant chemotherapy referral rates, treatment-offered rates and treatment-administered rates.

Results: Referral to medical oncology regarding neoadjuvant chemotherapy occurred in 2.3% and 23.4% of patients in the pre- and post-CPG groups, respectively (p < 0.01). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was offered to 0.8% and 18.7% of patients in the pre- and post-CPG groups, respectively (p < 0.01). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 0.8% and 14.0% of patients in the pre- and post-CPG groups, respectively (p < 0.01).

Interpretation: Neoadjuvant referral and treatment rates increased after publication of the CPG. However, overall referral and treatment rates remained low, which warrants additional exploration.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2910772PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj09134DOI Listing
August 2010

Interim report of a phase 2 clinical trial of lenalidomide for T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Cancer 2010 Oct;116(19):4541-8

Department of Oncology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.

Background: Novel therapies are needed to improve outcomes in T-cell lymphomas. The authors report the interim results of a prospective multicenter trial evaluating lenalidomide in T-cell lymphomas.

Methods: Patients with recurrent and refractory T-cell lymphomas other than mycosis fungoides and untreated patients ineligible for combination chemotherapy were prescribed oral lenalidomide (25 mg daily) on Days 1 to 21 of each 28-day cycle until disease progression, death, or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was overall response rate. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and safety. The 2-stage design allows for up to 40 patients.

Results: At the time of this interim analysis, 24 patients were enrolled in this study, and 23 were evaluable for response. The median age was 65 years. The overall response rate was 7 (30%) of 23; all were partial responses. Two patients had stable disease for ≥5 cycles. Responses were seen in anaplastic, angioimmunoblastic, and peripheral T-cell unspecified histologies. Median PFS was 96 days (range, 8-696+ days). Median OS was 241 days (range, 8-696+ days). The most common grade 4 adverse event was thrombocytopenia (33%). The most common grade 3 adverse events were neutropenia (21%), febrile neutropenia (17%), and pain not otherwise specified (17%). Rash correlated with response to therapy (P=.003).

Conclusions: In patients with recurrent and refractory T-cell lymphomas, oral lenalidomide monotherapy has clinical activity, and toxicity is consistent with the known safety profile of lenalidomide. Further study of lenalidomide in these diseases is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.25377DOI Listing
October 2010

Clinical outcome in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients after failure of initial vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy.

Urology 2010 Aug 12;76(2):430-4. Epub 2010 Mar 12.

Department of Oncology, Tom Baker Cancer Center, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.

Objectives: To characterize and evaluate the efficacy of second-line therapy in patients who had progressed on initial anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy.

Methods: Between 2005 and 2007, patients with mRCC who received second-line therapy after 1st-line VEGF-targeted therapy were identified across 7 cancer centers.

Results: A total of 645 mRCC patients received first-line VEGF-targeted therapy, of which 216 patients received second-line VEGF-targeted therapy (sunitinib, n = 93; sorafenib, n = 80; bevacizumab, n = 11; axitinib, n = 8) or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-inhibiting agents (temsirolimus, n = 21; everolimus, n = 3). On multivariate analysis, a higher baseline Karnofsky performance status score before first-line therapy predicted which patients were more likely to receive second-line therapy (P <.0001). The median time to treatment failure of second-line therapy was 4.9 months for anti-VEGF therapy and 2.5 months for mTOR inhibitors (P = .014) (HR: 0.52, CI: 0.29-0.91 and HR: 0.495, CI: 0.27-0.9 after adjusting for Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prognostic factors and histology, respectively). Overall survival from start of second-line therapy was not significantly different (14.2 vs 10.6 months respectively; P = .38).

Conclusions: Baseline Karnofsky performance status is an independent predictor of receiving second-line targeted therapy. Patients who receive a second-line anti-VEGF drug appear to have a similar overall survival to those who receive a second-line anti-mTOR drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2009.12.031DOI Listing
August 2010

A population-based study examining the effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma in Alberta and the role of nephrectomy prior to treatment.

Can Urol Assoc J 2009 Aug;3(4):281-289

Cross Cancer Institute and the.

BACKGROUND: We performed a retrospective population-based study to assess the impact of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) on overall survival (OS) in patients treated for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in Alberta, Canada and to assess the impact of nephrectomy on OS in patients treated with TKIs. METHODS: We identified 134 patients who began taking a TKI between December 2003 and June 2007 for mRCC in Alberta. We compared survival in this group to that in an earlier cohort of 141 patients treated with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) between May 1995 and March 2003. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to determine OS, and we used a Cox proportional hazards model to determine hazard ratios (HRs) and confidence intervals (CIs). We performed multivariate analysis to assess the impact of neprhectomy on OS. RESULTS: Of the 134 patients treated with TKIs, 81 received treatment in the first-line setting, whereas 53 received treatment after prior IFN-alpha therapy. All 141 patients from the IFN-alpha cohort received treatment in the first-line setting. Patients treated with TKIs had an improved OS compared with the IFN-alpha cohort (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45-0.83, p = 0.001). The median OS was 18 months in the TKI group and 10 months in the IFN-alpha group. The benefit of TKIs was confined to favourable and intermediate risk groups according to the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center prognostic model. Prior nephrectomy was associated with improved OS in the TKI cohort, independent of other prognostic factors. CONCLUSION: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors improve OS compared with IFN-alpha in mRCC. In patients treated with TKIs, prior nephrectomy is associated with improved survival independent of other prognostic variables.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2723887PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.1121DOI Listing
August 2009

Extrapulmonary small cell cancer: a Canadian province's experience.

Cancer 2006 Nov;107(9):2262-9

Department of Medical Oncology, Saskatoon Cancer Center, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

Background: The objective of this study was to determine variables that correlate with the survival of patients with extrapulmonary small cell carcinoma (EPSCC).

Methods: Medical records of 101 eligible patients with EPSCC who were diagnosed in Saskatchewan from 1971 to 2002 were reviewed. Survival was calculated by using the Kaplan-Meier method. A logistic regression analysis with a backward elimination was carried out to determine prognostic variables that predicted mortality.

Results: The median patient age was 72 years (range, 24-100 years), and the male-to-female ratio was 1.4:1. The primary disease sites were as follows: breast, 9%; gastrointestinal, 20%; genitourinary, 18%; gynecologic, 11%; head and neck, 10%; thymus, 2%; and unknown primary site, 31%. Fifty-one patients had limited disease (LD), and 50 patients had extensive disease (ED). Patients with LD had a median overall survival of 34 months (range, 0.2-276 months) compared with 2 months (range, 0.1-108 months) in patients with ED (P < .0001). Among different primary sites, patients with gynecologic small cell cancer (SCC) had a median survival of 54.4 months, whereas patients with SCC of an unknown primary site had a survival of 2.5 months. Among various variables that were examined with respect to their prognostic importance, an abnormal white blood cell count (odds ratio [OR], 6.9; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.4-14.1), an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status >2 (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 2.1-9.9), and ED (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.4-5.0) were found to be correlated significantly with mortality.

Conclusions: The gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts were the 2 major sites involved by EPSCC in the current series. Survival varied according to the primary sites, and patients with gynecologic tumors had the best prognosis. An abnormal white blood cell count, a poor performance status, and disease extent were important factors in predicting survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.22235DOI Listing
November 2006
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