Publications by authors named "Davide Topazio"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Polarized mitochondria as guardians of NK cell fitness.

Blood Adv 2021 Jan;5(1):26-38

INSERM U1223, Paris, France.

Distinct metabolic demands accompany lymphocyte differentiation into short-lived effector and long-lived memory cells. How bioenergetics processes are structured in innate natural killer (NK) cells remains unclear. We demonstrate that circulating human CD56Dim (NKDim) cells have fused mitochondria and enhanced metabolism compared with CD56Br (NKBr) cells. Upon activation, these 2 subsets showed a dichotomous response, with further mitochondrial potentiation in NKBr cells vs paradoxical mitochondrial fission and depolarization in NKDim cells. The latter effect impaired interferon-γ production, but rescue was possible by inhibiting mitochondrial fragmentation, implicating mitochondrial polarization as a central regulator of NK cell function. NKDim cells are heterogeneous, and mitochondrial polarization was associated with enhanced survival and function in mature NKDim cells, including memory-like human cytomegalovirus-dependent CD57+NKG2C+ subsets. In contrast, patients with genetic defects in mitochondrial fusion had a deficiency in adaptive NK cells, which had poor survival in culture. These results support mitochondrial polarization as a central regulator of mature NK cell fitness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7805327PMC
January 2021

Anatomic landmarks for masseteric nerve identification: Anatomic study for a new reference point.

J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2020 Nov 8. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Institute for Clinical Anatomy, University of Tübingen, Germany.

The masseteric nerve is often used as a donor nerve in the treatment of facial paralysis. Even if several anatomical studies described landmarks for its identification, their main disadvantages are the anatomical variability and the changes due to surgery. Sixteen dissections were performed on cadaveric specimens. The masseteric muscle (MM), the zygomatic arch (ZA), the masseteric nerve (MN) and the zygomatic branch of the facial nerve (ZB) were identified and their relationships were measured. The relationships between MN and ZB resulted to be constant, with MN intersecting ZB at a depth of 0,78 cm in the muscle, 1,6 cm below ZA and 0,8 cm from the posterior border of MM. The measures obtained demonstrated as the main zygomatic branch of the facial nerve can be a suitable landmark for the identification of the masseteric nerve, with no variations due to the surgical procedure or patient characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjps.2020.10.074DOI Listing
November 2020

Tinnitus and equilibrium disorders in COVID-19 patients: preliminary results.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Oct 23. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Unit of Audiology, Regional Centre for Cochlear Implants and ENT Diseases, Magna Graecia University, Catanzaro, Italy.

Purpose: Tinnitus and equilibrium disorders such as dizziness and vertigo have been reported by patients with COVID-19; however, they have been rarely investigated. The aim of this study was to study the prevalence of subjective tinnitus and dizziness in a sample of COVID-19 patients using an online 10-item close-ended questionnaire.

Methods: A multicentric study that included 15 Italian hospitals in different regions was conducted using an online 10-item close-ended questionnaire developed to identify the presence of tinnitus and balance disorders in patients with COVID-19 between May 5 and June 10, 2020. The questionnaire was administered to 185 patients in a period of > 30 - < 60 days after diagnosis of COVID-19; responses were recorded in an online Excel spreadsheet. The questionnaire was composed of three sections: (1) demographic information; (2) presence and characteristics of tinnitus and dizziness after COVID-19 diagnosis; (3) possible association with migraine.

Results: Thirty-four patients (18.4%) reported equilibrium disorders after COVID-19 diagnosis. Of these, 32 patients reported dizziness (94.1%) and 2 (5.9%) reported acute vertigo attacks. Forty-three patients (23.2%) reported tinnitus; 14 (7.6%) reported both tinnitus and equilibrium disorders.

Conclusion: This study suggests that the presence of subjective otoneurological symptoms such as tinnitus and balance disorders can affect COVID-19 patients; further studies are necessary to investigate the prevalence and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these subjective symptoms in COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-06440-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7582442PMC
October 2020

Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on Italian Otolaryngology Units: a nationwide study.

Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital 2020 Oct 24;40(5):325-331. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

COVID-19 Task Force of the Young Otolaryngologists of the Italian Society of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery.

Objective: The aim of this study was to provide an accurate picture of the changes which have occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic, and the contributions given by Italian Otolaryngology Units.

Methods: A 29-item questionnaire was completed and returned by 154 Otorhinolaryngology Units across Italy that investigated geographic distribution, the main changes which occurred in workload management and in clinical and surgical activities and screening procedures for COVID-19 in healthcare personnel and patients.

Results: Nearly half of the Otolaryngology Units that responded to the questionnaire were merged with other units, while 22% were converted into COVID-19 units or temporarily closed. A reduction of 8.55% in the number of team members was reported, and about 50% of the units applied uniform work shifts for all staff. Elective activities were uniformly stopped or delayed, passing from 30,295 (pre-COVID data) to 5,684 (COVID data) weekly procedures, with a mean decrease of 81.24% (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Most of the elective otolaryngology activities were suspended during the pandemic; the only procedures were for oncology and emergency patients. Italian Otolaryngologists have demonstrated a high availability to collaborate with non-surgical colleagues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14639/0392-100X-N0832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7726641PMC
October 2020

Systemic Human ILC Precursors Provide a Substrate for Tissue ILC Differentiation.

Cell 2017 03;168(6):1086-1100.e10

Innate Immunity Unit, Institut Pasteur, 75724 Paris, France; Inserm U1223, 75015 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) represent innate versions of T helper and cytotoxic T cells that differentiate from committed ILC precursors (ILCPs). How ILCPs give rise to mature tissue-resident ILCs remains unclear. Here, we identify circulating and tissue ILCPs in humans that fail to express the transcription factors and cytokine outputs of mature ILCs but have these signature loci in an epigenetically poised configuration. Human ILCPs robustly generate all ILC subsets in vitro and in vivo. While human ILCPs express low levels of retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-related orphan receptor C (RORC) transcripts, these cells are found in RORC-deficient patients and retain potential for EOMES natural killer (NK) cells, interferon gamma-positive (IFN-γ) ILC1s, interleukin (IL)-13 ILC2s, and for IL-22, but not for IL-17A ILC3s. Our results support a model of tissue ILC differentiation ("ILC-poiesis"), whereby diverse ILC subsets are generated in situ from systemically distributed ILCPs in response to local environmental signals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2017.02.021DOI Listing
March 2017

Inactivation of human salivary glutathione transferase P1-1 by hypothiocyanite: a post-translational control system in search of a role.

PLoS One 2014 13;9(11):e112797. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

Department of Chemical Sciences and Technologies, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", 00133 Rome, Italy.

Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a superfamily of detoxifying enzymes over-expressed in tumor tissues and tentatively proposed as biomarkers for localizing and monitoring injury of specific tissues. Only scarce and contradictory reports exist about the presence and the level of these enzymes in human saliva. This study shows that GSTP1-1 is the most abundant salivary GST isoenzyme, mainly coming from salivary glands. Surprisingly, its activity is completely obscured by the presence of a strong oxidizing agent in saliva that causes a fast and complete, but reversible, inactivation. Although salivary α-defensins are also able to inhibit the enzyme causing a peculiar half-site inactivation, a number of approaches (mass spectrometry, site directed mutagenesis, chromatographic and spectrophotometric data) indicated that hypothiocyanite is the main salivary inhibitor of GSTP1-1. Cys47 and Cys101, the most reactive sulfhydryls of GSTP1-1, are mainly involved in a redox interaction which leads to the formation of an intra-chain disulfide bridge. A reactivation procedure has been optimized and used to quantify GSTP1-1 in saliva of 30 healthy subjects with results of 42±4 mU/mg-protein. The present study represents a first indication that salivary GSTP1-1 may have a different and hitherto unknown function. In addition it fulfills the basis for future investigations finalized to check the salivary GSTP1-1 as a diagnostic biomarker for diseases.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0112797PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4231102PMC
December 2015

Unusual postrhinoplasty complication: nasal dorsum cyst.

Case Rep Otolaryngol 2014 9;2014:617424. Epub 2014 Sep 9.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy.

AMONG ALL THE POSSIBLE COMPLICATIONS OF AESTHETIC RHINOPLASTY, A RARE ONE IS THE DEVELOPMENT OF CYSTIC MASSES ON THE NASAL DORSUM: several theories suggest that cysts develop commonly by entrapment of nasal mucosa in the subcutaneous space, but they can also originate from foreign body reactions. This report deals with two cases of nasal dorsum cysts with different pathogenesis: both patients had undergone aesthetic rhinoplasty in the past (26 years ago and 14 years ago, resp.). Both cystic masses were removed via a direct open approach and nasal reconstruction was performed successfully with autologous vomer bone. The pathologic investigations showed a foreign body inclusion cyst associated with latex rubber in the first case and a sequestration of a mucosal-lined nasal bone was not removed at the time of primary rhinoplasty in the second case. A brief review of the literature focuses on the pathophysiology and treatment options for nasal dorsal cysts following aesthetic rhinoplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/617424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4172887PMC
October 2014