Publications by authors named "Davide Di Vece"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Dynamic Left Intraventricular Obstruction Phenotype in Takotsubo Syndrome.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 22;10(15). Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Medicine and Surgery, University Hospital of Salerno, 84131 Salerno, Italy.

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by acute, generally transient left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Although TTS has been long regarded as a benign condition, recent evidence showed that rate of acute complications and in-hospital mortality is comparable to that of patients with acute coronary syndrome. In particular, the prevalence of cardiogenic shock ranges between 6% and 20%. In this setting, detection of mechanisms leading to cardiogenic shock can be challenging. Besides a severely impaired systolic function, onset of LV outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) together with mitral regurgitation related to systolic anterior motion of mitral valve leaflets can lead to hemodynamic instability. Early identification of LVOTO with echocardiography is crucial and has important implications on selection of the appropriate therapy. Application of short-acting b1-selective betablockers and prudent administration of fluids might help to resolve LVOTO. Conversely, inotrope agents may increase basal hypercontractility and worsen the intraventricular pressure gradient. To date, outcomes and management of patients with TTS complicated by LVOTO as yet has not been comprehensively investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10153235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8347696PMC
July 2021

Impact of Atrial Fibrillation on Outcome in Takotsubo Syndrome: Data From the International Takotsubo Registry.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 08 28;10(15):e014059. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Cardiology Intensive Care Medicine and Angiology Vincentius-Diakonissen-Hospital Karlsruhe Germany.

Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major risk factor for mortality. The prevalence, clinical correlates, and prognostic impact of AF in Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) have not yet been investigated in a large patient cohort. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence, clinical correlates, and prognostic impact of AF in patients with TTS. Methods and Results Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry, which is a multinational network with 26 participating centers in Europe and the United States. Patients were dichotomized according to the presence or absence of AF at the time of admission. Of 1584 patients with TTS, 112 (7.1%) had AF. The mean age was higher (<0.001), and there were fewer women (=0.046) in the AF than in the non-AF group. Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower (=0.001), and cardiogenic shock was more often observed (<0.001) in the AF group. Both in-hospital (<0.001) and long-term mortality (<0.001) were higher in the AF group. Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that AF was independently associated with higher long-term mortality (hazard ratio, 2.31; 95% CI, 1.50-3.55; <0.001). Among patients with AF on admission, 42% had no known history of AF before the acute TTS event, and such patients had comparable in-hospital and long-term outcomes compared with those with a history of AF. Conclusions In patients presenting with TTS, AF on admission is significantly associated with increased in-hospital and long-term mortality rates. Whether antiarrhythmics and/or cardioversion are beneficial in TTS with AF should thus be tested in a future trial. Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.014059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8475688PMC
August 2021

Clinical conditions and echocardiographic parameters associated with mortality in COVID-19.

Eur J Clin Invest 2021 Jul 20:e13638. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Medicine, Surgery and Dentistry, University of Salerno, Baronissi, Italy.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently recognized viral infective disease which can be complicated by acute respiratory stress syndrome (ARDS) and cardiovascular complications including severe arrhythmias, acute coronary syndromes, myocarditis and pulmonary embolism. The aim of the present study was to identify the clinical conditions and echocardiographic parameters associated with in-hospital mortality in COVID-19.

Methods: This is a multicentre retrospective observational study including seven Italian centres. Patients hospitalized with COVID-19 from 1 March to 22 April 2020 were included into study population. The association between baseline variables and risk of in-hospital mortality was assessed through multivariable logistic regression and competing risk analyses.

Results: Out of 1401 patients admitted at the participating centres with confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, 226 (16.1%) underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and were included in the present analysis. In-hospital death occurred in 68 patients (30.1%). At multivariable analysis, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, P < .001), tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE, P < .001) and ARDS (P < .001) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. At competing risk analysis, we found a significantly higher risk of mortality in patients with ARDS vs those without ARDS (HR: 7.66; CI: 3.95-14.8), in patients with TAPSE ≤17 mm vs those with TAPSE >17 mm (HR: 5.08; CI: 3.15-8.19) and in patients with LVEF ≤50% vs those with LVEF >50% (HR: 4.06; CI: 2.50-6.59).

Conclusions: TTE might be a useful tool in risk stratification of patients with COVID-19. In particular, reduced LVEF and reduced TAPSE may help to identify patients at higher risk of death during hospitalization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eci.13638DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8420215PMC
July 2021

Ethnic comparison in takotsubo syndrome: novel insights from the International Takotsubo Registry.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 May 19. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Background: Ethnic disparities have been reported in cardiovascular disease. However, ethnic disparities in takotsubo syndrome (TTS) remain elusive. This study assessed differences in clinical characteristics between Japanese and European TTS patients and determined the impact of ethnicity on in-hospital outcomes.

Methods: TTS patients in Japan were enrolled from 10 hospitals and TTS patients in Europe were enrolled from 32 hospitals participating in the International Takotsubo Registry. Clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were compared between Japanese and European patients.

Results: A total of 503 Japanese and 1670 European patients were included. Japanese patients were older (72.6 ± 11.4 years vs. 68.0 ± 12.0 years; p < 0.001) and more likely to be male (18.5 vs. 8.4%; p < 0.001) than European TTS patients. Physical triggering factors were more common (45.5 vs. 32.0%; p < 0.001), and emotional triggers less common (17.5 vs. 31.5%; p < 0.001), in Japanese patients than in European patients. Japanese patients were more likely to experience cardiogenic shock during the acute phase (15.5 vs. 9.0%; p < 0.001) and had a higher in-hospital mortality (8.2 vs. 3.2%; p < 0.001). However, ethnicity itself did not appear to have an impact on in-hospital mortality. Machine learning approach revealed that the presence of physical stressors was the most important prognostic factor in both Japanese and European TTS patients.

Conclusion: Differences in clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes between Japanese and European TTS patients exist. Ethnicity does not impact the outcome in TTS patients. The worse in-hospital outcome in Japanese patients, is mainly driven by the higher prevalence of physical triggers.

Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov ; Unique Identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01857-4DOI Listing
May 2021

Risk scores in predicting adverse events following acute coronary syndrome.

Lancet 2021 01;397(10270):172-173

University Heart Center, Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00038-6DOI Listing
January 2021

Age-Related Variations in Takotsubo Syndrome.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 04;75(16):1869-1877

Krankenhaus "Maria Hilf" Medizinische Klinik, Stadtlohn, Germany.

Background: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) occurs predominantly in post-menopausal women but is also found in younger patients.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate age-related differences in TTS.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with TTS and enrolled in the International Takotsubo Registry between January 2011 and February 2017 were included in this analysis and were stratified by age (younger: ≤50 years, middle-age: 51 to 74 years, elderly: ≥75 years). Baseline characteristics, hospital course, as well as short- and long-term mortality were compared among groups.

Results: Of 2,098 TTS patients, 242 (11.5%) patients were ≤50 years of age, 1,194 (56.9%) were 51 to 74 years of age, and 662 (31.6%) were ≥75 years of age. Younger patients were more often men (12.4% vs. 10.9% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.002) and had an increased prevalence of acute neurological (16.3% vs. 8.4% vs. 8.8%; p = 0.001) or psychiatric disorders (14.1% vs. 10.3% vs. 5.6%; p < 0.001) compared with middle-aged and elderly TTS patients. Furthermore, younger patients had more often cardiogenic shock (15.3% vs. 9.1% vs. 8.1%; p = 0.004) and had a numerically higher in-hospital mortality (6.6% vs. 3.6% vs. 5.1%; p = 0.07). At multivariable analysis, younger (odds ratio: 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 3.01; p = 0.14) and older age (odds ratio: 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 1.80; p = 0.75) were not independently associated with in-hospital mortality using the middle-aged group as a reference. There were no differences in 60-day mortality rates among groups.

Conclusions: A substantial proportion of TTS patients are younger than 50 years of age. TTS is associated with severe complications requiring intensive care, particularly in younger patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.02.057DOI Listing
April 2020

Impact of aspirin on takotsubo syndrome: a propensity score-based analysis of the InterTAK Registry.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 02 20;22(2):330-337. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Internal Medicine III, Heart Center University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Aims: The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of aspirin on prognosis in takotsubo syndrome (TTS).

Methods And Results: Patients from the International Takotsubo (InterTAK) Registry were categorized into two groups based on aspirin prescription at discharge. A comparison of clinical outcomes between groups was performed using an adjusted analysis with propensity score (PS) stratification; results from the unadjusted analysis were also reported to note the effect of the PS adjustment. Major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE: a composite of death, myocardial infarction, TTS recurrence, stroke or transient ischaemic attack) were assessed at 30-day and 5-year follow-up. A total of 1533 TTS patients with known status regarding aspirin prescription at discharge were included. According to the adjusted analysis based on PS stratification, aspirin was not associated with a lower hazard of MACCE at 30-day [hazard ratio (HR) 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-3.04, P = 0.64] or 5-year follow-up (HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.78-1.58, P = 0.58). These results were confirmed by sensitivity analyses performed with alternative PS-based methods, i.e. covariate adjustment and inverse probability of treatment weighting.

Conclusion: In the present study, no association was found between aspirin use in TTS patients and a reduced risk of MACCE at 30-day and 5-year follow-up. These findings should be confirmed in adequately powered randomized controlled trials. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1698DOI Listing
February 2020

Intraventricular Thrombus Formation and Embolism in Takotsubo Syndrome: Insights From the International Takotsubo Registry.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2020 01 26;40(1):279-287. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Service de cardiologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève, Switzerland (P. Meyer, J.D.A.).

Objective: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is characterized by acute left ventricular dysfunction, which can contribute to intraventricular thrombus and embolism. Still, prevalence and clinical impact of thrombus formation and embolic events on outcome of TTS patients remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate clinical features and outcomes of patients with and without intraventricular thrombus or embolism. Additionally, factors associated with thrombus formation or embolism, as well as predictors for mortality, were identified. Approach and Results: TTS patients enrolled in the International Takotsubo Registry at 28 centers in Australia, Europe, and the United States were dichotomized according to the occurrence/absence of intraventricular thrombus or embolism. Patients with intraventricular thrombus or embolism were defined as the ThrombEmb group. Of 1676 TTS patients, 56 (3.3%) patients developed intraventricular thrombus and/or embolism following TTS diagnosis (median time interval, 2.0 days [range, 0-38 days]). Patients in the ThrombEmb group had a different clinical profile including lower left ventricular ejection fraction, higher prevalence of the apical type, elevated levels of troponin and inflammatory markers, and higher prevalence of vascular disease. In a Firth bias-reduced penalized-likelihood logistic regression model apical type, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30%, previous vascular disease, and a white blood cell count on admission >10×10 cells/μL emerged as independent predictors for thrombus formation or embolism.

Conclusions: Intraventricular thrombus or embolism occur in 3.3% of patients in the acute phase of TTS. A simple risk score including clinical parameters associated with intraventricular thrombus formation or embolism identifies patients at increased risk.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.119.313491DOI Listing
January 2020

Clinical Features and Outcomes of Patients With Malignancy and Takotsubo Syndrome: Observations From the International Takotsubo Registry.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 08 17;8(15):e010881. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Clinic for Cardiology and Pneumology Georg August University Goettingen Goettingen Germany.

Background Clinical characteristics and outcomes of takotsubo syndrome (TTS) patients with malignancy have not been fully elucidated. This study sought to explore differences in clinical characteristics and to investigate short- and long-term outcomes in TTS patients with or without malignancy. Methods and Results TTS patients were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. The TTS cohort was divided into patients with and without malignancy to investigate differences in clinical characteristics and to assess short- and long-term mortality. A subanalysis was performed comparing long-term mortality between a subset of TTS patients with or without malignancy and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with or without malignancy. Malignancy was observed in 16.6% of 1604 TTS patients. Patients with malignancy were older and more likely to have physical triggers, but less likely to have emotional triggers compared with those without malignancy. Long-term mortality was higher in patients with malignancy (P<0.001), while short-term outcome was comparable (P=0.17). In a subanalysis, long-term mortality was comparable between TTS patients with malignancies and ACS patients with malignancies (P=0.13). Malignancy emerged as an independent predictor of long-term mortality. Conclusions A substantial number of TTS patients show an association with malignancy. History of malignancy might increase the risk for TTS, and therefore, appropriate screening for malignancy should be considered in these patients. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrial.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.010881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6761645PMC
August 2019

Response by Di Vece et al to Letter Regarding Article, "Outcomes Associated With Cardiogenic Shock in Takotsubo Syndrome: Results From the International Takotsubo Registry".

Circulation 2019 06 17;139(25):e1044-e1045. Epub 2019 Jun 17.

University Heart Center, Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Zurich, Switzerland (D.D.V., C.T.).

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.040783DOI Listing
June 2019

Cardiac arrest in takotsubo syndrome: results from the InterTAK Registry.

Eur Heart J 2019 07;40(26):2142-2151

Department of Internal Medicine/Cardiology, University of Leipzig-Heart Center, Leipzig, Germany.

Aims: We aimed to evaluate the frequency, clinical features, and prognostic implications of cardiac arrest (CA) in takotsubo syndrome (TTS).

Methods And Results: We reviewed the records of patients with CA and known heart rhythm from the International Takotsubo Registry. The main outcomes were 60-day and 5-year mortality. In addition, predictors of mortality and predictors of CA during the acute TTS phase were assessed. Of 2098 patients, 103 patients with CA and known heart rhythm during CA were included. Compared with patients without CA, CA patients were more likely to be younger, male, and have apical TTS, atrial fibrillation (AF), neurologic comorbidities, physical triggers, and longer corrected QT-interval and lower left ventricular ejection fraction on admission. In all, 57.1% of patients with CA at admission had ventricular fibrillation/tachycardia, while 73.7% of patients with CA in the acute phase had asystole/pulseless electrical activity. Patients with CA showed higher 60-day (40.3% vs. 4.0%, P < 0.001) and 5-year mortality (68.9% vs. 16.7%, P < 0.001) than patients without CA. T-wave inversion and intracranial haemorrhage were independently associated with higher 60-day mortality after CA, whereas female gender was associated with lower 60-day mortality. In the acute phase, CA occurred less frequently in females and more frequently in patients with AF, ST-segment elevation, and higher C-reactive protein on admission.

Conclusions: Cardiac arrest is relatively frequent in TTS and is associated with higher short- and long-term mortality. Clinical and electrocardiographic parameters independently predicted mortality after CA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612368PMC
July 2019

Long-term outcome in patients with Takotsubo syndrome presenting with severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.

Eur J Heart Fail 2019 06 4;21(6):781-789. Epub 2019 Feb 4.

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital 'San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d'Aragona', Salerno, Italy.

Aim: To evaluate the long-term outcome of patients with Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) and severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF ≤ 35%) at presentation.

Methods And Results: The study population included 326 patients (mean age 69.5 ± 10.7 years, 28 male) with TTS enrolled in the Takotsubo Italian Network, divided into two groups according to LVEF (≤ 35%, n = 131; > 35%, n = 195), as assessed by transthoracic echocardiography at hospital admission. In-hospital events were recorded in both groups. At long-term follow-up (median 26.5 months, interquartile range 18-33), composite major adverse cardiac events (MACE: cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and TTS recurrence) and rehospitalization were investigated. Compared to patients with LVEF > 35%, patients with LVEF ≤ 35% were older (71.2 ± 10.8 vs. 68.4 ± 10.6 years; P = 0.026) and experienced more frequently cardiogenic shock (16% vs. 4.6%; P < 0.001), acute heart failure (28.2% vs. 12.8%; P = 0.001), and intra-aortic balloon pump support (11.5% vs. 2.6%; P = 0.001) in the acute phase. At long-term follow-up, higher rates of composite MACE (25.2% vs. 10.8%; P = 0.001) and rehospitalization for cardiac causes (26% vs. 13.3%; P = 0.004) were observed in these patients. LVEF ≤ 35% at admission [hazard ratio (HR) 2.184, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.231-3.872; P = 0.008] and age (HR 1.041, 95% CI 1.011-1.073; P = 0.006) were independent predictors of MACE. Patients with LVEF ≤ 35% also had a significant lower freedom from composite MACE during long-term follow-up (χ = 11.551, P = 0.001).

Conclusion: Left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35% at presentation is a key parameter to identify TTS patients at higher risk not only in the acute phase but also at long-term follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1373DOI Listing
June 2019

Long-Term Prognosis of Patients With Takotsubo Syndrome.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2018 08;72(8):874-882

Deutsches Herzzentrum München, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany; DZHK (German Centre for Cardiovascular Research), partner site Munich Heart Alliance, Munich, Germany.

Background: Prognosis of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) remains controversial due to scarcity of available data. Additionally, the effect of the triggering factors remains elusive.

Objectives: This study compared prognosis between TTS and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients and investigated short- and long-term outcomes in TTS based on different triggers.

Methods: Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry. Long-term mortality of patients with TTS was compared to an age- and sex-matched cohort of patients with ACS. In addition, short- and long-term outcomes were compared between different groups according to triggering conditions.

Results: Overall, TTS patients had a comparable long-term mortality risk with ACS patients. Of 1,613 TTS patients, an emotional trigger was detected in 485 patients (30%). Of 630 patients (39%) related to physical triggers, 98 patients (6%) had acute neurologic disorders, while in the other 532 patients (33%), physical activities, medical conditions, or procedures were the triggering conditions. The remaining 498 patients (31%) had no identifiable trigger. TTS patients related to physical stress showed higher mortality rates than ACS patients during long-term follow-up, whereas patients related to emotional stress had better outcomes compared with ACS patients.

Conclusions: Overall, TTS patients had long-term outcomes comparable to age- and sex-matched ACS patients. Also, we demonstrated that TTS can either be benign or a life-threating condition depending on the inciting stress factor. We propose a new classification based on triggers, which can serve as a clinical tool to predict short- and long-term outcomes of TTS. (International Takotsubo Registry [InterTAK Registry]; NCT01947621).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.06.016DOI Listing
August 2018

Interaction of systolic blood pressure and resting heart rate with clinical outcomes in takotsubo syndrome: insights from the International Takotsubo Registry.

Eur J Heart Fail 2018 06 8;20(6):1021-1030. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

University Heart Center, Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Aims: The present study aimed to determine the prognostic impact of resting heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in takotsubo syndrome (TTS).

Methods And Results: Patients from the International Takotsubo Registry with complete data on HR and SBP were enrolled. We analysed all-cause mortality and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) in tertiles of HR (<77 b.p.m., 77-94 b.p.m., >94 b.p.m.) and SBP (<119 mmHg, 119-140 mmHg, >140 mmHg). In addition, linear splines with interactions between HR and SBP were analysed. The risk of all-cause mortality was higher in the second HR tertile (1.89, 1.15-3.10; P = 0.012) and the third HR tertile (3.01, 1.90-4.79; P < 0.001) than in the first tertile. Similar effects were observed for MACCE. Low SBP was related to an increased risk of all-cause mortality (P < 0.001) and MACCE (P = 0.002). In a multivariable analysis of all-cause mortality, at HR >70 b.p.m., every 1 b.p.m. increase in HR was associated with a 1.7% increase (P < 0.001), and every 1 mmHg increase in SBP up to 130 mmHg was associated with a 2% risk reduction (P < 0.001). The risk of all-cause mortality thus was particularly elevated when low SBP occurred together with high HR.

Conclusions: High HR and low SBP are associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality in TTS. HR reduction might be worthy of being investigated as a therapeutic strategy for this condition and high HR and low SBP can be used to evaluate risk in this acute presentation of TTS.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1162DOI Listing
June 2018

Subsequent Safe Pregnancy with Cesarean Delivery in a Patient with a History of Peripartum Takotsubo Syndrome Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock.

J Cardiovasc Echogr 2017 Jul-Sep;27(3):114-117

Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital "San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi d'Aragona", Salerno, Italy.

Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute and reversible heart failure syndrome, usually occurring in females but rarely in the peripartum period. In women with a history of peripartum TTS, it is unclear how to manage subsequent pregnancies. A 39-year-old female with a history of peripartum TTS complicated by cardiogenic shock became pregnant again. She underwent close cardiological follow-up for monitoring left ventricular systolic function and hemodynamic conditions. Epidural anesthesia was preferred to avoid catecholamine surge during cesarean delivery. After a few days of hospitalization, the patient and the newborn were discharged in good health. In our patient with a history of complicated peripartum TTS, close cardiological follow-up, appropriate management therapy, and anesthesia modality allow us to guide safely a new pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jcecho.jcecho_24_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5516443PMC
August 2017
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