Publications by authors named "David-Alexandre Tregouet"

157 Publications

The EHA Research Roadmap: Blood Coagulation and Hemostatic Disorders.

Hemasphere 2021 Oct 10;5(10):e643. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Fondazione IRCCS Ca'Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Angelo Bianchi Bonomi Hemophilia and Thrombosis Center, Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy.

n 2016, the European Hematology Association (EHA) published the EHA Roadmap for European Hematology Research aiming to highlight achievements in the diagnostics and treatment of blood disorders, and to better inform European policy makers and other stakeholders about the urgent clinical and scientific needs and priorities in the field of hematology. Each section was coordinated by 1-2 section editors who were leading international experts in the field. In the 5 years that have followed, advances in the field of hematology have been plentiful. As such, EHA is pleased to present an updated Research Roadmap, now including 11 sections, each of which will be published separately. The updated EHA Research Roadmap identifies the most urgent priorities in hematology research and clinical science, therefore supporting a more informed, focused, and ideally funded future for European hematology research. The 11 EHA Research Roadmap sections include Normal Hematopoiesis; Malignant Lymphoid Diseases; Malignant Myeloid Diseases; Anemias and Related Diseases; Platelet Disorders; Blood Coagulation and Hemostatic Disorders; Transfusion Medicine; Infections in Hematology; Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation; CAR-T and Other Cell-based Immune Therapies; and Gene Therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432639PMC
October 2021

Genomic and phenotypic insights from an atlas of genetic effects on DNA methylation.

Nat Genet 2021 Sep 6;53(9):1311-1321. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Estonian Genome Center, Institute of Genomics, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.

Characterizing genetic influences on DNA methylation (DNAm) provides an opportunity to understand mechanisms underpinning gene regulation and disease. In the present study, we describe results of DNAm quantitative trait locus (mQTL) analyses on 32,851 participants, identifying genetic variants associated with DNAm at 420,509 DNAm sites in blood. We present a database of >270,000 independent mQTLs, of which 8.5% comprise long-range (trans) associations. Identified mQTL associations explain 15-17% of the additive genetic variance of DNAm. We show that the genetic architecture of DNAm levels is highly polygenic. Using shared genetic control between distal DNAm sites, we constructed networks, identifying 405 discrete genomic communities enriched for genomic annotations and complex traits. Shared genetic variants are associated with both DNAm levels and complex diseases, but only in a minority of cases do these associations reflect causal relationships from DNAm to trait or vice versa, indicating a more complex genotype-phenotype map than previously anticipated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00923-xDOI Listing
September 2021

GoldVariants, a resource for sharing rare genetic variants detected in bleeding, thrombotic, and platelet disorders: Communication from the ISTH SSC Subcommittee on Genomics in Thrombosis and Hemostasis.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Center for Molecular and Vascular Biology, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

The implementation of high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies in research and diagnostic laboratories has linked many new genes to rare bleeding, thrombotic, and platelet disorders (BTPD), and revealed multiple genetic variants linked to those disorders, many of them being of uncertain pathogenicity when considering the accepted evidence (variant consequence, frequency in control datasets, number of reported patients, prediction models, and functional assays). The sequencing effort has also resulted in resources for gathering disease-causing variants associated with specific genes, but for BTPD, such well-curated databases exist only for a few genes. On the other hand, submissions by individuals or diagnostic laboratories to the variant database ClinVar are hampered by the lack of a submission process tailored to capture the specific features of hemostatic diseases. As we move toward the implementation of HTS in the diagnosis of BTPD, the Scientific and Standardization Committee for Genetics in Thrombosis and Haemostasis has developed and tested a REDCap-based interface, aimed at the community, to submit curated genetic variants for diagnostic-grade BTPD genes. Here, we describe the use of the interface and the initial submission of 821 variants from 30 different centers covering 14 countries. This open-access variant resource will be shared with the community to improve variant classification and regular bulk data transfer to ClinVar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15459DOI Listing
July 2021

Association of Coding Variants in Hydroxysteroid 17-beta Dehydrogenase 14 (HSD17B14) with Reduced Progression to End Stage Kidney Disease in Type 1 Diabetes.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

G King, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, United States.

Background: Rare variants in gene coding regions likely have a greater impact on disease-related phenotypes than common variants through disruption of their encoded protein. We searched for rare variants associated with onset of end stage kidney disease (ESKD) in individuals with type 1 diabetes at advanced kidney disease stage.

Methods: Gene-based exome array analysis of 15,449 genes in 5 large incidence cohorts of individuals with type 1 diabetes and proteinuria were analyzed for survival time-to-ESKD, testing the top gene in a 6th cohort (N=2,372/1,115 events all cohorts) and replicating in two retrospective case-control studies (N=1,072 cases, 752 controls). Deep resequencing of the top associated gene in 5 cohorts confirmed the findings. We performed immunohistochemistry and gene expression experiments in human control and diseased cells, and in mouse ischemia reperfusion and aristolochic acid nephropathy models.

Results: Protein coding variants in the hydroxysteroid 17-beta dehydrogenase 14 gene (), predicted to affect protein structure, had a net protective effect against development of ESKD at exome-wide significance (N=4,196; p-value=3.3x10-7). The gene and encoded enzyme were robustly expressed in healthy human kidney, maximally in proximal tubular cells. Paradoxically, gene and protein expression were attenuated in human diabetic proximal tubules and in mouse kidney injury models. Expressed gene and protein levels remained low without recovery after 21 days in a murine ischemic reperfusion injury model. Decreased gene expression was found in other chronic kidney disease-associated renal pathologies.

Conclusions: gene is mechanistically involved in diabetic kidney disease. The encoded sex steroid enzyme is a druggable target, potentially opening a new avenue for therapeutic development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020101457DOI Listing
July 2021

An artificial neural network approach integrating plasma proteomics and genetic data identifies PLXNA4 as a new susceptibility locus for pulmonary embolism.

Sci Rep 2021 07 7;11(1):14015. Epub 2021 Jul 7.

INSERM, BPH, U1219, Université Bordeaux, 33000, Bordeaux, France.

Venous thromboembolism is the third common cardiovascular disease and is composed of two entities, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and its potential fatal form, pulmonary embolism (PE). While PE is observed in ~ 40% of patients with documented DVT, there is limited biomarkers that can help identifying patients at high PE risk. To fill this need, we implemented a two hidden-layers artificial neural networks (ANN) on 376 antibodies and 19 biological traits measured in the plasma of 1388 DVT patients, with or without PE, of the MARTHA study. We used the LIME algorithm to obtain a linear approximate of the resulting ANN prediction model. As MARTHA patients were typed for genotyping DNA arrays, a genome wide association study (GWAS) was conducted on the LIME estimate. Detected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with PE risk in MARTHA. Main findings were replicated in the EOVT study composed of 143 PE patients and 196 DVT only patients. The derived ANN model for PE achieved an accuracy of 0.89 and 0.79 in our training and testing sets, respectively. A GWAS on the LIME approximate identified a strong statistical association peak (rs1424597: p = 5.3 × 10) at the PLXNA4 locus. Homozygote carriers for the rs1424597-A allele were then more frequently observed in PE than in DVT patients from the MARTHA (2% vs. 0.4%, p = 0.005) and the EOVT (3% vs. 0%, p = 0.013) studies. In a sample of 112 COVID-19 patients known to have endotheliopathy leading to acute lung injury and an increased risk of PE, decreased PLXNA4 levels were associated (p = 0.025) with worsened respiratory function. Using an original integrated proteomics and genetics strategy, we identified PLXNA4 as a new susceptibility gene for PE whose exact role now needs to be further elucidated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-93390-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8263618PMC
July 2021

Effects of Thyroid Function on Hemostasis, Coagulation, and Fibrinolysis: A Mendelian Randomization Study.

Thyroid 2021 Sep 5;31(9):1305-1315. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Steno Diabetes Center Aarhus, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Untreated hypothyroidism is associated with acquired von Willebrand syndrome, and hyperthyroidism is associated with increased thrombosis risk. However, the causal effects of thyroid function on hemostasis, coagulation, and fibrinolysis are unknown. In a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study with genome-wide association variants, we assessed causality of genetically predicted hypothyroidism ( = 134,641), normal-range thyrotropin (TSH;  = 54,288) and free thyroxine (fT4) ( = 49,269), hyperthyroidism ( = 51,823), and thyroid peroxidase antibody positivity ( = 25,821) on coagulation (activated partial thromboplastin time, von Willebrand factor [VWF], factor VIII [FVIII], prothrombin time, factor VII, fibrinogen) and fibrinolysis (D-dimer, tissue plasminogen activator [TPA], plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) from the CHARGE Hemostasis Consortium ( = 2583-120,246). Inverse-variance-weighted random effects were the main MR analysis followed by sensitivity analyses. Two-sided  < 0.05 was nominally significant, and  < 0.0011[ = 0.05/(5 exposures × 9 outcomes)] was Bonferroni significant for the main MR analysis. Genetically increased TSH was associated with decreased VWF [β(SE) = -0.020(0.006),  = 0.001] and with decreased fibrinogen [β(SE) = -0.008(0.002),  = 0.001]. Genetically increased fT4 was associated with increased VWF [β(SE) = 0.028(0.011),  = 0.012]. Genetically predicted hyperthyroidism was associated with increased VWF [β(SE) = 0.012(0.004),  = 0.006] and increased FVIII [β(SE) = 0.013(0.005),  = 0.007]. Genetically predicted hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism were associated with decreased TPA [β(SE) = -0.009(0.024),  = 0.024] and increased TPA [β(SE) = 0.022(0.008),  = 0.008], respectively. MR sensitivity analyses showed similar direction but lower precision. Other coagulation and fibrinolytic factors were inconclusive. In the largest genetic studies currently available, genetically increased TSH and fT4 may be associated with decreased and increased synthesis of VWF, respectively. Since Bonferroni correction may be too conservative given the correlation between the analyzed traits, we cannot reject nominal associations of thyroid traits with coagulation or fibrinolytic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2021.0055DOI Listing
September 2021

FGL1 as a modulator of plasma D-dimer levels: Exome-wide marker analysis of plasma tPA, PAI-1, and D-dimer.

J Thromb Haemost 2021 08 30;19(8):2019-2028. Epub 2021 May 30.

Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Use of targeted exome-arrays with common, rare variants and functionally enriched variation has led to discovery of new genes contributing to population variation in risk factors. Plasminogen activator-inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and the plasma product D-dimer are important components of the fibrinolytic system. There have been few large-scale genome-wide or exome-wide studies of PAI-1, tPA, and D-dimer.

Objectives: We sought to discover new genetic loci contributing to variation in these traits using an exome-array approach.

Methods: Cohort-level analyses and fixed effects meta-analyses of PAI-1 (n = 15 603), tPA (n = 6876,) and D-dimer (n = 19 306) from 12 cohorts of European ancestry with diverse study design were conducted, including single-variant analyses and gene-based burden testing.

Results: Five variants located in NME7, FGL1, and the fibrinogen locus, all associated with D-dimer levels, achieved genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10 ). Replication was sought for these 5 variants, as well as 45 well-imputed variants with P < 1 × 10 in the discovery using an independent cohort. Replication was observed for three out of the five significant associations, including a novel and uncommon (0.013 allele frequency) coding variant p.Trp256Leu in FGL1 (fibrinogen-like-1) with increased plasma D-dimer levels. Additionally, a candidate-gene approach revealed a suggestive association for a coding variant (rs143202684-C) in SERPINB2, and suggestive associations with consistent effect in the replication analysis include an intronic variant (rs11057830-A) in SCARB1 associated with increased D-dimer levels.

Conclusion: This work provides new evidence for a role of FGL1 in hemostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jth.15345DOI Listing
August 2021

CRIP1 expression in monocytes related to hypertension.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2021 Apr;135(7):911-924

Clinic of Cardiology, University Heart and Vascular Center Hamburg, Germany.

Hypertension is a complex and multifactorial disorder caused by lifestyle and environmental factors, inflammation and disease-related genetic factors and is a risk factor for stroke, ischemic heart disease and renal failure. Although circulating monocytes and tissue macrophages contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Cysteine rich protein 1 (CRIP1) is highly expressed in immune cells, and CRIP1 mRNA expression in monocytes associates with blood pressure (BP) and is up-regulated by proinflammatory modulation suggesting a link between CRIP1 and BP regulation through the immune system. To address this functional link, we studied CRIP1 expression in immune cells in relation to BP using a human cohort study and hypertensive mouse models. CRIP1 expression in splenic monocytes/macrophages and in circulating monocytes was significantly affected by angiotensin II (Ang II) in a BP-elevating dose (2 mg/kg/day). In the human cohort study, monocytic CRIP1 expression levels were associated with elevated BP, whereas upon differentiation of monocytes to macrophages this association along with the CRIP1 expression level was diminished. In conclusion, CRIP1-positive circulating and splenic monocytes seem to play an important role in hypertension related inflammatory processes through endogenous hormones such as Ang II. These findings suggest that CRIP1 may affect the interaction between the immune system, in particular monocytes, and the pathogenesis of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20201372DOI Listing
April 2021

Genome-wide association analysis in dilated cardiomyopathy reveals two new players in systolic heart failure on chromosomes 3p25.1 and 22q11.23.

Eur Heart J 2021 05;42(20):2000-2011

Université de Paris, INSERM, UMR-S970, Integrative Epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, Paris, France.

Aims: Our objective was to better understand the genetic bases of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a leading cause of systolic heart failure.

Methods And Results: We conducted the largest genome-wide association study performed so far in DCM, with 2719 cases and 4440 controls in the discovery population. We identified and replicated two new DCM-associated loci on chromosome 3p25.1 [lead single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs62232870, P = 8.7 × 10-11 and 7.7 × 10-4 in the discovery and replication steps, respectively] and chromosome 22q11.23 (lead SNP rs7284877, P = 3.3 × 10-8 and 1.4 × 10-3 in the discovery and replication steps, respectively), while confirming two previously identified DCM loci on chromosomes 10 and 1, BAG3 and HSPB7. A genetic risk score constructed from the number of risk alleles at these four DCM loci revealed a 3-fold increased risk of DCM for individuals with 8 risk alleles compared to individuals with 5 risk alleles (median of the referral population). In silico annotation and functional 4C-sequencing analyses on iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes identify SLC6A6 as the most likely DCM gene at the 3p25.1 locus. This gene encodes a taurine transporter whose involvement in myocardial dysfunction and DCM is supported by numerous observations in humans and animals. At the 22q11.23 locus, in silico and data mining annotations, and to a lesser extent functional analysis, strongly suggest SMARCB1 as the candidate culprit gene.

Conclusion: This study provides a better understanding of the genetic architecture of DCM and sheds light on novel biological pathways underlying heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8139853PMC
May 2021

Genome-wide analysis identifies novel susceptibility loci for myocardial infarction.

Eur Heart J 2021 03;42(9):919-933

Division Heart & Lungs, Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, 3584 CX Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Aims: While most patients with myocardial infarction (MI) have underlying coronary atherosclerosis, not all patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) develop MI. We sought to address the hypothesis that some of the genetic factors which establish atherosclerosis may be distinct from those that predispose to vulnerable plaques and thrombus formation.

Methods And Results: We carried out a genome-wide association study for MI in the UK Biobank (n∼472 000), followed by a meta-analysis with summary statistics from the CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium (n∼167 000). Multiple independent replication analyses and functional approaches were used to prioritize loci and evaluate positional candidate genes. Eight novel regions were identified for MI at the genome wide significance level, of which effect sizes at six loci were more robust for MI than for CAD without the presence of MI. Confirmatory evidence for association of a locus on chromosome 1p21.3 harbouring choline-like transporter 3 (SLC44A3) with MI in the context of CAD, but not with coronary atherosclerosis itself, was obtained in Biobank Japan (n∼165 000) and 16 independent angiography-based cohorts (n∼27 000). Follow-up analyses did not reveal association of the SLC44A3 locus with CAD risk factors, biomarkers of coagulation, other thrombotic diseases, or plasma levels of a broad array of metabolites, including choline, trimethylamine N-oxide, and betaine. However, aortic expression of SLC44A3 was increased in carriers of the MI risk allele at chromosome 1p21.3, increased in ischaemic (vs. non-diseased) coronary arteries, up-regulated in human aortic endothelial cells treated with interleukin-1β (vs. vehicle), and associated with smooth muscle cell migration in vitro.

Conclusions: A large-scale analysis comprising ∼831 000 subjects revealed novel genetic determinants of MI and implicated SLC44A3 in the pathophysiology of vulnerable plaques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa1040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7936531PMC
March 2021

Association between ABO haplotypes and the risk of venous thrombosis: impact on disease risk estimation.

Blood 2021 Apr;137(17):2394-2402

Aix Marseille University, INSERM, Institut National de Recherche pour l'Agriculture, l'Alimentation et l'Environnement (INRAE), Centre de Recherche en CardioVasculaire et Nutrition, Marseille, France.

Genetic risk score (GRS) analysis is a popular approach to derive individual risk prediction models for complex diseases. In venous thrombosis (VT), such type of analysis shall integrate information at the ABO blood group locus, which is one of the major susceptibility loci. However, there is no consensus about which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) must be investigated when properly assessing association between ABO locus and VT risk. Using comprehensive haplotype analyses of ABO blood group tagging SNPs in 5425 cases and 8445 controls from 6 studies, we demonstrate that using only rs8176719 (tagging O1) to correctly assess the impact of ABO locus on VT risk is suboptimal, because 5% of rs8176719-delG carriers do not have an increased risk of developing VT. Instead, we recommend the use of 4 SNPs, rs2519093 (tagging A1), rs1053878 (A2), rs8176743 (B), and rs41302905 (O2), when assessing the impact of ABO locus on VT risk to avoid any risk misestimation. Compared with the O1 haplotype, the A2 haplotype is associated with a modest increase in VT risk (odds ratio, ∼1.2), the A1 and B haplotypes are associated with an ∼1.8-fold increased risk, whereas the O2 haplotype tends to be slightly protective (odds ratio, ∼0.80). In addition, although the A1 and B blood groups are associated with increased von Willebrand factor and factor VIII plasma levels, only the A1 blood group is associated with ICAM levels, but in an opposite direction, leaving additional avenues to be explored to fully understand the spectrum of biological effects mediated by ABO locus on cardiovascular traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020008997DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085481PMC
April 2021

A rare coding mutation in the MAST2 gene causes venous thrombosis in a French family with unexplained thrombophilia: The Breizh MAST2 Arg89Gln variant.

PLoS Genet 2021 01 19;17(1):e1009284. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

EA3878-GETBO, Univ Brest, Department of internal medicine and chest diseases, FCRIN_INNOVTE, CHU Brest, Brest, France.

Rare variants outside the classical coagulation cascade might cause inherited thrombosis. We aimed to identify the variant(s) causing venous thromboembolism (VTE) in a family with multiple relatives affected with unprovoked VTE and no thrombophilia defects. We identified by whole exome sequencing an extremely rare Arg to Gln variant (Arg89Gln) in the Microtubule Associated Serine/Threonine Kinase 2 (MAST2) gene that segregates with VTE in the family. Free-tissue factor pathway inhibitor (f-TFPI) plasma levels were significantly decreased in affected family members compared to healthy relatives. Conversely, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were significantly higher in affected members than in healthy relatives. RNA sequencing analysis of RNA interference experimental data conducted in endothelial cells revealed that, of the 13,387 detected expressed genes, 2,354 have their level of expression modified by MAST2 knockdown, including SERPINE1 coding for PAI-1 and TFPI. In HEK293 cells overexpressing the MAST2 Gln89 variant, TFPI and SERPINE1 promoter activities were respectively lower and higher than in cells overexpressing the MAST2 wild type. This study identifies a novel thrombophilia-causing Arg89Gln variant in the MAST2 gene that is here proposed as a new molecular player in the etiology of VTE by interfering with hemostatic balance of endothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009284DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846112PMC
January 2021

Cerebral small vessel disease genomics and its implications across the lifespan.

Nat Commun 2020 12 8;11(1):6285. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, 35233, USA.

White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are the most common brain-imaging feature of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD), hypertension being the main known risk factor. Here, we identify 27 genome-wide loci for WMH-volume in a cohort of 50,970 older individuals, accounting for modification/confounding by hypertension. Aggregated WMH risk variants were associated with altered white matter integrity (p = 2.5×10-7) in brain images from 1,738 young healthy adults, providing insight into the lifetime impact of SVD genetic risk. Mendelian randomization suggested causal association of increasing WMH-volume with stroke, Alzheimer-type dementia, and of increasing blood pressure (BP) with larger WMH-volume, notably also in persons without clinical hypertension. Transcriptome-wide colocalization analyses showed association of WMH-volume with expression of 39 genes, of which four encode known drug targets. Finally, we provide insight into BP-independent biological pathways underlying SVD and suggest potential for genetic stratification of high-risk individuals and for genetically-informed prioritization of drug targets for prevention trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19111-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7722866PMC
December 2020

Single-Cell Study of Two Rat Models of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Reveals Connections to Human Pathobiology and Drug Repositioning.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 04;203(8):1006-1022

Department of Integrative Biology and Physiology.

The cellular and molecular landscape and translational value of commonly used models of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are poorly understood. Single-cell transcriptomics can enhance molecular understanding of preclinical models and facilitate their rational use and interpretation. To determine and prioritize dysregulated genes, pathways, and cell types in lungs of PAH rat models to assess relevance to human PAH and identify drug repositioning candidates. Single-cell RNA sequencing was performed on the lungs of monocrotaline (MCT), Sugen-hypoxia (SuHx), and control rats to identify altered genes and cell types, followed by validation using flow-sorted cells, RNA hybridization, and immunofluorescence. Relevance to human PAH was assessed by histology of lungs from patients and via integration with human PAH genetic loci and known disease genes. Candidate drugs were predicted using Connectivity Map. Distinct changes in genes and pathways in numerous cell types were identified in SuHx and MCT lungs. Widespread upregulation of NF-κB signaling and downregulation of IFN signaling was observed across cell types. SuHx nonclassical monocytes and MCT conventional dendritic cells showed particularly strong NF-κB pathway activation. Genes altered in SuHx nonclassical monocytes were significantly enriched for PAH-associated genes and genetic variants, and candidate drugs predicted to reverse the changes were identified. An open-access online platform was developed to share single-cell data and drug candidates (http://mergeomics.research.idre.ucla.edu/PVDSingleCell/). Our study revealed the distinct and shared dysregulation of genes and pathways in two commonly used PAH models for the first time at single-cell resolution and demonstrated their relevance to human PAH and utility for drug repositioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202006-2169OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8048757PMC
April 2021

Plasma Biomarkers and Identification of Resilient Metabolic Disruptions in Patients With Venous Thromboembolism Using a Metabolic Systems Approach.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2020 10 6;40(10):2527-2538. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

C2VN, INRAE (Institut national de recherche pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement), INSERM (L.G., P.S., P.-E.M., J.-C.M.), Aix-Marseille University, France.

Objective: Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism referred as venous thromboembolism (VTE) are a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Plasma from healthy controls or individuals who have experienced a VTE were analyzed using metabolomics to characterize biomarkers and metabolic systems of patients with VTE. Approach and Results: Polar metabolite and lipidomic profiles from plasma collected 3 months after an incident VTE were obtained using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Fasting-state plasma samples from 42 patients with VTE and 42 healthy controls were measured. Plasma metabolomic profiling identified 512 metabolites forming 62 biological clusters. Multivariate analysis revealed a panel of 21 metabolites altogether capable of predicting VTE status with an area under the curve of 0.92 (=0.00174, selectivity=0.857, sensitivity=0.971). Multiblock systems analysis revealed 25 of the 62 functional biological groups as significantly affected in the VTE group (<0.05 to control). Complementary correlation network analysis of the dysregulated functions highlighted a subset of the lipidome composed mainly of n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids within the predominant triglycerides as a potential regulator of the post-VTE event biological response, possibly controlling oxidative and inflammatory defence systems, and metabolic disorder associated dysregulations. Of interest was microbiota metabolites including trimethylamine N-oxide that remained associated to post incident VTE patients, highlighting a possible involvement of gut microbiota on VTE risk and relapse.

Conclusions: These findings show promise for the elucidation of underlying mechanisms and the design of a diagnostic test to assess the likely efficacy of clinical care in patients with VTE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.120.314480DOI Listing
October 2020

A Platelet Function Modulator of Thrombin Activation Is Causally Linked to Cardiovascular Disease and Affects PAR4 Receptor Signaling.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 08 9;107(2):211-221. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Division of Intramural Research, Population Sciences Branch, The Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA 01702, USA. Electronic address:

Dual antiplatelet therapy reduces ischemic events in cardiovascular disease, but it increases bleeding risk. Thrombin receptors PAR1 and PAR4 are drug targets, but the role of thrombin in platelet aggregation remains largely unexplored in large populations. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of platelet aggregation in response to full-length thrombin, followed by clinical association analyses, Mendelian randomization, and functional characterization including iPSC-derived megakaryocyte and platelet experiments. We identified a single sentinel variant in the GRK5 locus (rs10886430-G, p = 3.0 × 10) associated with increased thrombin-induced platelet aggregation (β = 0.70, SE = 0.05). We show that disruption of platelet GRK5 expression by rs10886430-G is associated with enhanced platelet reactivity. The proposed mechanism of a GATA1-driven megakaryocyte enhancer is confirmed in allele-specific experiments. Utilizing further data, we demonstrate that the allelic effect is highly platelet- and thrombin-specific and not likely due to effects on thrombin levels. The variant is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease outcomes in UK BioBank, most strongly with pulmonary embolism. The variant associates with increased risk of stroke in the MEGASTROKE, UK BioBank, and FinnGen studies. Mendelian randomization analyses in independent samples support a causal role for rs10886430-G in increasing risk for stroke, pulmonary embolism, and venous thromboembolism through its effect on thrombin-induced platelet reactivity. We demonstrate that G protein-coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) promotes platelet activation specifically via PAR4 receptor signaling. GRK5 inhibitors in development for the treatment of heart failure and cancer could have platelet off-target deleterious effects. Common variants in GRK5 may modify clinical outcomes with PAR4 inhibitors, and upregulation of GRK5 activity or signaling in platelets may have therapeutic benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.06.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7413854PMC
August 2020

Anti-integrin α therapy improves cardiac fibrosis after myocardial infarction by blunting cardiac PW1 stromal cells.

Sci Rep 2020 07 9;10(1):11404. Epub 2020 Jul 9.

Université de Paris, PARCC, INSERM, 56 Rue Leblanc, 75015, Paris, France.

There is currently no therapy to limit the development of cardiac fibrosis and consequent heart failure. We have recently shown that cardiac fibrosis post-myocardial infarction (MI) can be regulated by resident cardiac cells with a fibrogenic signature and identified by the expression of PW1 (Peg3). Here we identify αV-integrin (CD51) as an essential regulator of cardiac PW1 cells fibrogenic behavior. We used transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to identify specific cell-surface markers for cardiac PW1 cells and found that αV-integrin (CD51) was expressed in almost all cardiac PW1 cells (93% ± 1%), predominantly as the αVβ1 complex. αV-integrin is a subunit member of the integrin family of cell adhesion receptors and was found to activate complex of latent transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ at the surface of cardiac PW1 cells. Pharmacological inhibition of αV-integrin reduced the profibrotic action of cardiac PW1CD51 cells and was associated with improved cardiac function and animal survival following MI coupled with a reduced infarct size and fibrotic lesion. These data identify a targetable pathway that regulates cardiac fibrosis in response to an ischemic injury and demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of αV-integrin could reduce pathological outcomes following cardiac ischemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68223-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347632PMC
July 2020

ABO blood group, glycosyltransferase activity and risk of venous thromboembolism.

Thromb Res 2020 09 2;193:31-35. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Aix Marseille Univ, INSERM, INRAE, C2VN, Marseille, France.

Introduction: ABO blood group influence the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) by modifying A and B glycosyltransferases (AGT and BGT) activities that further modulates Factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand Factor (VWF) plasma levels. The aim of this work was to evaluate the association of plasma GTs activities with VWF/FVIII plasma levels and VTE risk in a case-control study.

Materials And Methods: 420 cases were matched with 420 controls for age and ABO blood group. GT activities in plasma were measured using the quantitative transfer of tritiated N-acetylgalactosamine or galactose to the 2'-fucosyl-lactose and expressed in disintegration per minute/30 μL of plasma and 2 h of reaction (dpm/30 μL/2H). FVIII and VWF plasma levels were respectively measured using human FVIII-deficient plasma in a 1-stage factor assay and STA LIATEST VWF (Diagnostica Stago).

Results: A and B GT activities were significantly lower in cases than in controls (8119 ± 4027 vs 9682 ± 4177 dpm/30 μL/2H, p = 2.03 × 10, and 4931 ± 2305 vs 5524 ± 2096 dpm/30 μL/2H, p=0.043 respectively). This association was observed whatever the ABO blood groups. The ABO A1 blood group was found to explain~80% of AGT activity. After adjusting for ABO blood groups, AGT activity was not correlated to VWF/FVIII plasma levels. Conversely, there was a moderate correlation (ρ ~ 0.30) between BGT activity and VWF/ FVIII plasma levels in B blood group carriers.

Conclusion: Work showed, for the first time, that GT activities were decreased in VTE patients in comparison to controls with the same ABO blood group. The biological mechanisms responsible for this association remained to be determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.05.051DOI Listing
September 2020

Whole-exome sequencing identifies rare variants in STAB2 associated with venous thromboembolic disease.

Blood 2020 07;136(5):533-541

Department of Pediatrics and.

Deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, collectively defined as venous thromboembolism (VTE), are the third leading cause of cardiovascular death in the United States. Common genetic variants conferring increased varying degrees of VTE risk have been identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Rare mutations in the anticoagulant genes PROC, PROS1 and SERPINC1 result in perinatal lethal thrombosis in homozygotes and markedly increased VTE risk in heterozygotes. However, currently described VTE variants account for an insufficient portion of risk to be routinely used for clinical decision making. To identify new rare VTE risk variants, we performed a whole-exome study of 393 individuals with unprovoked VTE and 6114 controls. This study identified 4 genes harboring an excess number of rare damaging variants in patients with VTE: PROS1, STAB2, PROC, and SERPINC1. At STAB2, 7.8% of VTE cases and 2.4% of controls had a qualifying rare variant. In cell culture, VTE-associated variants of STAB2 had a reduced surface expression compared with reference STAB2. Common variants in STAB2 have been previously associated with plasma von Willebrand factor and coagulation factor VIII levels in GWAS, suggesting that haploinsufficiency of stabilin-2 may increase VTE risk through elevated levels of these procoagulants. In an independent cohort, we found higher von Willebrand factor levels and equivalent propeptide levels in individuals with rare STAB2 variants compared with controls. Taken together, this study demonstrates the utility of gene-based collapsing analyses to identify loci harboring an excess of rare variants with functional connections to a complex thrombotic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019004161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393257PMC
July 2020

A novel rare c.-39C>T mutation in the PROS1 5'UTR causing PS deficiency by creating a new upstream translation initiation codon.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2020 05;134(10):1181-1190

INSERM UMR 1219, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Autosomal dominant inherited Protein S deficiency (PSD) (MIM 612336) is a rare disorder caused by rare mutations, mainly located in the coding sequence of the structural PROS1 gene, and associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. To identify the molecular defect underlying PSD observed in an extended French pedigree with seven PSD affected members in whom no candidate deleterious PROS1 mutation was detected by Sanger sequencing of PROS1 exons and their flanking intronic regions or via an multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) approach, a whole genome sequencing strategy was adopted. This led to the identification of a never reported C to T substitution at c.-39 from the natural ATG codon of the PROS1 gene that completely segregates with PSD in the whole family. This substitution ACG→ATG creates a new start codon upstream of the main ATG. We experimentally demonstrated in HeLa cells that the variant generates a novel overlapping upstream open reading frame (uORF) and inhibits the translation of the wild-type PS. This work describes the first example of 5'UTR PROS1 mutation causing PSD through the creation of an uORF, a mutation that is not predicted to be deleterious by standard annotation softwares, and emphasizes the need for better exploration of such type of non-coding variations in clinical genomics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS20200403DOI Listing
May 2020

Bayesian network analysis of plasma microRNA sequencing data in patients with venous thrombosis.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2020 Apr 29;22(Suppl C):C34-C45. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Institut National pour la Santé et la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), Unité Mixte de Recherche en Santé (UMR_S) 1219, Bordeaux Population Health Research Center, University of Bordeaux, 146 rue Léo Saignat, Bordeaux 33076, France.

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs participating to several biological processes and known to be involved in various pathologies. Measurable in body fluids, miRNAs have been proposed to serve as efficient biomarkers for diseases and/or associated traits. Here, we performed a next-generation-sequencing based profiling of plasma miRNAs in 344 patients with venous thrombosis (VT) and assessed the association of plasma miRNA levels with several haemostatic traits and the risk of VT recurrence. Among the most significant findings, we detected an association between hsa-miR-199b-3p and haematocrit levels ( = 0.0016), these two markers having both been independently reported to associate with VT risk. We also observed suggestive evidence for association of hsa-miR-370-3p ( = 0.019), hsa-miR-27b-3p ( = 0.016) and hsa-miR-222-3p ( = 0.049) with VT recurrence, the observations at the latter two miRNAs confirming the recent findings of Wang . Besides, by conducting Genome-Wide Association Studies on miRNA levels and meta-analyzing our results with some publicly available, we identified 21 new associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms with plasma miRNA levels at the statistical significance threshold of  < 5 × 10, some of these associations pertaining to thrombosis associated mechanisms. In conclusion, this study provides novel data about the impact of miRNAs' variability in haemostasis and new arguments supporting the association of few miRNAs with the risk of recurrence in patients with venous thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suaa008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189740PMC
April 2020

Whole-Blood RNA Profiles Associated with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Clinical Outcome.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 08;202(4):586-594

Department of Infection, Immunity & Cardiovascular Disease, and.

Idiopathic and heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are rare but comprise a genetically heterogeneous patient group. RNA sequencing linked to the underlying genetic architecture can be used to better understand the underlying pathology by identifying key signaling pathways and stratify patients more robustly according to clinical risk. To use a three-stage design of RNA discovery, RNA validation and model construction, and model validation to define a set of PAH-associated RNAs and a single summarizing RNA model score. To define genes most likely to be involved in disease development, we performed Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis. RNA sequencing was performed on whole-blood samples from 359 patients with idiopathic, heritable, and drug-induced PAH and 72 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. The score was evaluated against disease severity markers including survival analysis using all-cause mortality from diagnosis. MR used known expression quantitative trait loci and summary statistics from a PAH genome-wide association study. We identified 507 genes with differential RNA expression in patients with PAH compared with control subjects. A model of 25 RNAs distinguished PAH with 87% accuracy (area under the curve 95% confidence interval: 0.791-0.945) in model validation. The RNA model score was associated with disease severity and long-term survival ( = 4.66 × 10) in PAH. MR detected an association between SMAD5 levels and PAH disease susceptibility (odds ratio, 0.317; 95% confidence interval, 0.129-0.776;  = 0.012). A whole-blood RNA signature of PAH, which includes RNAs relevant to disease pathogenesis, associates with disease severity and identifies patients with poor clinical outcomes. Genetic variants associated with lower SMAD5 expression may increase susceptibility to PAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202003-0510OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7427383PMC
August 2020

Genome-wide association study on coronary artery disease in type 1 diabetes suggests beta-defensin 127 as a risk locus.

Cardiovasc Res 2021 01;117(2):600-612

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, FI-00290 Helsinki, Finland.

Aims: Diabetes is a known risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). There is accumulating evidence that CAD pathogenesis differs for individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, the genetic background has not been extensively studied. We aimed to discover genetic loci increasing CAD susceptibility, especially in T1D, to examine the function of these discoveries and to study the role of the known risk loci in T1D.

Methods And Results: We performed the largest genome-wide association study to date for CAD in T1D, comprising 4869 individuals with T1D (cases/controls: 941/3928). Two loci reached genome-wide significance, rs1970112 in CDKN2B-AS1 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, P = 1.50 × 10-8], and rs6055069 on DEFB127 promoter (OR = 4.17, P = 2.35 × 10-9), with consistent results in survival analysis. The CDKN2B-AS1 variant replicated (P = 0.04) when adjusted for diabetic kidney disease in three additional T1D cohorts (cases/controls: 434/3123). Furthermore, we explored the function of the lead discoveries with a cardio-phenome-wide analysis. Among the eight suggestive loci (P < 1 × 10-6), rs70962766 near B3GNT2 associated with central blood pressure, rs1344228 near CNTNAP5 with intima media thickness, and rs2112481 on GRAMD2B promoter with serum leucocyte concentration. Finally, we calculated genetic risk scores for individuals with T1D with the known susceptibility loci. General population risk variants were modestly but significantly associated with CAD also in T1D (P = 4.21 × 10-7).

Conclusion: While general population CAD risk loci had limited effect on the risk in T1D, for the first time, variants at the CDKN2B-AS1 locus were robustly associated with CAD in individuals with T1D. The novel finding on β-defensin DEFB127 promoter provides a link between diabetes, infection susceptibility, and CAD, although pending on future confirmation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvaa045DOI Listing
January 2021

Design and Rationale of the ERA-CVD Consortium PREMED-CAD-Precision Medicine in Coronary Artery Disease.

Biomolecules 2020 01 11;10(1). Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Clinic for Cardiology, University Medical Center Eppendorf, 20246 Hamburg, Germany.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) comprise 45% of all deaths in Europe and causes 3.9 million deaths annually. Coronary artery disease (CAD) which includes myocardial infarction (MI) represents the most common form of CVD. A relevant proportion of MI cases seems preventable since reports claim that up to two-thirds of these patients exhibit symptoms suggestive for MI within 12 months prior to the acute MI event. An early identification of these at-risk subjects is necessary to manage an early and efficient treatment during the ischemic phase. The aim of the PRecision MEDicine in Coronary Artery Disease (PREMED-CAD) consortium is to apply a system medicine approach towards studying and identifying an ischemia specific 'biomarker signature' that improves the identification of individuals 'at-risk' for acute MI. The consortium will take an interdisciplinary and translational approach integrating knowledge from CAD epidemiology, imaging, bioinformatics, statistics and molecular biology, as well as existing phenotypic, blood-based and clinical biomarker data of distinct CAD and subclinical MI phenotypes. This biomarker signature will be validated through atherosclerosis-prone mouse models and human cohorts. The validated signature will be translated in a real-world clinical setting using an ongoing clinical trial comprising patients with subclinical ischemia. The aim of the knowledge obtained from this project is to aid in early MI detection and reduce the mortality and morbidity rate in these at-risk MI individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10010125DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7022893PMC
January 2020

Whole blood levels of S1PR4 mRNA associated with cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.

J Neurosurg 2019 Nov 29:1-5. Epub 2019 Nov 29.

1Sorbonne Université, UPMC, INSERM UMR_S 1166, F-75013, Paris.

Objective: The authors sought to identify mRNA biomarkers of cerebral vasospasm in whole blood of patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).

Methods: A prospective transcriptomic study for vasospasm was conducted in whole blood samples of 44 aSAH patients who developed (VSP+ group, n = 22) or did not develop (VSP- group, n = 22) vasospasm. Samples from all patients were profiled for 21,460 mRNA probes using the Illumina Human HT12v4.0 array. Differential statistical analysis was performed using a linear mixed model.

Results: Levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 4 (S1PR4) mRNA were significantly higher (p = 8.03 × 10-6) at presentation in patients who developed vasospasm after aSAH than in patients who did not.

Conclusions: The results, which are consistent with findings of previous experimental investigations conducted in animal models, support the role of S1PR4 and its ligand, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), in arterial-associated vasoconstriction, which suggests that S1PR4 could be used as a biomarker for cerebral vasospasm in aSAH patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.9.JNS191305DOI Listing
November 2019

Mendelian randomisation analysis of red cell distribution width in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Eur Respir J 2020 02 12;55(2). Epub 2020 Feb 12.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Hammersmith Campus, Imperial College London, London, UK

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease that leads to premature death from right heart failure. It is strongly associated with elevated red cell distribution width (RDW), a correlate of several iron status biomarkers. High RDW values can signal early-stage iron deficiency or iron deficiency anaemia. This study investigated whether elevated RDW is causally associated with PAH.A two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) approach was applied to investigate whether genetic predisposition to higher levels of RDW increases the odds of developing PAH. Primary and secondary MR analyses were performed using all available genome-wide significant RDW variants (n=179) and five genome-wide significant RDW variants that act systemic iron status, respectively.We confirmed the observed association between RDW and PAH (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.80-2.01) in a multicentre case-control study (cases n=642, disease controls n=15 889). The primary MR analysis was adequately powered to detect a causal effect (odds ratio) between 1.25 and 1.52 or greater based on estimates reported in the RDW genome-wide association study or from our own data. There was no evidence for a causal association between RDW and PAH in either the primary (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.92-1.24) or the secondary (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.77-1.54) MR analysis.The results suggest that at least some of the observed association of RDW with PAH is secondary to disease progression. Results of iron therapeutic trials in PAH should be interpreted with caution, as any improvements observed may not be mechanistically linked to the development of PAH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01486-2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7015630PMC
February 2020

Genome-wide association analysis of venous thromboembolism identifies new risk loci and genetic overlap with arterial vascular disease.

Nat Genet 2019 11 1;51(11):1574-1579. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Massachusetts Veterans Epidemiology Research and Information Center, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Boston, MA, USA.

Venous thromboembolism is a significant cause of mortality, yet its genetic determinants are incompletely defined. We performed a discovery genome-wide association study in the Million Veteran Program and UK Biobank, with testing of approximately 13 million DNA sequence variants for association with venous thromboembolism (26,066 cases and 624,053 controls) and meta-analyzed both studies, followed by independent replication with up to 17,672 venous thromboembolism cases and 167,295 controls. We identified 22 previously unknown loci, bringing the total number of venous thromboembolism-associated loci to 33, and subsequently fine-mapped these associations. We developed a genome-wide polygenic risk score for venous thromboembolism that identifies 5% of the population at an equivalent incident venous thromboembolism risk to carriers of the established factor V Leiden p.R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations. Our data provide mechanistic insights into the genetic epidemiology of venous thromboembolism and suggest a greater overlap among venous and arterial cardiovascular disease than previously thought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-019-0519-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6858581PMC
November 2019

Associations of autozygosity with a broad range of human phenotypes.

Nat Commun 2019 10 31;10(1):4957. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Department of Neurology, Brain Centre Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 3584 CX, The Netherlands.

In many species, the offspring of related parents suffer reduced reproductive success, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. In humans, the importance of this effect has remained unclear, partly because reproduction between close relatives is both rare and frequently associated with confounding social factors. Here, using genomic inbreeding coefficients (F) for >1.4 million individuals, we show that F is significantly associated (p < 0.0005) with apparently deleterious changes in 32 out of 100 traits analysed. These changes are associated with runs of homozygosity (ROH), but not with common variant homozygosity, suggesting that genetic variants associated with inbreeding depression are predominantly rare. The effect on fertility is striking: F equivalent to the offspring of first cousins is associated with a 55% decrease [95% CI 44-66%] in the odds of having children. Finally, the effects of F are confirmed within full-sibling pairs, where the variation in F is independent of all environmental confounding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12283-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6823371PMC
October 2019

Genomic and transcriptomic association studies identify 16 novel susceptibility loci for venous thromboembolism.

Blood 2019 11;134(19):1645-1657

Boston VA Healthcare System, Boston, MA.

Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a significant contributor to morbidity and mortality. To advance our understanding of the biology contributing to VTE, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of VTE and a transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) based on imputed gene expression from whole blood and liver. We meta-analyzed GWAS data from 18 studies for 30 234 VTE cases and 172 122 controls and assessed the association between 12 923 718 genetic variants and VTE. We generated variant prediction scores of gene expression from whole blood and liver tissue and assessed them for association with VTE. Mendelian randomization analyses were conducted for traits genetically associated with novel VTE loci. We identified 34 independent genetic signals for VTE risk from GWAS meta-analysis, of which 14 are newly reported associations. This included 11 newly associated genetic loci (C1orf198, PLEK, OSMR-AS1, NUGGC/SCARA5, GRK5, MPHOSPH9, ARID4A, PLCG2, SMG6, EIF5A, and STX10) of which 6 replicated, and 3 new independent signals in 3 known genes. Further, TWAS identified 5 additional genetic loci with imputed gene expression levels differing between cases and controls in whole blood (SH2B3, SPSB1, RP11-747H7.3, RP4-737E23.2) and in liver (ERAP1). At some GWAS loci, we found suggestive evidence that the VTE association signal for novel and previously known regions colocalized with expression quantitative trait locus signals. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested that blood traits may contribute to the underlying risk of VTE. To conclude, we identified 16 novel susceptibility loci for VTE; for some loci, the association signals are likely mediated through gene expression of nearby genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019000435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6871304PMC
November 2019
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