Publications by authors named "Davide Corti"

114 Publications

Structural basis for broad sarbecovirus neutralization by a human monoclonal antibody.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

The recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOC) and the recurrent spillovers of coronaviruses in the human population highlight the need for broadly neutralizing antibodies that are not affected by the ongoing antigenic drift and that can prevent or treat future zoonotic infections. Here, we describe a human monoclonal antibody (mAb), designated S2×259, recognizing a highly conserved cryptic receptor-binding domain (RBD) epitope and cross-reacting with spikes from all sarbecovirus clades. S2×259 broadly neutralizes spike-mediated entry of SARS-CoV-2 including the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1 and B.1.427/B.1.429 VOC, as well as a wide spectrum of human and zoonotic sarbecoviruses through inhibition of ACE2 binding to the RBD. Furthermore, deep-mutational scanning and escape selection experiments demonstrate that S2×259 possesses a remarkably high barrier to the emergence of resistance mutants. We show that prophylactic administration of S2×259 protects Syrian hamsters against challenges with the prototypic SARS-CoV-2 and the B.1.351 variant, suggesting this mAb is a promising candidate for the prevention and treatment of emergent VOC and zoonotic infections. Our data unveil a key antigenic site targeted by broadly-neutralizing antibodies and will guide the design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.07.438818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043460PMC
April 2021

Antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain that maximize breadth and resistance to viral escape.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

An ideal anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody would resist viral escape , have activity against diverse SARS-related coronaviruses , and be highly protective through viral neutralization and effector functions . Understanding how these properties relate to each other and vary across epitopes would aid development of antibody therapeutics and guide vaccine design. Here, we comprehensively characterize escape, breadth, and potency across a panel of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies targeting the receptor-binding domain (RBD), including S309 , the parental antibody of the late-stage clinical antibody VIR-7831. We observe a tradeoff between SARS-CoV-2 neutralization potency and breadth of binding across SARS-related coronaviruses. Nevertheless, we identify several neutralizing antibodies with exceptional breadth and resistance to escape, including a new antibody (S2H97) that binds with high affinity to all SARS-related coronavirus clades via a unique RBD epitope centered on residue E516. S2H97 and other escape-resistant antibodies have high binding affinity and target functionally constrained RBD residues. We find that antibodies targeting the ACE2 receptor binding motif (RBM) typically have poor breadth and are readily escaped by mutations despite high neutralization potency, but we identify one potent RBM antibody (S2E12) with breadth across sarbecoviruses closely related to SARS-CoV-2 and with a high barrier to viral escape. These data highlight functional diversity among antibodies targeting the RBD and identify epitopes and features to prioritize for antibody and vaccine development against the current and potential future pandemics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.06.438709DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8043444PMC
April 2021

SARS-CoV-2 immune evasion by variant B.1.427/B.1.429.

bioRxiv 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

SARS-CoV-2 entry is mediated by the spike (S) glycoprotein which contains the receptor-binding domain (RBD) and the N-terminal domain (NTD) as the two main targets of neutralizing antibodies (Abs). A novel variant of concern (VOC) named CAL.20C (B.1.427/B.1.429) was originally detected in California and is currently spreading throughout the US and 29 additional countries. It is unclear whether antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection or to the prototypic Wuhan-1 isolate-based vaccines will be impacted by the three B.1.427/B.1.429 S mutations: S13I, W152C and L452R. Here, we assessed neutralizing Ab responses following natural infection or mRNA vaccination using pseudoviruses expressing the wildtype or the B.1.427/B.1.429 S protein. Plasma from vaccinated or convalescent individuals exhibited neutralizing titers, which were reduced 3-6 fold against the B.1.427/B.1.429 variant relative to wildtype pseudoviruses. The RBD L452R mutation reduced or abolished neutralizing activity of 14 out of 35 RBD-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), including three clinical-stage mAbs. Furthermore, we observed a complete loss of B.1.427/B.1.429 neutralization for a panel of mAbs targeting the N-terminal domain due to a large structural rearrangement of the NTD antigenic supersite involving an S13I-mediated shift of the signal peptide cleavage site. These data warrant closer monitoring of signal peptide variants and their involvement in immune evasion and show that Abs directed to the NTD impose a selection pressure driving SARS-CoV-2 viral evolution through conventional and unconventional escape mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.31.437925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020983PMC
April 2021

N-terminal domain antigenic mapping reveals a site of vulnerability for SARS-CoV-2.

Cell 2021 04 16;184(9):2332-2347.e16. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63110, USA.

The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein contains an immunodominant receptor-binding domain (RBD) targeted by most neutralizing antibodies (Abs) in COVID-19 patient plasma. Little is known about neutralizing Abs binding to epitopes outside the RBD and their contribution to protection. Here, we describe 41 human monoclonal Abs (mAbs) derived from memory B cells, which recognize the SARS-CoV-2 S N-terminal domain (NTD) and show that a subset of them neutralize SARS-CoV-2 ultrapotently. We define an antigenic map of the SARS-CoV-2 NTD and identify a supersite (designated site i) recognized by all known NTD-specific neutralizing mAbs. These mAbs inhibit cell-to-cell fusion, activate effector functions, and protect Syrian hamsters from SARS-CoV-2 challenge, albeit selecting escape mutants in some animals. Indeed, several SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 lineages, harbor frequent mutations within the NTD supersite, suggesting ongoing selective pressure and the importance of NTD-specific neutralizing mAbs for protective immunity and vaccine design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.03.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7962585PMC
April 2021

Recombinant Human Secretory IgA Induces Typhimurium Agglutination and Limits Bacterial Invasion into Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues.

ACS Infect Dis 2021 Mar 17. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University at Albany School of Public Health, Albany, New York 12208, United States.

As the predominant antibody type in mucosal secretions, human colostrum, and breast milk, secretory IgA (SIgA) plays a central role in safeguarding the intestinal epithelium of newborns from invasive enteric pathogens like the Gram-negative bacterium serovar Typhimurium (STm). SIgA is a complex molecule, consisting of an assemblage of two or more IgA monomers, joining (J)-chain, and secretory component (SC), whose exact functions in neutralizing pathogens are only beginning to be elucidated. In this study, we produced and characterized a recombinant human SIgA variant of Sal4, a well-characterized monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for the O5-antigen of STm lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We demonstrate by flow cytometry, light microscopy, and fluorescence microscopy that Sal4 SIgA promotes the formation of large, densely packed bacterial aggregates . In a mouse model, passive oral administration of Sal4 SIgA was sufficient to entrap STm within the intestinal lumen and reduce bacterial invasion into gut-associated lymphoid tissues by several orders of magnitude. Bacterial aggregates induced by Sal4 SIgA treatment in the intestinal lumen were recalcitrant to immunohistochemical staining, suggesting the bacteria were encased in a protective capsule. Indeed, a crystal violet staining assay demonstrated that STm secretes an extracellular matrix enriched in cellulose following even short exposures to Sal4 SIgA. Collectively, these results demonstrate that recombinant human SIgA recapitulates key biological activities associated with mucosal immunity and raises the prospect of oral passive immunization to combat enteric diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsinfecdis.0c00842DOI Listing
March 2021

Sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 to mRNA vaccine-elicited antibodies.

Nature 2021 05 11;593(7857):136-141. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is uncontrolled in many parts of the world; control is compounded in some areas by the higher transmission potential of the B.1.1.7 variant, which has now been reported in 94 countries. It is unclear whether the response of the virus to vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of the prototypic strain will be affected by the mutations found in B.1.1.7. Here we assess the immune responses of individuals after vaccination with the mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b2. We measured neutralizing antibody responses after the first and second immunizations using pseudoviruses that expressed the wild-type spike protein or a mutated spike protein that contained the eight amino acid changes found in the B.1.1.7 variant. The sera from individuals who received the vaccine exhibited a broad range of neutralizing titres against the wild-type pseudoviruses that were modestly reduced against the B.1.1.7 variant. This reduction was also evident in sera from some patients who had recovered from COVID-19. Decreased neutralization of the B.1.1.7 variant was also observed for monoclonal antibodies that target the N-terminal domain (9 out of 10) and the receptor-binding motif (5 out of 31), but not for monoclonal antibodies that recognize the receptor-binding domain that bind outside the receptor-binding motif. Introduction of the mutation that encodes the E484K substitution in the B.1.1.7 background to reflect a newly emerged variant of concern (VOC 202102/02) led to a more-substantial loss of neutralizing activity by vaccine-elicited antibodies and monoclonal antibodies (19 out of 31) compared with the loss of neutralizing activity conferred by the mutations in B.1.1.7 alone. The emergence of the E484K substitution in a B.1.1.7 background represents a threat to the efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03412-7DOI Listing
May 2021

Resistance of SARS-CoV-2 variants to neutralization by monoclonal and serum-derived polyclonal antibodies.

Nat Med 2021 04 4;27(4):717-726. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Pathology & Immunology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the global COVID-19 pandemic. Rapidly spreading SARS-CoV-2 variants may jeopardize newly introduced antibody and vaccine countermeasures. Here, using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), animal immune sera, human convalescent sera and human sera from recipients of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, we report the impact on antibody neutralization of a panel of authentic SARS-CoV-2 variants including a B.1.1.7 isolate, chimeric strains with South African or Brazilian spike genes and isogenic recombinant viral variants. Many highly neutralizing mAbs engaging the receptor-binding domain or N-terminal domain and most convalescent sera and mRNA vaccine-induced immune sera showed reduced inhibitory activity against viruses containing an E484K spike mutation. As antibodies binding to spike receptor-binding domain and N-terminal domain demonstrate diminished neutralization potency in vitro against some emerging variants, updated mAb cocktails targeting highly conserved regions, enhancement of mAb potency or adjustments to the spike sequences of vaccines may be needed to prevent loss of protection in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01294-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8058618PMC
April 2021

Circulating SARS-CoV-2 spike N439K variants maintain fitness while evading antibody-mediated immunity.

Cell 2021 03 28;184(5):1171-1187.e20. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G61 1QH, UK.

SARS-CoV-2 can mutate and evade immunity, with consequences for efficacy of emerging vaccines and antibody therapeutics. Here, we demonstrate that the immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) receptor binding motif (RBM) is a highly variable region of S and provide epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characterization of a prevalent, sentinel RBM mutation, N439K. We demonstrate N439K S protein has enhanced binding affinity to the hACE2 receptor, and N439K viruses have similar in vitro replication fitness and cause infections with similar clinical outcomes as compared to wild type. We show the N439K mutation confers resistance against several neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, including one authorized for emergency use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and reduces the activity of some polyclonal sera from persons recovered from infection. Immune evasion mutations that maintain virulence and fitness such as N439K can emerge within SARS-CoV-2 S, highlighting the need for ongoing molecular surveillance to guide development and usage of vaccines and therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.01.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843029PMC
March 2021

SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 sensitivity to mRNA vaccine-elicited, convalescent and monoclonal antibodies.

medRxiv 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology, Addenbrookes Hospital, UK.

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission is uncontrolled in many parts of the world, compounded in some areas by higher transmission potential of the B1.1.7 variant now seen in 50 countries. It is unclear whether responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines based on the prototypic strain will be impacted by mutations found in B.1.1.7. Here we assessed immune responses following vaccination with mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b2. We measured neutralising antibody responses following a single immunization using pseudoviruses expressing the wild-type Spike protein or the 8 amino acid mutations found in the B.1.1.7 spike protein. The vaccine sera exhibited a broad range of neutralising titres against the wild-type pseudoviruses that were modestly reduced against B.1.1.7 variant. This reduction was also evident in sera from some convalescent patients. Decreased B.1.1.7 neutralisation was also observed with monoclonal antibodies targeting the N-terminal domain (9 out of 10), the Receptor Binding Motif (RBM) (5 out of 31), but not in neutralising mAbs binding outside the RBM. Introduction of the E484K mutation in a B.1.1.7 background to reflect newly emerging viruses in the UK led to a more substantial loss of neutralising activity by vaccine-elicited antibodies and mAbs (19 out of 31) over that conferred by the B.1.1.7 mutations alone. E484K emergence on a B.1.1.7 background represents a threat to the vaccine BNT162b.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.19.21249840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899479PMC
February 2021

SARS-CoV-2 variants show resistance to neutralization by many monoclonal and serum-derived polyclonal antibodies.

Res Sq 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused the global COVID-19 pandemic infecting more than 106 million people and causing 2.3 million deaths. The rapid deployment of antibody-based countermeasures has provided hope for curtailing disease and ending the pandemic . However, the emergence of rapidly-spreading SARS-CoV-2 variants in the United Kingdom (B.1.1.7), South Africa (B.1.351), and elsewhere with mutations in the spike protein has raised concern for escape from neutralizing antibody responses and loss of vaccine efficacy based on preliminary data with pseudoviruses . Here, using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), animal immune sera, human convalescent sera, and human sera from recipients of the Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) mRNA vaccine, we report the impact on antibody neutralization of a panel of authentic SARS-CoV-2 variants including a B.1.1.7 isolate, a chimeric Washington strain with a South African spike gene (Wash SA-B.1.351), and isogenic recombinant variants with designed mutations or deletions at positions 69-70, 417, 484, 501, and/or 614 of the spike protein. Several highly neutralizing mAbs engaging the receptor binding domain (RBD) or N-terminal domain (NTD) lost inhibitory activity against Wash SA-B.1.351 or recombinant variants with an E484K spike mutation. Most convalescent sera and virtually all mRNA vaccine-induced immune sera tested showed markedly diminished neutralizing activity against the Wash SA-B.1.351 strain or recombinant viruses containing mutations at position 484 and 501. We also noted that cell line selection used for growth of virus stocks or neutralization assays can impact the potency of antibodies against different SARS-CoV-2 variants, which has implications for assay standardization and congruence of results across laboratories. As several antibodies binding specific regions of the RBD and NTD show loss-of-neutralization potency against emerging variants, updated mAb cocktails, targeting of highly conserved regions, enhancement of mAb potency, or adjustments to the spike sequences of vaccines may be needed to prevent loss of protection .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-228079/v1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885928PMC
February 2021

N-terminal domain antigenic mapping reveals a site of vulnerability for SARS-CoV-2.

bioRxiv 2021 Jan 14. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

SARS-CoV-2 entry into host cells is orchestrated by the spike (S) glycoprotein that contains an immunodominant receptor-binding domain (RBD) targeted by the largest fraction of neutralizing antibodies (Abs) in COVID-19 patient plasma. Little is known about neutralizing Abs binding to epitopes outside the RBD and their contribution to protection. Here, we describe 41 human monoclonal Abs (mAbs) derived from memory B cells, which recognize the SARS-CoV-2 S N-terminal domain (NTD) and show that a subset of them neutralize SARS-CoV-2 ultrapotently. We define an antigenic map of the SARS-CoV-2 NTD and identify a supersite recognized by all known NTD-specific neutralizing mAbs. These mAbs inhibit cell-to-cell fusion, activate effector functions, and protect Syrian hamsters from SARS-CoV-2 challenge. SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the 501Y.V2 and B.1.1.7 lineages, harbor frequent mutations localized in the NTD supersite suggesting ongoing selective pressure and the importance of NTD-specific neutralizing mAbs to protective immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.14.426475DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7814825PMC
January 2021

Fc-optimized antibodies elicit CD8 immunity to viral respiratory infection.

Nature 2020 12 8;588(7838):485-490. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Laboratory of Molecular Genetics and Immunology, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA.

Antibodies against viral pathogens represent promising therapeutic agents for the control of infection, and their antiviral efficacy has been shown to require the coordinated function of both the Fab and Fc domains. The Fc domain engages a wide spectrum of receptors on discrete cells of the immune system to trigger the clearance of viruses and subsequent killing of infected cells. Here we report that Fc engineering of anti-influenza IgG monoclonal antibodies for selective binding to the activating Fcγ receptor FcγRIIa results in enhanced ability to prevent or treat lethal viral respiratory infection in mice, with increased maturation of dendritic cells and the induction of protective CD8 T cell responses. These findings highlight the capacity for IgG antibodies to induce protective adaptive immunity to viral infection when they selectively activate a dendritic cell and T cell pathway, with important implications for the development of therapeutic antibodies with improved antiviral efficacy against viral respiratory pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2838-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672690PMC
December 2020

Mapping Neutralizing and Immunodominant Sites on the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor-Binding Domain by Structure-Guided High-Resolution Serology.

Cell 2020 11 16;183(4):1024-1042.e21. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

III Division of Infectious Diseases, ASST Fatebenefratelli Sacco, Luigi Sacco Hospital, 20157 Milan, Italy.

Analysis of the specificity and kinetics of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) elicited by SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial for understanding immune protection and identifying targets for vaccine design. In a cohort of 647 SARS-CoV-2-infected subjects, we found that both the magnitude of Ab responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) and nucleoprotein and nAb titers correlate with clinical scores. The receptor-binding domain (RBD) is immunodominant and the target of 90% of the neutralizing activity present in SARS-CoV-2 immune sera. Whereas overall RBD-specific serum IgG titers waned with a half-life of 49 days, nAb titers and avidity increased over time for some individuals, consistent with affinity maturation. We structurally defined an RBD antigenic map and serologically quantified serum Abs specific for distinct RBD epitopes leading to the identification of two major receptor-binding motif antigenic sites. Our results explain the immunodominance of the receptor-binding motif and will guide the design of COVID-19 vaccines and therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7494283PMC
November 2020

Ultrapotent human antibodies protect against SARS-CoV-2 challenge via multiple mechanisms.

Science 2020 11 24;370(6519):950-957. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Humabs BioMed SA, a subsidiary of Vir Biotechnology, Bellinzona, Switzerland.

Efficient therapeutic options are needed to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has caused more than 922,000 fatalities as of 13 September 2020. We report the isolation and characterization of two ultrapotent SARS-CoV-2 human neutralizing antibodies (S2E12 and S2M11) that protect hamsters against SARS-CoV-2 challenge. Cryo-electron microscopy structures show that S2E12 and S2M11 competitively block angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) attachment and that S2M11 also locks the spike in a closed conformation by recognition of a quaternary epitope spanning two adjacent receptor-binding domains. Antibody cocktails that include S2M11, S2E12, or the previously identified S309 antibody broadly neutralize a panel of circulating SARS-CoV-2 isolates and activate effector functions. Our results pave the way to implement antibody cocktails for prophylaxis or therapy, circumventing or limiting the emergence of viral escape mutants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.abe3354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857395PMC
November 2020

A combination of two human monoclonal antibodies cures symptomatic rabies.

EMBO Mol Med 2020 11 18;12(11):e12628. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Lyssavirus Epidemiology and Neuropathology Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Rabies is a neglected disease caused by a neurotropic Lyssavirus, transmitted to humans predominantly by the bite of infected dogs. Rabies is preventable with vaccines or proper post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), but it still causes about 60,000 deaths every year. No cure exists after the onset of clinical signs, and the case-fatality rate approaches 100% even with advanced supportive care. Here, we report that a combination of two potent neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies directed against the viral envelope glycoprotein cures symptomatic rabid mice. Treatment efficacy requires the concomitant administration of antibodies in the periphery and in the central nervous system through intracerebroventricular infusion. After such treatment, recovered mice presented good clinical condition, viral loads were undetectable, and the brain inflammatory profile was almost normal. Our findings provide the unprecedented proof of concept of an antibody-based therapeutic approach for symptomatic rabies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/emmm.202012628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7645379PMC
November 2020

Identification and Structure of a Multidonor Class of Head-Directed Influenza-Neutralizing Antibodies Reveal the Mechanism for Its Recurrent Elicitation.

Cell Rep 2020 09;32(9):108088

Vaccine Research Center, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Multidonor antibodies are of interest for vaccine design because they can in principle be elicited in the general population by a common set of immunogens. For influenza, multidonor antibodies have been observed against the hemagglutinin (HA) stem, but not the immunodominant HA head. Here, we identify and characterize a multidonor antibody class (LPAF-a class) targeting the HA head. This class exhibits potent viral entry inhibition against H1N1 A/California/04/2009 (CA09) virus. LPAF-a class antibodies derive from the HV2-70 gene and contain a "Tyr-Gly-Asp"-motif, which occludes the HA-sialic acid binding site as revealed by a co-crystal structure with HA. Both germline-reverted and mature LPAF antibodies potently neutralize CA09 virus and have nanomolar affinities for CA09 HA. Moreover, increased frequencies for LPFA-a class antibodies are observed in humans after a single vaccination. Overall, this work highlights the identification of a multidonor class of head-directed influenza-neutralizing antibodies and delineates the mechanism of their recurrent elicitation in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108088DOI Listing
September 2020

Structure-guided covalent stabilization of coronavirus spike glycoprotein trimers in the closed conformation.

Nat Struct Mol Biol 2020 10 4;27(10):942-949. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic, with 10 million infections and more than 500,000 fatalities by June 2020. To initiate infection, the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein promotes attachment to the host cell surface and fusion of the viral and host membranes. Prefusion SARS-CoV-2 S is the main target of neutralizing antibodies and the focus of vaccine design. However, its limited stability and conformational dynamics are limiting factors for developing countermeasures against this virus. We report here the design of a construct corresponding to the prefusion SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain trimer, covalently stabilized by a disulfide bond in the closed conformation. Structural and antigenicity analyses show we successfully shut S in the closed state without otherwise altering its architecture. We demonstrate that this strategy is applicable to other β-coronaviruses, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, and might become an important tool for structural biology, serology, vaccine design and immunology studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41594-020-0483-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541350PMC
October 2020

Neutralizing Antibody and Soluble ACE2 Inhibition of a Replication-Competent VSV-SARS-CoV-2 and a Clinical Isolate of SARS-CoV-2.

Cell Host Microbe 2020 09 3;28(3):475-485.e5. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA. Electronic address:

Antibody-based interventions against SARS-CoV-2 could limit morbidity, mortality, and possibly transmission. An anticipated correlate of such countermeasures is the level of neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, which engages with host ACE2 receptor for entry. Using an infectious molecular clone of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing eGFP as a marker of infection, we replaced the glycoprotein gene (G) with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2) and developed a high-throughput-imaging-based neutralization assay at biosafety level 2. We also developed a focus-reduction neutralization test with a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 at biosafety level 3. Comparing the neutralizing activities of various antibodies and ACE2-Fc soluble decoy protein in both assays revealed a high degree of concordance. These assays will help define correlates of protection for antibody-based countermeasures and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, replication-competent VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 provides a tool for testing inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 mediated entry under reduced biosafety containment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.06.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7332453PMC
September 2020

Neutralizing Antibody and Soluble ACE2 Inhibition of a Replication-Competent VSV-SARS-CoV-2 and a Clinical Isolate of SARS-CoV-2.

SSRN 2020 May 27:3606354. Epub 2020 May 27.

Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Antibody-based interventions against SARS-CoV-2 could limit morbidity, mortality, and possibly disrupt epidemic transmission. An anticipated correlate of such countermeasures is the level of neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, yet there is no consensus as to which assay should be used for such measurements. Using an infectious molecular clone of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) that expresses eGFP as a marker of infection, we replaced the glycoprotein gene (G) with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2) and developed a high-throughput imaging-based neutralization assay at biosafety level 2. We also developed a focus reduction neutralization test with a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 at biosafety level 3. We compared the neutralizing activities of monoclonal and polyclonal antibody preparations, as well as ACE2-Fc soluble decoy protein in both assays and find an exceptionally high degree of concordance. The two assays will help define correlates of protection for antibody-based countermeasures including therapeutic antibodies, immune γ-globulin or plasma preparations, and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Replication-competent VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 provides a rapid assay for testing inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 mediated entry that can be performed in 7.5 hours under reduced biosafety containment. Funding: This study was supported by NIH contracts and grants (75N93019C00062, HHSN272201700060C and R01 AI127828, R37 AI059371 and U01 AI151810) and the Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (HR001117S0019) and gifts from Washington University in Saint Louis. J.B.C. is supported by a Helen Hay Whitney Foundation postdoctoral fellowship. Conflict of Interest: M.S.D. is a consultant for Inbios, Vir Biotechnology, NGM Biopharmaceuticals, and on the Scientific Advisory Board of Moderna. D.C. and H.W.V. are employees of Vir Biotechnology Inc. and may hold shares in Vir Biotechnology Inc. S.P.J.W. and P.W.R. have filed a disclosure with Washington University for the recombinant VSV. Ethical Approval: This study was approved by the Mayo Clinic Institutional Review Board.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3606354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7366811PMC
May 2020

A perspective on potential antibody-dependent enhancement of SARS-CoV-2.

Nature 2020 08 13;584(7821):353-363. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Vir Biotechnology, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of disease is a general concern for the development of vaccines and antibody therapies because the mechanisms that underlie antibody protection against any virus have a theoretical potential to amplify the infection or trigger harmful immunopathology. This possibility requires careful consideration at this critical point in the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here we review observations relevant to the risks of ADE of disease, and their potential implications for SARS-CoV-2 infection. At present, there are no known clinical findings, immunological assays or biomarkers that can differentiate any severe viral infection from immune-enhanced disease, whether by measuring antibodies, T cells or intrinsic host responses. In vitro systems and animal models do not predict the risk of ADE of disease, in part because protective and potentially detrimental antibody-mediated mechanisms are the same and designing animal models depends on understanding how antiviral host responses may become harmful in humans. The implications of our lack of knowledge are twofold. First, comprehensive studies are urgently needed to define clinical correlates of protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Second, because ADE of disease cannot be reliably predicted after either vaccination or treatment with antibodies-regardless of what virus is the causative agent-it will be essential to depend on careful analysis of safety in humans as immune interventions for COVID-19 move forward.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2538-8DOI Listing
August 2020

AncesTree: An interactive immunoglobulin lineage tree visualizer.

PLoS Comput Biol 2020 07 10;16(7):e1007731. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Università della Svizzera italiana, Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Institute for Research in Biomedicine, Bellinzona, Switzerland.

High-throughput sequencing of human immunoglobulin genes allows analysis of antibody repertoires and the reconstruction of clonal lineage evolution. The study of antibodies (Abs) affinity maturation is of specific interest to understand the generation of Abs with high affinity or broadly neutralizing activities. Moreover, phylogenic analysis enables the identification of the key somatic mutations required to achieve optimal antigen binding. The Immcantation framework provides a start-to-finish set of analytical methods for high-throughput adaptive immune receptor repertoire sequencing (AIRR-Seq; Rep-Seq) data. Furthermore, Immcantation's Change-O package has developed IgPhyML, an algorithm designed to build specifically immunoglobulin (Ig) phylogenic trees. Meanwhile Phylip, an algorithm that has been originally developed for applications in ecology and macroevolution, can also be used for the phylogenic reconstruction of antibodies maturation pathway. To complement Ig lineages made by IgPhyML or Dnaml (Phylip), we developed AncesTree, a graphic user interface (GUI) that aims to give researchers the opportunity to interactively explore antibodies clonal evolution. AncesTree displays interactive immunoglobulins phylogenic tree, Ig related mutations and sequence alignments using additional information coming from specialized antibody tools. The GUI is a Java standalone application allowing interaction with Ig tree that can run under Windows, Linux and Mac OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7375605PMC
July 2020

Prophylactic Activity of Orally Administered FliD-Reactive Monoclonal SIgA Against Infection.

Front Immunol 2020 9;11:1011. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Humabs BioMed SA a Subsidiary of Vir Biotechnology Inc., Bellinzona, Switzerland.

infection is one of the most common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide and a major global health threat due to the rapid development of antibiotic resistance. Currently, there are no vaccines approved to prevent campylobacteriosis, and rehydration is the main form of therapy. Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) is the main antibody class found in mucous secretions, including human milk, and serves as the first line of defense for the gastrointestinal epithelium against enteric pathogens. In this study, we describe the prophylactic activity of orally delivered recombinant SIgA generated from two human monoclonal antibodies (CAA1 and CCG4) isolated for their reactivity against the flagellar-capping protein FliD, which is essential for bacteria motility and highly conserved across species associated with severe enteritis. In an immunocompetent weaned mouse model, a single oral administration of FliD-reactive SIgA CAA1 or CCG4 at 2 h before infection significantly enhances clearance at early stages post-infection, reducing the levels of inflammation markers associated with epithelial damage and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells infiltration in the cecum lamina propria. Our data indicate that the prophylactic activity of CAA1 and CCG4 is not only dependent on the specificity to FliD but also on the use of the SIgA format, as the immunoglobulin G (IgG) versions of the same antibodies did not confer a comparable protective effect. Our work emphasizes the potential of FliD as a target for the development of vaccines and supports the concept that orally administered FliD-reactive SIgA can be developed to prevent or mitigate the severity of infections as well as the development of post-infection syndromes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7296071PMC
May 2021

Closing coronavirus spike glycoproteins by structure-guided design.

bioRxiv 2020 Jun 3. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

The recent spillover of SARS-CoV-2 in the human population resulted in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic which has already caused 4.9 million infections and more than 326,000 fatalities. To initiate infection the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein promotes attachment to the host cell surface, determining host and tissue tropism, and fusion of the viral and host membranes. Although SARS-CoV-2 S is the main target of neutralizing antibodies and the focus of vaccine design, its stability and conformational dynamics are limiting factors for developing countermeasures against this virus. We report here the design of a prefusion SARS-CoV-2 S ectodomain trimer construct covalently stabilized in the closed conformation. Structural and antigenicity analysis showed we successfully shut S in the closed state without otherwise altering its architecture. Finally, we show that this engineering strategy is applicable to other β-coronavirus S glycoproteins and might become an important tool for vaccine design, structural biology, serology and immunology studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.03.129817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302216PMC
June 2020

Neutralizing antibody and soluble ACE2 inhibition of a replication-competent VSV-SARS-CoV-2 and a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2.

bioRxiv 2020 May 18. Epub 2020 May 18.

Antibody-based interventions against SARS-CoV-2 could limit morbidity, mortality, and possibly disrupt epidemic transmission. An anticipated correlate of such countermeasures is the level of neutralizing antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, yet there is no consensus as to which assay should be used for such measurements. Using an infectious molecular clone of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) that expresses eGFP as a marker of infection, we replaced the glycoprotein gene (G) with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2) and developed a high-throughput imaging-based neutralization assay at biosafety level 2. We also developed a focus reduction neutralization test with a clinical isolate of SARS-CoV-2 at biosafety level 3. We compared the neutralizing activities of monoclonal and polyclonal antibody preparations, as well as ACE2-Fc soluble decoy protein in both assays and find an exceptionally high degree of concordance. The two assays will help define correlates of protection for antibody-based countermeasures including therapeutic antibodies, immune γ-globulin or plasma preparations, and vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Replication-competent VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 provides a rapid assay for testing inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 mediated entry that can be performed in 7.5 hours under reduced biosafety containment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.18.102038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263548PMC
May 2020

Structural and functional analysis of a potent sarbecovirus neutralizing antibody.

bioRxiv 2020 Apr 9. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerged coronavirus responsible for the current COVID-19 pandemic that has resulted in more than one million infections and 73,000 deaths . Vaccine and therapeutic discovery efforts are paramount to curb the pandemic spread of this zoonotic virus. The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein promotes entry into host cells and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies. Here we describe multiple monoclonal antibodies targeting SARS-CoV-2 S identified from memory B cells of a SARS survivor infected in 2003. One antibody, named S309, potently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV pseudoviruses as well as authentic SARS-CoV-2 by engaging the S receptor-binding domain. Using cryo-electron microscopy and binding assays, we show that S309 recognizes a glycan-containing epitope that is conserved within the sarbecovirus subgenus, without competing with receptor attachment. Antibody cocktails including S309 along with other antibodies identified here further enhanced SARS-CoV-2 neutralization and may limit the emergence of neutralization-escape mutants. These results pave the way for using S309 and S309-containing antibody cocktails for prophylaxis in individuals at high risk of exposure or as a post-exposure therapy to limit or treat severe disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.07.023903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255795PMC
April 2020

Cross-neutralization of SARS-CoV-2 by a human monoclonal SARS-CoV antibody.

Nature 2020 07 18;583(7815):290-295. Epub 2020 May 18.

Humabs BioMed SA, Vir Biotechnology, Bellinzona, Switzerland.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a newly emerged coronavirus that is responsible for the current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has resulted in more than 3.7 million infections and 260,000 deaths as of 6 May 2020. Vaccine and therapeutic discovery efforts are paramount to curb the pandemic spread of this zoonotic virus. The SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein promotes entry into host cells and is the main target of neutralizing antibodies. Here we describe several monoclonal antibodies that target the S glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, which we identified from memory B cells of an individual who was infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003. One antibody (named S309) potently neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV pseudoviruses as well as authentic SARS-CoV-2, by engaging the receptor-binding domain of the S glycoprotein. Using cryo-electron microscopy and binding assays, we show that S309 recognizes an epitope containing a glycan that is conserved within the Sarbecovirus subgenus, without competing with receptor attachment. Antibody cocktails that include S309 in combination with other antibodies that we identified further enhanced SARS-CoV-2 neutralization, and may limit the emergence of neutralization-escape mutants. These results pave the way for using S309 and antibody cocktails containing S309 for prophylaxis in individuals at a high risk of exposure or as a post-exposure therapy to limit or treat severe disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2349-yDOI Listing
July 2020

Capsid protein structure in Zika virus reveals the flavivirus assembly process.

Nat Commun 2020 02 14;11(1):895. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Programme in Emerging Infectious Diseases, Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore, 169857, Singapore.

Structures of flavivirus (dengue virus and Zika virus) particles are known to near-atomic resolution and show detailed structure and arrangement of their surface proteins (E and prM in immature virus or M in mature virus). By contrast, the arrangement of the capsid proteins:RNA complex, which forms the core of the particle, is poorly understood, likely due to inherent dynamics. Here, we stabilize immature Zika virus via an antibody that binds across the E and prM proteins, resulting in a subnanometer resolution structure of capsid proteins within the virus particle. Fitting of the capsid protein into densities shows the presence of a helix previously thought to be removed via proteolysis. This structure illuminates capsid protein quaternary organization, including its orientation relative to the lipid membrane and the genomic RNA, and its interactions with the transmembrane regions of the surface proteins. Results show the capsid protein plays a central role in the flavivirus assembly process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14647-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7021721PMC
February 2020

Structure of the prefusion-locking broadly neutralizing antibody RVC20 bound to the rabies virus glycoprotein.

Nat Commun 2020 01 30;11(1):596. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Structural Virology Unit, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR 3569, 25-28 rue du Docteur Roux, Cedex 15, 75724, Paris, France.

Rabies virus (RABV) causes fatal encephalitis in more than 59,000 people yearly. Upon the bite of an infected animal, the development of clinical disease can be prevented with post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which includes the administration of Rabies immunoglobulin (RIG). However, the high cost and limited availability of serum-derived RIG severely hamper its wide use in resource-limited countries. A safe low-cost alternative is provided by using broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bnAbs). Here we report the X-ray structure of one of the most potent and most broadly reactive human bnAbs, RVC20, in complex with its target domain III of the RABV glycoprotein (G). The structure reveals that the RVC20 binding determinants reside in a highly conserved surface of G, rationalizing its broad reactivity. We further show that RVC20 blocks the acid-induced conformational change required for membrane fusion. Our results may guide the future development of direct antiviral small molecules for Rabies treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14398-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6992781PMC
January 2020

Structural Basis for Broad HIV-1 Neutralization by the MPER-Specific Human Broadly Neutralizing Antibody LN01.

Cell Host Microbe 2019 11 22;26(5):623-637.e8. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Institut de Biologie Structurale (IBS), University Grenoble Alpes, CEA, CNRS, 38000 Grenoble, France. Electronic address:

Potent and broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) are the hallmark of HIV-1 protection by vaccination. The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of the HIV-1 gp41 fusion protein is targeted by the most broadly reactive HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies. Here, we examine the structural and molecular mechansims of neutralization by anti-MPER bnAb, LN01, which was isolated from lymph-node-derived germinal center B cells of an elite controller and exhibits broad neutralization breadth. LN01 engages both MPER and the transmembrane (TM) region, which together form a continuous helix in complex with LN01. The tilted TM orientation allows LN01 to interact simultaneously with the peptidic component of the MPER epitope and membrane via two specific lipid binding sites of the antibody paratope. Although LN01 carries a high load of somatic mutations, most key residues interacting with the MPER epitope and lipids are germline encoded, lending support for the LN01 epitope as a candidate for lineage-based vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2019.09.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6854463PMC
November 2019