Publications by authors named "Davide Palumbo"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Social Cognition Individualized Activities Lab for Social Cognition Training and Narrative Enhancement in Patients With Schizophrenia: A Randomized Controlled Study to Assess Efficacy and Generalization to Real-Life Functioning (Prot. n°: NCT05130853).

Front Psychiatry 2022 4;13:833550. Epub 2022 Apr 4.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli," Naples, Italy.

Subjects affected by schizophrenia present significant deficits in various aspects of social cognition, such as emotion processing, social perception and theory of mind (ToM). These deficits have a greater impact than symptoms on occupational and social functioning. Therefore, social cognition represents an important therapeutic target in people with schizophrenia. Recent meta-analyses showed that social cognition training (SCT) is effective in improving social cognition in subjects with schizophrenia; however, real-life functioning is not always ameliorated. Integration of SCT with an intervention targeting metacognitive abilities might improve the integration of social cognitive skills to daily life functioning. Our research group has implemented a new individualized rehabilitation program: the Social Cognition Individualized Activities Lab, SoCIAL, which integrates SCT with a module for narrative enhancement, an intervention targeting metacognitive abilities. The present multi-center randomized controlled study will compare the efficacy of SoCIAL and treatment as usual (TAU) in subjects diagnosed with a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder. The primary outcome will be the improvement of social cognition and real-life functioning; while the secondary outcome will be the improvement of symptoms, functional capacity and neurocognition. The results of this study will add empirical evidence to the benefits and feasibility of SCT and narrative enhancement in people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2022.833550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9015661PMC
April 2022

The Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI): Association with neuropsychological scores and real-life functioning in a large sample of Italian subjects with schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2022 03 3;241:161-170. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Introduction: The Cognitive Assessment Interview (CAI) is an interview-based scale developed to measure cognitive impairment and its impact on functioning in subjects with schizophrenia (SCZ). Previous studies demonstrated good psychometric properties of the CAI. However, only relatively small samples of SCZ were investigated. This study aimed to determine in a large sample of SCZ (N = 580) the relationships of the Italian Version of the CAI with measures of cognitive performance and functional capacity and real-life functioning, using state-of-the-art instruments.

Methods: Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Cronbach's alpha were calculated to examine the CAI's inter-rater reliability and internal consistency. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to evaluate relationships between CAI global and domain composite scores with neurocognition, social cognition, functional capacity, and functioning.

Results: The inter-rater reliability and internal consistency were good to excellent. The CAI global composite score showed a strong correlation with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) composite score (r = -0.50) and moderate/strong associations with measures of functional capacity (-0.46 < r < -0.52) and real-life functioning (-0.30 < r < -0.51). Finally, CAI composite social cognition score correlated moderately with the Facial Emotion Identification Test (r = -0.31) and two subscales of the Awareness of Social Inference Test (-0.32 < r < -0.34).

Conclusions: The study suggests that CAI is a valid co-primary measure for clinical trials and a suitable instrument to screen impairment in neurocognitive and social cognitive domains and its impact on functioning in SCZ in everyday clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2022.01.029DOI Listing
March 2022

A Comparison among Different Ways to Investigate Composite Materials with Lock-In Thermography: The Multi-Frequency Approach.

Materials (Basel) 2021 May 12;14(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Politecnico di Bari, Department of Mechanics, Mathematics & Management, Via Orabona 4, 70125 Bari, Italy.

The main goal of non-destructive testing is the detection of defects early enough to avoid catastrophic failure with particular interest for the inspection of aerospace structures; under this aspect, all methods for fast and reliable inspection deserve special attention. In this sense, active thermography for non-destructive testing enables contactless, fast, remote, and not expensive control of materials and structures. Furthermore, different works have confirmed the potentials of lock-in thermography as a flexible technique for its peculiarity to be performed by means of a low-cost set-up. In this work, a new approach called the multi-frequency via software approach (MFS), based on the superimposition via software of two square waves with two different main excitation frequencies, has been used to inspect a sample in carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) material with imposed defects of different materials, sizes and depths, by means of lock-in thermography. The advantages and disadvantages of the multi-frequency approach have been highlighted by comparing quantitatively the MFS with the traditional excitation methods (sine and square waves).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14102525DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152101PMC
May 2021

Autism Rating Scale: A New Tool for Characterizing the Schizophrenia Phenotype.

Front Psychiatry 2021 26;12:622359. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.

Social dysfunctions (SD) are frequently observed in subjects with schizophrenia. Some of these dysfunctions are also observed in other neuropsychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD), major depression, bipolar disorder, or Alzheimer disease. Recently, a characterization of a specific type of SD in schizophrenia has been proposed, with the concept of dis-sociality, which form the core aspect of "Schizophrenic Autism" (SA). The present study aimed to explore the presence in people with schizophrenia of SA, independent of other autistic traits, which can be often found in schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders. We used a structured interview-the Autism Rating Scale (ARS), an instrument devised to detect and measure SA. Fifty-one outpatients affected by schizophrenia (26 remitted, SCZ-r) and 28 affected by bipolar disorder type 1, with psychotic features, in the euthymic phase (BD-e) were recruited. Before assessing the specificity for schizophrenia of SA, we tested the internal consistency, the convergent and divergent validity of the ARS in the schizophrenia sample. Specificity was assessed by examining potential differences in ARS scores between SCZ-r and BD-e subjects. ARS showed good internal consistency, as well as convergent and divergent validity. ARS items were more frequently of moderate severity in SCZ-r than in BD-e subjects. This scale can contribute to establish more precise phenomenal boundaries between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, and opens up the possibility of identifying a different type of SD in schizophrenia, independent of autistic traits and negative symptoms, which might benefit from different treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.622359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7870791PMC
January 2021

Estimation of the Dissipative Heat Sources Related to the Total Energy Input of a CFRP Composite by Using the Second Amplitude Harmonic of the Thermal Signal.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jun 23;13(12). Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Department of Mechanics, Mathematics and Management, Politecnico di Bari, 70125 Bari, Italy.

Theories for predicting the fatigue behaviour of composite laminates often make strong assumptions on the damage mechanisms that strongly depend on the designed laminate lay-up. In this regard, several physical and empirical models were proposed in the literature that generally require experimental validations. The experimental techniques, such as thermography, also provide useful tools for monitoring the behaviour of the specific material so, that they can be used to support the study of the damage mechanisms of materials. In this research, the second amplitude harmonic of the thermal signal has been investigated and used to assess the relationship with the total energy input in order to estimate the fatigue strength of the material. A thermal index was assessed by monitoring the constant amplitude tests (S/N curve) that were performed on a quasi-isotropic carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminate obtained by the automated fibre placement process. The obtained results demonstrated the capability of the second amplitude harmonic of the thermal signal to describe and monitor the fatigue damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13122820DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7344522PMC
June 2020

Abnormal bodily experiences detected by Abnormal Bodily Phenomena questionnaire are more frequent and severe in schizophrenia than in bipolar disorder with psychotic features.

Eur Psychiatry 2020 05 14;63(1):e49. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.

Background: Patients with schizophrenia display experiential anomalies in their feelings and cognitions arising in the domain of their lived body. These abnormal bodily phenomena (ABP) are not part of diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia. One of the reasons is the difficulty to assess specific ABP for schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The present study aimed to explore the presence in patients with schizophrenia of specific ABP.

Methods: We used a semistructured interview-the Abnormal Bodily Phenomena questionnaire (ABPq), an instrument devised to detect and measure ABP specific to patients with schizophrenia. Fifty-one outpatients affected by schizophrenia and 28 euthymic outpatients affected by bipolar disorder type I with psychotic features (BD-pf-e) were recruited. Before assessing the specificity for schizophrenia of the observed ABP, we tested the internal consistency and the convergent validity of the ABPq in patients with schizophrenia. Specificity was assessed by examining potential differences in ABPq among the patients with schizophrenia in remission (SCZ-r) and BD-pf-e.

Results: The ABPq shows strong internal consistency and convergent validity. As to the specificity, ABP measured by ABPq were more frequent and severe in SCZ-r than in BD-pf-e. In particular, all ABPq dimensions, except "Coherence," had at least mild severity in over 50% of SCZ-r, while dimensions with at least mild severity were observed in 5-10% of the BD-pf-e.

Conclusions: These findings can contribute to establish more precise phenomenal boundaries between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, to explore the borders between nonpsychotic and psychotic forms of ABP, between ABP and negative and disorganized symptoms, and to enlighten core aspects of schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/j.eurpsy.2020.49DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355172PMC
May 2020

The Efficacy, Feasibility And Acceptability Of A Remotely Accessible Use Of CIRCuiTS, A Computerized Cognitive Remediation Therapy Program For Schizophrenia: A Pilot Study.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2019 8;15:3103-3113. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

Introduction: The Computerized Interactive Remediation of Cognition - Training for Schizophrenia (CIRCuiTS) is a form of cognitive remediation therapy developed to target neurocognitive and metacognitive deficits of people with schizophrenia, which have a detrimental impact on real-life functioning. The English version of CIRCuiTS demonstrated good acceptability and feasibility. A recent randomized controlled trial provided evidence that the program improves memory and functioning, and that the impact on functional outcome is mediated by metacognition. The next steps in the development of CIRCuiTS include both: 1) the translation and adaptation of the program in different cultural settings; and 2) the demonstration of feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a standardized method to administer CIRCuiTS remotely.

Purpose: To implement the CIRCuiTS Italian version and to assess acceptability, feasibility and efficacy of a standardized method to administer CIRCuiTS remotely.

Methods: Participants were assessed at baseline and received up to 40 CIRCuiTS therapy sessions, three times a week, for about 1 hr over a three-month period. Participants were reassessed post-treatment.

Results: The program demonstrated good feasibility and high acceptability when assessed by the number of dropouts and evaluation of patients' satisfaction. Participants improved in learning, speed of processing, working memory and executive control. They showed a reduction in disorganization and improvement in self-esteem, functional capacity, and real-life functioning.

Conclusion: In this study, a standardized protocol for using CIRCuiTS from home was implemented. The first set of data showed in the paper is encouraging. The proposed procedure could lead to a dropout reduction while maintaining the efficacy of the program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S221690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6853079PMC
November 2019

The Sicilian Wolf: Genetic Identity of a Recently Extinct Insular Population.

Zoolog Sci 2019 06;36(3):189-197

Laboratories of Physical Anthropology and Ancient DNA, Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy.

Historically, many local grey wolf () populations have undergone substantial reductions in size or become extinct. Among these, the wolf population once living in Sicily, the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, was completely eradicated by human activity in the early decades of the 20th century. To gain a better understanding of the genetic identity of the Sicilian wolf, we used techniques for the study of ancient DNA to analyze the mitochondrial (mt) variability of six specimens stored in Italian museums. We were able to amplify a diagnostic mtDNA fragment of the control region (CR) in four of the samples. Two of the samples shared the same haplotype, differing by two substitutions from the currently most diffused Italian wolf haplotype (W14) and one substitution from the only other Italian haplotype (W16). The third sample showed a previously unreported wolf-like haplotype, and the fourth a haplotype commonly found in dogs. All of the wolf haplotypes analyzed in this study belonged to the mitochondrial haplogroup that includes haplotypes detected in all the known European Pleistocene wolves and in several modern southern European populations. Unfortunately, this endemic island population, which exhibited unique mtDNA variability, was definitively lost before it was possible to understand its taxonomic uniqueness and conservational value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2108/zs180180DOI Listing
June 2019

On the Thickness Quantification of Composite Materials by Using Lock-In Thermography.

Authors:
Davide Palumbo

Materials (Basel) 2019 Apr 11;12(7). Epub 2019 Apr 11.

Politecnico di Bari, Viale Japigia, 182, 70126 Bari, Italy.

Many structural components made of composite materials need an accurate thickness control during fabrication and/or maintenance. In this regard, various non-destructive techniques can be used for the online measuring of thickness of large components such as wings and fuselage in the aerospace industry. In this work, the capabilities of lock-in thermography technique in thickness measurement of glass fiber reinforced plastic material were investigated and a correct procedure has been proposed to ensure the best measurement accuracy. An analytical approach and several tests were carried out on a sample specimen with the aim to study the main test parameters. Finally, the limits of technique have been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12071185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6479524PMC
April 2019

Old wild wolves: ancient DNA survey unveils population dynamics in Late Pleistocene and Holocene Italian remains.

PeerJ 2019 27;7:e6424. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Laboratories of Physical Anthropology and Ancient DNA, Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Bologna, Ravenna, Italy.

Background: The contemporary Italian wolf () represents a case of morphological and genetic uniqueness. Today, Italian wolves are also the only documented population to fall exclusively within the mitochondrial haplogroup 2, which was the most diffused across Eurasian and North American wolves during the Late Pleistocene. However, the dynamics leading to such distinctiveness are still debated.

Methods: In order to shed light on the ancient genetic variability of this wolf population and on the origin of its current diversity, we collected 19 Late Pleistocene-Holocene samples from northern Italy, which we analyzed at a short portion of the hypervariable region 1 of the mitochondrial DNA, highly informative for wolf and dog phylogenetic analyses.

Results: Four out of the six detected haplotypes matched the ones found in ancient wolves from northern Europe and Beringia, or in modern European and Chinese wolves, and appeared closely related to the two haplotypes currently found in Italian wolves. The haplotype of two Late Pleistocene samples matched with primitive and contemporary dog sequences from the canine mitochondrial clade A. All these haplotypes belonged to haplogroup 2. The only exception was a Holocene sample dated 3,250 years ago, affiliated to haplogroup 1.

Discussion: In this study we describe the genetic variability of the most ancient wolf specimens from Italy analyzed so far, providing a preliminary overview of the genetic make-up of the population that inhabited this area from the last glacial maximum to the Middle Age period. Our results endorsed that the genetic diversity carried by the Pleistocene wolves here analyzed showed a strong continuity with other northern Eurasian wolf specimens from the same chronological period. Contrarily, the Holocene samples showed a greater similarity only with modern sequences from Europe and Asia, and the occurrence of an haplogroup 1 haplotype allowed to date back previous finding about its presence in this area. Moreover, the unexpected discovery of a 24,700-year-old sample carrying a haplotype that, from the fragment here obtained, falls within the canine clade A, could represent the oldest evidence in Europe of such dog-rich clade. All these findings suggest complex population dynamics that deserve to be further investigated based on mitochondrial or whole genome sequencing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.6424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6441319PMC
March 2019

Correlation between Thermal Behaviour of AA5754-H111 during Fatigue Loading and Fatigue Strength at Fixed Number of Cycles.

Materials (Basel) 2018 May 2;11(5). Epub 2018 May 2.

Politecnico di Bari-Department of Mechanics Mathematics and Management (DMMM), 70126 Bari, Italy.

The characterization of the fatigue behaviour of aluminium alloys is still capturing the attention of researchers. As it is well known in literature, for certain alloys, in a specific range of cycles number, the S-N curves do not present any asymptote. So that, problems result in the assessment of the fatigue life. In these conditions, the concept of the fatigue limit has to be replaced by the fatigue strength at a fixed number of loading cycles. Temperature acquisitions during fatigue tests allow for a specific analysis that can support the researchers in understanding the complex processes that are involved in fatigue and their influence on fatigue life, even for aluminium alloys. In fact, the analysis of the surface temperature signal that was detected during a self-heating test provides a curve that is characterized by a distinct slope-change point at a specific stress value. Even though researchers have been investigating fatigue life characterisation and temperature variations for more than a decade, it is not clear what this point represents in terms of fatigue strength. The aim of the present paper is to find out a possible correlation between the thermal behaviour of AA5754-H111 undergoing self-heating testing procedure and fatigue strength at a specific loading cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma11050719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5978096PMC
May 2018

Impact of Reward and Loss Anticipation on Cognitive Control: An Event-Related Potential Study in Subjects With Schizophrenia and Healthy Controls.

Clin EEG Neurosci 2018 Jan;49(1):46-54

1 Department of Psychiatry, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", Naples, Italy.

Introduction: Deficits of cognitive functions and motivation are core aspects of schizophrenia. The interaction of these deficits might contribute to impair the ability to flexibly adjust behavior in accordance with one's intentions and goals. Many studies have focused on the anterior N2 as a correlate of cognitive control based on motivational value.

Aims: Given the key role of motivation impairment in schizophrenia as a predictor of functional outcome, we aimed to study the impact of reward- and avoidance-based motivation on cognitive control using N2.

Method: Event-related potentials were recorded during the execution of the "Monetary Incentive Delay (MID)" task in 34 patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) stabilized on second-generation antipsychotics and 22 healthy controls (HC). Cognitive domains were assessed using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery. Negative symptom domains (Avolition/apathy and Expressive deficit), as well as positive and disorganization dimensions were also assessed in SCZ.

Results: We did not observe any group difference in N2 amplitude or latency. In HC, N2 amplitude was significantly larger for anticipation of large loss with regard to all reward conditions and for all incentive versus neutral conditions. In SCZ, N2 amplitude did not discriminate between large loss and reward or between incentive and neutral conditions. N2 amplitude was not correlated with psychopathological dimensions or MCCB-assessed cognitive deficits in SCZ.

Conclusion: Our data in HC are in line with the hypothesis that N2 amplitude reflects the impact of motivational salience on cognitive control. Our results in SCZ indicate a deficit in the discrimination of motivational salience to the service of cognitive control, independently of psychopathology and other cognitive deficits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1550059417745935DOI Listing
January 2018

Optimization and Characterization of the Friction Stir Welded Sheets of AA 5754-H111: Monitoring of the Quality of Joints with Thermographic Techniques.

Materials (Basel) 2017 Oct 11;10(10). Epub 2017 Oct 11.

Department of Mechanics Mathematics and Management (DMMM), Politecnico di Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy.

Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid-state welding process, based on frictional and stirring phenomena, that offers many advantages with respect to the traditional welding methods. However, several parameters can affect the quality of the produced joints. In this work, an experimental approach has been used for studying and optimizing the FSW process, applied on 5754-H111 aluminum plates. In particular, the thermal behavior of the material during the process has been investigated and two thermal indexes, the maximum temperature and the heating rate of the material, correlated to the frictional power input, were investigated for different process parameters (the travel and rotation tool speeds) configurations. Moreover, other techniques (micrographs, macrographs and destructive tensile tests) were carried out for supporting in a quantitative way the analysis of the quality of welded joints. The potential of thermographic technique has been demonstrated both for monitoring the FSW process and for predicting the quality of joints in terms of tensile strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma10101165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5666971PMC
October 2017

SoCIAL - training cognition in schizophrenia: a pilot study.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2017 20;13:1947-1956. Epub 2017 Jul 20.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli, Naples, Italy.

The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the efficacy of a new social cognition (SC) remediation intervention, the Social Cognition Individualized Activities Lab (SoCIAL), for subjects with schizophrenia. The training includes a module for emotion recognition and one for theory of mind. A comparison with a validated cognitive remediation intervention, the Social Skills And Neurocognitive Individualized Training (SSANIT), was conducted to verify the efficacy of the SoCIAL in improving SC. Ten stabilized patients with schizophrenia accepted to participate. Five patients were randomized to SoCIAL and five to SSANIT. The SoCIAL intervention includes individual sessions of neurocognitive individualized training (NIT) and group sessions of SC training. SSANIT includes individual sessions of NIT and group sessions of social skills individualized training. The interventions were matched for the overall treatment duration (20 weeks) and for the frequency of the sessions (two times a week, one for SoCIAL or social skills individualized training and one for NIT, with a duration of 80 minutes for each session). Results showed a significant treatment effect (effect size: Cohen's d 0.32) on the primary outcome; in fact, only the SoCIAL intervention improved theory of mind. Patients receiving the SoCIAL intervention also showed an improvement of avolition. These preliminary findings support further development of the SoCIAL and suggest that cognitive remediation should include an SC module.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S136732DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5530058PMC
July 2017

Effect of Friction Stir Process Parameters on the Mechanical and Thermal Behavior of 5754-H111 Aluminum Plates.

Materials (Basel) 2016 Feb 23;9(3). Epub 2016 Feb 23.

Politecnico di Bari, Department of Mechanics Mathematics and Management (DMMM), Viale Japigia 182, Bari 70126, Italy.

A study of the Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process was carried out in order to evaluate the influence of process parameters on the mechanical properties of aluminum plates (AA5754-H111). The process was monitored during each test by means of infrared cameras in order to correlate temperature information with eventual changes of the mechanical properties of joints. In particular, two process parameters were considered for tests: the welding tool rotation speed and the welding tool traverse speed. The quality of joints was evaluated by means of destructive and non-destructive tests. In this regard, the presence of defects and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) were investigated for each combination of the process parameters. A statistical analysis was carried out to assess the correlation between the thermal behavior of joints and the process parameters, also proving the capability of Infrared Thermography for on-line monitoring of the quality of joints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma9030122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5456697PMC
February 2016
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