Publications by authors named "Davood Azadi"

20 Publications

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Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles attenuate experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via regulating pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines.

Sci Rep 2021 Jun 2;11(1):11658. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Khomein University of Medical Sciences, Ghods Avenue, Khomein, Markazi Province, 38818-58573, Iran.

The therapeutic effects of mesenchymal stem cells-extracellular vesicles have been proved in many inflammatory animal models. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the effect of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from human umbilical cord-MSC (hUCSC-EV) on the clinical score and inflammatory/anti-inflammatory cytokines on the EAE mouse model. After induction of EAE in C57Bl/6 mice, they were treated intravenously with hUCSC-EV or vehicle. The clinical score and body weight of all mice was registered every day. On day 30, mice were sacrificed and splenocytes were isolated for cytokine assay by ELISA. Cytokine expression of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine by real-time PCR, leukocyte infiltration by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and the percent of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and myelin basic protein (MBP) positive cells by immunohistochemistry were assessed in the spinal cord. Our results showed that hUCSC-EV-treated mice have lower maximum mean clinical score (MMCS), pro-inflammatory cytokines, and inflammatory score in comparison to the control mice. We also showed that hUCSC-EV administration significantly improved body weight and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokines and the frequency of Treg cells in the spleen. There was no significant difference in the percent of GFAP and MBP positive cells in the spinal cord of experimental groups. Finally, we suggest that intravenous administration of hUCSC-EV alleviate induce-EAE by reducing the pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-17a, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, and increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, and also decrease the leukocyte infiltration in a model of MS. It seems that EVs from hUC-MSCs have the same therapeutic effects similar to EVs from other sources of MSCs, such as adipose or bone marrow MSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91291-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172573PMC
June 2021

Molecular Typing of Community-acquired Methicillin-Resistant Isolated from 2- to 6-year old Children by Staphylococcal Protein A and Typing in Isfahan, Iran.

Adv Biomed Res 2021 27;10. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Nosocomial Infection Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Methicillin-resistant (MRSA) has become a considerable public health concern in the entire world due to the rapid spread of this bacterium in human community; also the epidemiology of MRSA has changed, as the isolation of MRSA strains from healthy and non-healthy patients. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance profile of community-acquired (CA)-MRSA nasal carriage in the Iranian samples.

Materials And Methods: A total of 25 CA-MRSA were isolated from the anterior nares of 410 healthy preschool children. All MRSA isolates were characterized by the detection of the toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) and typed by γ-hemolysin genes, groups, and staphylococcal protein A () typing. Kirby-Buyer antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed and interpreted as per the standard guidelines.

Results: A total of 25 (6.1%) MRSA isolates were recovered from the anterior nares of 410 preschool children. Sixteen isolates (64%) were positive for the TSST-1 gene. Three specificity groups were determined, as follows: eight (32%) isolates belonged to Group I, five (20%) isolates belonged to Group II, and 12 (48%) isolates belonged to Group III. The repeated profiles of these types of 25 isolates were organized into eight different lineages groups. Five of lineages contained a single strain, three of lineages contained two strains, and three of lineages consisted of more than three strains.

Conclusions: The results of our study show that the rate of MRSA in our region is significantly high. Additionally, type t037 was the predominant type among CA .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_139_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8095255PMC
January 2021

Species diversity and molecular analysis of opportunistic Mycobacterium, Nocardia and Rhodococcus isolated from the hospital environment in a developing country, a potential resources for nosocomial infection.

Genes Environ 2021 Jan 28;43(1). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Basic and Laboratory and Sciences, Khomein University of Medical Sciences, Qods street, Khomein, Iran.

Background: Hospital environmental resources have a significant role in cross-transmission of opportunistic pathogens such as actinomycetes species to the patients. Actinomycetes have a remarkable capability to survive in adverse and harsh conditions of hospital environments; therefore, they are a threat to the health of patients. Due to this issue, we aimed to determine the frequency and diversity of actinomycetes species in hospital soil, water and dust by using a combination of conventional and molecular methods including the phenotypic and biochemical tests for preliminary identification and the PCR amplification of the specific region of the 16S rRNA, hsp65 gene and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA for the genus and species identification.

Results: A total of 50 (35.2%) actinomycetes isolates from 7 genera were isolated from 142 hospital environmental samples. The three most prevalent species were M. setense 10%, R. erythropolis and M. fortuitum 8% followed by N.cyriacigeorgica and M. gordonae 6%, M. chelonae, M. abscessus, M. lentiflavum, M. mucogenicum, N. asteroides, N. farcinica, R. equi and L. shinushuensis 4% and the single isolates of M. conceptionense, M. septicum, N. rhamnosophilia, N. bravicatena, M. flavescens, M. arupense, M. doricum, M. frederiksbergense, S. heliomycini, S. albus, S. albogriseolus, R. facians, D. maris, G. terae and A. globiformis.

Conclusions: In conclusion we showed that the hospital environment is a potential reservoir for a broad range of actinomycetes species, due to the remarkable survival capability of these microorganisms in adverse hospital environment, carrying a threat to the health of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41021-021-00173-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7844956PMC
January 2021

Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenol and sodium sulfate by Nocardia species isolated and characterized from Iranian ecosystems.

Sci Rep 2020 12 14;10(1):21860. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Anthropogenic pollutants are known to have adverse effect on ecosystem, biodiversity and human health. Bioremediation is an option that has been widely used to remediate organic contaminants and reduce the risk of these hazardous materials. Microorganisms are readily available to screen and can be rapidly characterized to be applied in many extreme environmental conditions. Actinomycetes have a great potential for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites which have biodegradation activity. This study aimed to screen and characterize Nocardia species with biodegradation potential from diverse Iranian ecosystems. The isolates were screened from 90 collected environmental samples, identified and characterized using conventional and molecular microbiological methods including the PCR amplification and sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA and rpoB genetic markers. Growth rate in presence of pollutants, chromatography, Gibbs and turbidometric methods were used to determine bioremediation ability. A total of 19 Nocardia isolates were recovered from the cultured samples (21.1%) that belonged to 10 various species. The most prevalent Nocardia species was N. farcinica; 4 isolates (21%), followed by N. cyriacigeorgica and N. cashijiensis like; 3 isolates each (15.7%) and N. asteroides and N. kroppenstedtii; 2 isolates each (10.5%). Our results showed that various Nocardia species have great potential for bioremediation purposes, although they have not received much attention of the scholars for such significant usage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78821-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7736881PMC
December 2020

Species Diversity, Molecular Characterization, and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Opportunistic Actinomycetes Isolated from Immunocompromised and Healthy Patients of Markazi Province of Iran.

Infect Drug Resist 2020 7;13:1-10. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Department of Laboratory Sciences, Khomein University of Medical Sciences, Khomein, Iran.

Background: Actinomycetes widely exist in nature and these species cause infections in immunocompromised and healthy patients, although they are frequently found as members of the normal microbiota of humans and animals. These subsequent infections are often misdiagnosed as malignancy and tuberculosis. Due to this issue, the present study aimed to determine the presence and diversity of actinomycetes species causing infections in Iranian patients.

Materials And Methods: A total of 79 clinical samples collected from five hospitals in Markazi province were analyzed for the existence of actinomycetes using standard protocols for isolation and characterization of the isolates. The conventional tests were used for preliminary identification, the PCR amplification of 65 gene, the specific region of the 16S rRNA, and sequence analyses of 16S rRNA were applied for the genus and species identification. MICs of the antimicrobial agent were determined by the broth microdilution method and interpreted according to the NCCLS guidelines.

Results: A total of 17 (21.51%) actinomycetes isolates were recovered from clinical samples. In other analyzed samples, eight (10.12%) gram-positive, 12 (15.18) gram-negative bacteria, and six (7.6) fungi isolates were recovered. The most prevalent actinomycetes species were (17.64%), and (11.76% each), and 10 species, ie, . , , , and made up the single isolates. Results of DST illustrated that all of the isolates were susceptible to Amikacin, Levofloxacin, Ofloxacin, and Ciprofloxacin, whereas all of them were resistant to Rifampicin and Doxycycline.

Conclusion: In conclusion, increasing isolation of actinomycetes found in various clinical cases merits special attention by health authorities in developing countries. In health centers, action should be taken to increase awareness of appropriate diagnostic criteria and management guidelines for actinomycetes diseases. Furthermore, an increase in the number as well as the quality of national and regional reference laboratories may facilitate more accurate diagnosis of actinomycetes diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S234292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6954848PMC
January 2020

Male microchimerism in peripheral blood from women with multiple sclerosis in Isfahan Province.

Int J Immunogenet 2020 Apr 12;47(2):175-179. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is referred to as an organ-specific T-cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Different genetic and environmental factors increase the risk of developing MS. In recent years, microchimerism (Mc) has been widely studied in autoimmune diseases, although the exact role of this phenomenon in human health is not known well. Microchimerism is the low level presence of DNA or cells from one individual into the tissue or circulation of another individual. In the current study, we evaluated the association of fetal microchimerism (FMc) with MS in Isfahan province. In this study, we enrolled 68 women in four groups. Two groups were MS patients with or without a pregnancy for a son, and the other two groups were MS-negative patients with or without a pregnancy for a son. The presence of the male genome assessed and compared in these groups. Four millilitres of peripheral blood were collected from all subjects in the tube containing EDTA and DNA was extracted. Real-time PCR assay was used for the DAZ (deleted in azoospermia) region Yq 11.23 as a marker for male microchimerism in all subjects. Our results showed that the percentage of DAZ (male genome)-positive women was significantly higher in MS-positive women given birth to a son in comparison with the other three groups. Our results also revealed no significant correlation between the percentage of DAZ-positive women and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score and age of onset in the patients' group. For future studies, we suggest enrolling subjects who MS diagnosis occurred before and after pregnancy with a son. Comparing FMc in these two groups might provide a better understanding of the possible role of FMc in later development of MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iji.12465DOI Listing
April 2020

Prevalence and molecular characterization of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in hospital soil and dust of a developing country, Iran.

Microbiology (Reading) 2019 12;165(12):1306-1314

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

The presence and diversity of mycobacteria that are capable of survival in a harsh and adverse condition, such as hospital environments, have not been comprehensively studied. This study aimed to assess the frequency and diversity of mycobacteria in hospital soil and dust of a developing country using a combination of molecular and conventional methods. A total of 318 hospital dust and soil samples collected from 38 hospitals were analysed using standard protocols for characterization of mycobacteria. The conventional tests were used for preliminary identification and Runyon's classification, the PCR amplification of the 65 gene and sequence analyses of 16SrRNA were applied for genus and species identification. In total, 28 samples (8.8 %) were positive for mycobacteria. The isolates included 33 mycobacteria species including 19 rapidly growing and 14 slowly growing organisms. The most prevalent species were and five isolates (15.1 %) each, four isolates (12.12 %) and and complex three isolates (9.1 %) each and two isolates (6 %) each. The remaining isolates consisted the single strains of eight various mycobacterium species, the results of our study revealed that soil and dust in hospitals can be the reservoir of mycobacteria. This reaffirms the fact that these organisms due to intrinsic resistance can persist in hospitals and create a threat to patient's health, in particular to those who suffer from weakness of immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/mic.0.000857DOI Listing
December 2019

The first report of infection in a patient with hidradenitis suppurativa.

Clin Case Rep 2019 Aug 25;7(8):1514-1517. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine Tehran University of Medical Sciences Tehran Iran.

Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is one of the neglected chronic inflammatory disorders which has not efficient treatment. These patients were susceptible to various infectious diseases because of their changes in immuneresponse. Also, HS pathogenesis remains unclear and its report can create novel insight into mechanism and pathogenesis of this infection. Moreover, given that different susceptibility patterns of spp this species should be identified to the species level; molecular methods are rapid, inexpensive, and reliable method for identification of infectious agents to the species level and appropriate treatment of infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.2265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693057PMC
August 2019

First case report of pulmonary and cutaneous nocardiosis caused by in Iran.

Access Microbiol 2019 23;1(4):e000016. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Laboratory Sciences, Khomein University of Medical Sciences, Khomein, Iran.

Background: are aerobic partially acid-fast bacteria that are environmentally ubiquitous. This group of bacteria causes a rare bacterial infection of either the lungs (pulmonary) or body (systemic) that usually affects immunocompromised individuals. was first isolated in 2004 from a patient with chronic bronchitis. However, there have been few reports on the clinical significance of this organism up to now. We herein report the first cases of in patients with pulmonary and cutaneous infection from Iran.

Case Presentation: A 57-year-old man was admitted to hospital due to a cutaneous wound on his left foot, fever, weakness, persistent cough and chest pain. At first, due to clinical examination and laboratory test, the patient was diagnosed as having tuberculosis. However, PCR of was negative from broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) samples. Direct PCR of BAL was performed for this patient and according to the clinical examinations and microbiological evaluations; the micro-organism was identified as and was isolated from both BAL and the wound. Finally, the patient was treated with linezolid and amikacin.

Conclusion: The infections, with actinomycetes such as , are easily neglected or misdiagnosed due to the fastidious nature of the organism and the inadequate microbiological experience of laboratories in the hospitals of developing countries. This case shows that hospitals should consider a better laboratory protocol to deal with the clinical cases in which fastidious organisms, and in particular , are involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/acmi.0.000016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7470292PMC
April 2019

Molecular characterization and genotyping of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasal carriage of healthy Iranian children.

J Med Microbiol 2019 Mar 30;68(3):374-378. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

1 Nosocomial Infection Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Purpose: Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has become a considerable public health concern in both developed and developing countries due to the rapid spread of this bacterium around the world, also the epidemiology of MRSA has changed, as the isolation of MRSA strains is not limited to health-care settings or patients with predisposing risk factors. Therefore, the objective of this study is to determine the genetic diversity and antibiotic resistance profile of CA-MRSA nasal carriage in Iranian children.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2013 to March 2014. A total of 25 CA-MRSA were isolated from the anterior nares of 410 preschool children with no risk factors. All MRSA isolates were characterized by detection of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin (pvl) and γ-hemolysin genes, staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST).

Results: In 25 CA-MRSA isolates, Pvl and γ-hemolysin genes were detected in one (4%) and 18 (72 %) isolates; respectively. Overall, 92% (23/25) of isolates belonged to SCCmec type IV and 8% (2/25) of them had SCCmec type V profile. Using MLST, the 25 isolates were grouped into six clonal complexes (CC) and eight sequence types (ST) (CC5/ST6, CC22/ST22 and ST217, CC30/ST30 and ST1107, CC78/ST859, CC398/ST291 and CC97/ST405). The ST859/SCCmec IV (11/25, 44%) was the predominant clone among the isolates. ST859-MRSA-IV-pvl-negative (resistant to tetracycline) have successfully adapted to the Iranian preschool children population.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that the genomic diversity was observed among the CA-MRSA. In addition, the current study demonstrates that pvl is not a reliable marker for CA-MRSA in our region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000924DOI Listing
March 2019

A case report of brain abscess caused by in a diabetic patient.

JMM Case Rep 2018 Sep 10;5(9):e005133. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: are Gram-positive partially acid-fast bacilli capable of inducing a wide range of infections in patients with immunodeficiency, AIDS, cancer, lupus erythematous and diabetes. was first isolated in 2001 from a patient with chronic bronchitis. Since then, there have been reports on the clinical significance of this organism in patients with bronchitis, brain abscess and lung diseases. We, herein, report a case of brain abscess in an elderly diabetic patient from Iran.

Case Presentation: The patient was a 73 year-old woman admitted to hospital due to severe headache and shortness of breath. The patient had lived with diabetes for 20 years and suffered from chronic foot ulcer. She was admitted to hospital with fever, weakness, drowsiness and vomiting. Clinical examination and the head CT scan of the left frontal lobe of the brain revealed a metastatic carcinoma involving skull bone in the tumor that resulted in two surgical operations in the following two years. The brain abscess biopsy revealed an infection with confirmed by phenotypic and molecular tests including a PCR-based amplification of a target genetic marker, a 596 bp fragment of 16S rRNA gene, followed by almost full 16S rRNA sequencing.

Conclusion: The rare infections, such as brain abscess with are easily neglected or misdiagnosed due to the fastidious nature of the organism and inadequate microbiological experience of laboratories in the hospitals of developing countries. This case shows that hospitals should consider a better laboratory protocol to deal with the clinical cases in which fastidious organisms, and in particular , are involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmmcr.0.005133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6230754PMC
September 2018

Mycobacteriosis and Tuberculosis: Laboratory Diagnosis.

Open Microbiol J 2018 30;12:41-58. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan Iran.

Background: Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases that has claimed its victims throughout much of known human history. With Koch's discovery of the tubercle bacillus as the etiologic agent of the disease, his sanitary and hygienic measures, which were based on his discovery and the development of a vaccine against tuberculosis by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin in 1921, an attenuated strain, bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG), and the discovery of the first antibiotic against tuberculosis, streptomycin by Selman Waksman in 1943, soon led to the opinion that appropriate control measures had become available for tuberculosis and it had been assumed that the disease could ultimately be eradicated.The emergence of resistant strains of this bacteria and widespread distribution of the disease in the world, and the emergence of the AIDS epidemic destroyed any possibility of global control of tuberculosis in the foreseeable future.

Objectives: The purpose of this review is to highlight the current scientific literature on mycobacterial infections and provide an overview on the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis infections based on conventional phenotypic and modern molecular assays.

Method: In this study, a number of 65 papers comprising 20 reviews, 9 case reports, and 36 original research in association with mycobacteriosis and the laboratory diagnosis of mycobacterial infections, were reviewed.

Results: Based on our analysis on the published documents methods applied for the laboratory diagnosis of tuberculosis are continually assessed and developed in order to achieve more rapid, less expensive, and accurate results. Acid-fast staining and culture for mycobacteria remain at the core of any diagnostic algorithm with the sensitivity of 20-70% and specificity of 95-98% for AFB microscopy and the sensitivity of 95% and the specificity of 98% for culture based diagnosis. Following growth in culture, molecular tests such as nucleic acid hybridization probes and DNA sequencing may be used for definitive species identification. Nucleic acid amplification methods provide the means for direct detection of in respiratory specimens without the prerequisite to isolate or culture the organism, leading to more rapid diagnosis and better patient care.

Conclusion: As the researchers in a developing country, we strongly believe that despite significant advances in laboratory capacity, in many countries reliable confirmation of suspected mycobacterial diseases is hindered by a lack of knowledge on proper standardized methods, sufficient funds, suitably trained staff and laboratory supplies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1874285801812010041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897959PMC
March 2018

Screening, isolation and molecular identification of biodegrading mycobacteria from Iranian ecosystems and analysis of their biodegradation activity.

AMB Express 2017 Sep 20;7(1):180. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Anthropogenic origin pollutants including pesticides, heavy metals, pharmaceuticals and industry chemicals impose many risks to human health and environment and bioremediation has been considered the strategy of choice to reduce the risk of hazardous chemicals. In the current study, we aimed to screen and characterize mycobacteria from the diverse range of Iranian aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems with harsh and unfavorable environmental conditions that can be utilized for biodegradation of target pollutants. Mycobacteria were isolated from a collection of 90 environmental samples and identified to the species level using conventional microbiological and molecular methods including the PCR amplification of hsp65 and sequence analysis of, 16S rRNA genetic markers. The growth rate of the isolates in presence of pollutants, chromatography, Gibbs and turbidometric methods were used to assess their biodegradation activity. A total of 39 mycobacterial isolates (43.3%) were recovered from 90 samples that belonged to 21 various species consisting of M. fortuitum; 6 isolates, M. flavescens and M. paragordonae; 4 isolates each, M. monacense, M. fredriksbergense and M. aurum; 2 isolates each, 7 single isolates of M. conceptionense, M. porcinum, M. simiae, M. celeriflavum, M. novocastrense, M. neoaurum, M. obuense and 12 isolates that belonged to 8 unknown potentially novel mycobacterial species. The isolates were categorized in three groups based on their bioremediation activity, i.e., 5 (12.8%) organisms without biodegradation activity, 20 (51.2%) organisms with previously reported biodegradation activity, and 14 (35.9%) organisms that showed biodegradation activity but not previously reported. Our results showed that the Iranian ecosystems harbor a good reservoir of diverse mycobacterial species with biodegrading potentiality for neutralizing environmental chemical pollutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-017-0472-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5607059PMC
September 2017

Molecular analysis and species diversity of Nocardia in the hospital environment in a developing country, a potential health hazard.

J Med Microbiol 2017 Mar 23;66(3):334-341. Epub 2017 Mar 23.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Purpose: Despite hundreds of reports on the isolation of Nocardia from clinical samples, the presence and diversity of Nocardia species that are capable of survival in a harsh and adverse condition, such as a hospital environment, have not been comprehensively studied. The aim of this study was to assess Nocardia species diversity in a hospital environment to provide a better insight into their potential threat as a reservoir for the development of nosocomial infections.

Methodology: A total of 90 samples of hospital water, dust and soil, collected from 30 hospitals, were analysed for the presence of Nocardia using standard protocols for isolation and characterization of the isolates. Conventional tests were used for preliminary identification, and PCR amplification of the 596 bp amplicon of the 16S rRNA and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA were performed for genus and species identification.

Results: A total of 25 Nocardia isolates (27.7 %) from 10 species were recovered from 90 samples. The three most prevalent species were N. cyriacigeorgica, 24 %, N. asteroides, 16 % and N. kroppenstedtii, 12 %, followed by N. salmonicida-like, 8 % and single isolates of N.otitidiscaviarum, N. flavorozea-like, N. neocaledoniensis-like and N. sungurluensis-like. Thirteen out of twenty five isolates showed characteristics of six novel species.

Conclusion: Our study showed that the hospital environment is a potential reservoir of a diverse range of Nocardia species, due to the remarkable survival capability of these bacteria in an adverse hospital environment, which carries a threat to the health of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.000436DOI Listing
March 2017

Species diversity and molecular characterization of nontuberculous mycobacteria in hospital water system of a developing country, Iran.

Microb Pathog 2016 Nov 9;100:62-69. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Hospital environment is of crucial importance in cross-transmission of opportunistic pathogens to the patients. Nontuberculous mycobacteria have the remarkable capability to withstand the adverse condition of hospital environments and pose a potential threat to the health of patients. The current study aimed to assess the frequency and diversity of mycobacteria in hospital water of a developing country using a combination of conventional and molecular methods.

Methods: A total of 148 hospital water samples collected from 38 hospitals were analyzed for the presence of mycobacteria using standard protocols for isolation and characterization of the isolates. The conventional tests were used for preliminary identification and Runyon's classification, the PCR amplification of hsp65 gene and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA were applied for the genus and species identification.

Results: A total of 71 [48%] isolates including 30 rapidly growing and 41 slowly growing mycobacteria were recovered. The three most prevalent species were M. lentiflavum, 28.2%, M. paragordonae, 21.1%, and M. fredriksbergense, 9.8%, followed by M. simiae and M. novocastrense, 7%, M. canariasense and M. cookii like, 5.6%, M. setense, 4.2%, M. fortuitum and M. gordonae, 2.8%, and the single isolates of M. austroafricanum, M. massiliense, M. obuense, and M. phocaicum like.

Conclusion: The results of our study show that the hospital water resources, drinking or non-drinking can be the reservoir of a diverse range of mycobacteria. This reaffirms the fact that these organisms due to intrinsic resistance to common antiseptic and disinfectant solutions persist in hospitals and create a threat to the patient's health and in particular to those that suffer from weakness of immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2016.09.004DOI Listing
November 2016

Deep eutectic liquid organic salt as a new solvent for liquid-phase microextraction and its application in ligandless extraction and preconcentraion of lead and cadmium in edible oils.

Talanta 2015 Nov 7;144:648-54. Epub 2015 Jul 7.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Yazd University, Yazd 89195-741, Iran.

Deep eutectic liquid organic salt was used as the solvent and a liquid phase microextraction (DES-LPME) combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was developed for separation, preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium in edible oils. A 4:1 mixture of deep eutectic solvent and 2% nitric acid (200 µL) was added to an oil sample. The mixture was vortexed and transferred into a water bath at 50 °C and stirred for 5 minutes. After the extraction was completed, the phases were separated by centrifugation, and the enriched analytes in the deep eutectic solvent phase were determined by ETAAS. Under optimized extraction conditions and for an oil sample of 28 g, enhancement factors of 198 and 195 and limits of detection (defined as 3 Sb/m) of 8 and 0. 2 ng kg(-1) were achieved for lead and cadmium respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of lead and cadmium in various edible oils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2015.07.021DOI Listing
November 2015

Isolation and molecular identification of biodegrading Mycobacteria from water supplies of Iranian hospitals.

Iran J Microbiol 2014 Aug;6(4):240-5

Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background And Objectives: Some microorganisms, mainly members of two genera including Pseudomonas and Mycobacterium, were found to be capable of transforming and degrading of polluting agents. We herein report the isolation of a few mycobacteria with the ability to biodegrade organic and inorganic compounds from water supplies of Iranian hospitals.

Materials And Methods: The water samples were collected from hospital water supplies. Isolation processes were done according to standard methods. The colonies were subcultured on Löwenstein-Jensen medium to obtain a pure culture. The identification and characterization of the isolates were based on conventional and molecular methods including direct sequence analysis of almost full length of 16S rRNA gene.

Results: The almost complete 16S rRNA gene sequences of the studied strains revealed that the isolates WP16, AW18-1 and AW18-3 were identified as M. fredriksbergense, AW18-2 as M. austroafricanum, AW27-2 as M. obuenseand AW27-6 as M. phocaicum.The relationship between our isolates and standard strains of Mycobacterium was supported by a phylogenetic tree of 16S rRNA gene.

Conclusion: In the current study we were able to isolate and characterize six mycobacteria with capability of transforming and degrading polluting agents from Iranian hospital environments. This is indeed the first report on isolation and characterization of mycobacteria with degrading capability of polluting agents from Iranian hospitals. It can be considered as a pioneer study to open up a new horizon in the study of microbial diversity in Iran with an objective-based and applied approach to tackle environmental challenges.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4367940PMC
August 2014

First report of isolation of Mycobacterium canariasense from hospital water supplies.

Scand J Infect Dis 2014 Nov 22;46(11):792-6. Epub 2014 Sep 22.

From the Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences.

Mycobacterium canariasense was first isolated as a novel species in 2004 from clinical specimens in Spain. Since then there have only been a few additional reports from Spain, the USA, and Lebanon on the isolation of this rare species from clinical specimens. We herein present the first report on isolation of this organism from hospital water, which provides evidence for determining the natural habitat of this rare species. The water samples were collected from hospital departments and cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen and Sauton's media. The isolates, i.e. WP5, WP20, and AW2-3, were subjected to identification by conventional and molecular tests including sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA. The water isolates revealed phenotypic and molecular features consistent with M. canariasense including a genus-specific amplicon of the hsp65 gene and 100% similarities with those of M. canariasense CIP: 107998(T) 16S rRNA gene sequences. The current report might be of value in tracing the probable source of infection in patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00365548.2014.951683DOI Listing
November 2014

First report of isolation of Mycobacterium novocastrense from water supplies.

APMIS 2014 May 11;122(5):459-61. Epub 2013 Sep 11.

Nosocomial Infection Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan.

We herein present the first documented report associated with the isolation of Mycobacterium novocastrense from environment. The identification and characterization of four unrelated isolates, one from the surface water and the other three from hospital water, were achieved by various conventional and molecular tests including a genus-specific PCR for Mycobacterium based on 65-kDa heat shock protein (hsp) gene and 16S rDNA sequencing. Our findings might shed further light on the natural habitat of this rare Mycobacterium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apm.12165DOI Listing
May 2014
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