Publications by authors named "Dawn X D Zhu"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Discovery of Selective Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase 1 Receptor (PAC1R) Antagonist Peptides Potent in a Maxadilan/PACAP38-Induced Increase in Blood Flow Pharmacodynamic Model.

J Med Chem 2021 Mar 15;64(6):3427-3438. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Therapeutic Discovery, Amgen Inc., One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, California 91320, United States.

Inhibition of the pituitary adenylate cyclase 1 receptor (PAC1R) is a novel mechanism that could be used for abortive treatment of acute migraine. Our research began with comparative analysis of known PAC1R ligand scaffolds, PACAP38 and Maxadilan, which resulted in the selection of des(24-42) Maxadilan, , as a starting point. C-terminal modifications of improved the peptide metabolic stability and . SAR investigations identified synergistic combinations of amino acid replacements that significantly increased the PAC1R inhibitory activity of the analogs to the pM IC range. Our modifications further enabled deletion of up to six residues without impacting potency, thus improving peptide ligand binding efficiency. Analogs and exhibited robust efficacy in the rat Maxadilan-induced increase in blood flow (MIIBF) pharmacodynamic model at 0.3 mg/kg subcutaneous dosing. The first cocrystal structure of a PAC1R antagonist peptide () with PAC1R extracellular domain is reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01396DOI Listing
March 2021

Pharmacologic Characterization of AMG8379, a Potent and Selective Small Molecule Sulfonamide Antagonist of the Voltage-Gated Sodium Channel Na1.7.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2017 07 4;362(1):146-160. Epub 2017 May 4.

Department of Neuroscience (T.J.K., R.Y., S.A, C.P.I., M.J., D.J., J.H.L., S.G.L., J.Li., D.L., J.Lu., D.M., D.O., K.T., J.W., V.Y., D.X.D.Z., R.T.F., B.D.M.), Department of Medicinal Chemistry (M.M.W.), and Department of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Metabolism (X.B., V.B., J.R.), Amgen Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts and Thousand Oaks, California

Potent and selective antagonists of the voltage-gated sodium channel Na1.7 represent a promising avenue for the development of new chronic pain therapies. We generated a small molecule atropisomer quinolone sulfonamide antagonist AMG8379 and a less active enantiomer AMG8380. Here we show that AMG8379 potently blocks human Na1.7 channels with an IC of 8.5 nM and endogenous tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive sodium channels in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons with an IC of 3.1 nM in whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology assays using a voltage protocol that interrogates channels in a partially inactivated state. AMG8379 was 100- to 1000-fold selective over other Na family members, including Na1.4 expressed in muscle and Na1.5 expressed in the heart, as well as TTX-resistant Na channels in DRG neurons. Using an ex vivo mouse skin-nerve preparation, AMG8379 blocked mechanically induced action potential firing in C-fibers in both a time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. AMG8379 similarly reduced the frequency of thermally induced C-fiber spiking, whereas AMG8380 affected neither mechanical nor thermal responses. In vivo target engagement of AMG8379 in mice was evaluated in multiple Na1.7-dependent behavioral endpoints. AMG8379 dose-dependently inhibited intradermal histamine-induced scratching and intraplantar capsaicin-induced licking, and reversed UVB radiation skin burn-induced thermal hyperalgesia; notably, behavioral effects were not observed with AMG8380 at similar plasma exposure levels. AMG8379 is a potent and selective Na1.7 inhibitor that blocks sodium current in heterologous cells as well as DRG neurons, inhibits action potential firing in peripheral nerve fibers, and exhibits pharmacodynamic effects in translatable models of both itch and pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.116.239590DOI Listing
July 2017

Pharmacologic Characterization of AMG 334, a Potent and Selective Human Monoclonal Antibody against the Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2016 Jan 11;356(1):223-31. Epub 2015 Nov 11.

Department of Neuroscience (L.S., S.G.L., D.X.D.Z., H.S., J.Z., D.C.I., K.D.W., C.X.), Department of Global Biostatistical Science (B.P.S.), Amgen Inc., Thousand Oaks, California

Therapeutic agents that block the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) signaling pathway are a highly anticipated and promising new drug class for migraine therapy, especially after reports that small-molecule CGRP-receptor antagonists are efficacious for both acute migraine treatment and migraine prevention. Using XenoMouse technology, we successfully generated AMG 334, a fully human monoclonal antibody against the CGRP receptor. Here we show that AMG 334 competes with [(125)I]-CGRP binding to the human CGRP receptor, with a Ki of 0.02 nM. AMG 334 fully inhibited CGRP-stimulated cAMP production with an IC50 of 2.3 nM in cell-based functional assays (human CGRP receptor) and was 5000-fold more selective for the CGRP receptor than other human calcitonin family receptors, including adrenomedullin, calcitonin, and amylin receptors. The potency of AMG 334 at the cynomolgus monkey (cyno) CGRP receptor was similar to that at the human receptor, with an IC50 of 5.7 nM, but its potency at dog, rabbit, and rat receptors was significantly reduced (>5000-fold). Therefore, in vivo target coverage of AMG 334 was assessed in cynos using the capsaicin-induced increase in dermal blood flow model. AMG 334 dose-dependently prevented capsaicin-induced increases in dermal blood flow on days 2 and 4 postdosing. These results indicate AMG 334 is a potent, selective, full antagonist of the CGRP receptor and show in vivo dose-dependent target coverage in cynos. AMG 334 is currently in clinical development for the prevention of migraine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.115.227793DOI Listing
January 2016

Transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) channels are involved in body temperature regulation.

Mol Pain 2012 May 9;8:36. Epub 2012 May 9.

Department of Neuroscience, Amgen, One Amgen Center Drive, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, USA.

Background: Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8) is activated by cold temperature in vitro and has been demonstrated to act as a 'cold temperature sensor' in vivo. Although it is known that agonists of this 'cold temperature sensor', such as menthol and icilin, cause a transient increase in body temperature (Tb), it is not known if TRPM8 plays a role in Tb regulation. Since TRPM8 has been considered as a potential target for chronic pain therapeutics, we have investigated the role of TRPM8 in Tb regulation.

Results: We characterized five chemically distinct compounds (AMG0635, AMG2850, AMG8788, AMG9678, and Compound 496) as potent and selective antagonists of TRPM8 and tested their effects on Tb in rats and mice implanted with radiotelemetry probes. All five antagonists used in the study caused a transient decrease in Tb (maximum decrease of 0.98°C). Since thermoregulation is a homeostatic process that maintains Tb about 37°C, we further evaluated whether repeated administration of an antagonist attenuated the decrease in Tb. Indeed, repeated daily administration of AMG9678 for four consecutive days showed a reduction in the magnitude of the Tb decrease Day 2 onwards.

Conclusions: The data reported here demonstrate that TRPM8 channels play a role in Tb regulation. Further, a reduction of magnitude in Tb decrease after repeated dosing of an antagonist suggests that TRPM8's role in Tb maintenance may not pose an issue for developing TRPM8 antagonists as therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1744-8069-8-36DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3489569PMC
May 2012