Publications by authors named "David White"

850 Publications

EEG signatures change during unilateral Yogi nasal breathing.

Sci Rep 2022 Jan 11;12(1):520. Epub 2022 Jan 11.

BioDesign Lab, School of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

Airflow through the left-and-right nostrils is said to be entrained by an endogenous nasal cycle paced by both poles of the hypothalamus. Yogic practices suggest, and scientific evidence demonstrates, that right-nostril breathing is involved with relatively higher sympathetic activity (arousal states), while left-nostril breathing is associated with a relatively more parasympathetic activity (stress alleviating state). The objective of this study was to further explore this laterality by controlling nasal airflow and observing patterns of cortical activity through encephalographic (EEG) recordings. Thirty subjects participated in this crossover study. The experimental session consisted of a resting phase (baseline), then a period of unilateral nostril breathing (UNB) using the dominant nasal airway, followed by UNB using the non-dominant nasal airway. A 64-channel EEG was recorded throughout the whole session. The effects of nostril-dominance, and nostril-lateralization were assessed using the power spectral density of the neural activity. The differences in power-spectra and source localization were calculated between EEG recorded during UNB and baseline for delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma bands. Cluster-based permutation tests showed that compared to baseline, EEG spectral power was significantly (1) decreased in all frequency bands for non-dominant nostril UNB, (2) decreased in alpha, beta and gamma bands for dominant nostril UNB, (3) decreased in all bands for left nostril UNB, and (4) decreased in all bands except delta for right nostril UNB. The beta band showed the most widely distributed changes across the scalp. our source localisation results show that breathing with the dominant nostril breathing increases EEG power in the left inferior frontal (alpha band) and left parietal lobule (beta band), whereas non-dominant nostril breathing is related to more diffuse and bilateral effects in posterior areas of the brain.These preliminary findings may stimulate further research in the area, with potential applications to tailored treatment of brain disorders associated with disruption of sympathetic and parasympathetic activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-04461-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8752782PMC
January 2022

Heart Rate Recovery Following Exercise Testing in Pediatric Patients with Acyanotic Repaired Congenital Heart Disease.

Pediatr Cardiol 2022 Jan 4. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Ward Family Heart Center, Children's Mercy Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA.

Attenuated heart rate recovery (HRR) following peak exercise has been shown to be a predictor of mortality in populations of adults with Fontan palliation, coronary artery disease, heart failure, and heart transplantation. However, few have studied HRR in children and adolescents with congenital heart disease (CHD). This case-control study compared HRR patterns from exercise stress testing in children and adolescents with and without repaired acyanotic CHD (raCHD). Retrospective analysis included patients aged 10-18 years who had exercise testing between 2007 and 2017. The raCHD cohort included patients with Tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, coarctation, truncus arteriosus, atrioventricular septal defect, pulmonary outflow obstruction, aortic stenosis and/or insufficiency, or septal defects. Those in the control cohort were matched for age, sex, BMI, peak METs achieved, and peak heart rate (HR). HR at 1-min intervals throughout the 10-min recovery period and HRR patterns were analyzed. The study included n = 584 individuals (raCHD: n = 146), median age 14 years old, 67.1% male. The cohorts had similar resting and peak HRs. Linear mixed-effects models (LMM) suggested statistically significant cohort-by-time interaction for HR in exercise recovery, with the largest mean difference at minute-6 (2.9 bpm, p = 0.008). When comparing lesion types, LMM found no cohort or cohort-by-time interaction. While minute-6 of exercise recovery was statistically significant, the difference was 2.9 bpm and may not have clinical significance. These results suggest that HRR in pediatric raCHD patients should not vary from their healthy peers, and an attenuated HRR may not be directly attributed to underlying raCHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00246-021-02788-7DOI Listing
January 2022

Patient, carer and healthcare professional perspectives on increasing calorie intake in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Chronic Illn 2021 Dec 22:17423953211069090. Epub 2021 Dec 22.

Sheffield Institute for Translational Neuroscience (SITraN), 231485University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK.

Objectives: Research suggests that higher Body Mass Index is associated with improved survival in people with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (pwALS). Yet, understanding of the barriers and enablers to increasing calorie intake is limited. This study sought to explore these issues from the perspective of pwALS, informal carers, and healthcare professionals.

Methods: Interviews with 18 pwALS and 16 informal carers, and focus groups with 51 healthcare professionals. Data were analysed using template analysis and mapped to the COM-B model and Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF).

Results: All three COM-B components (Capability, Opportunity and Motivation) are important to achieving high calorie diets in pwALS. Eleven TDF domains were identified: Physical skills (ALS symptoms); Knowledge (about high calorie diets and healthy eating); Memory, attention, and decision processes (reflecting cognitive difficulties); Environmental context/resources (availability of informal and formal carers); Social influences (social aspects of eating); Beliefs about consequences (healthy eating vs. high calorie diets); Identity (interest in health lifestyles); Goals (sense of control); Reinforcement (eating habits); and Optimism and Emotion (low mood, poor appetite).

Discussion: To promote high calorie diets for pwALS, greater clarity around the rationale and content of recommended diets is needed. Interventions should be tailored to patient symptoms, preferences, motivations, and opportunities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/17423953211069090DOI Listing
December 2021

Cognition and reproductive success in cowbirds.

Learn Behav 2021 Dec 16. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Department of Biology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Understanding the relationships between cognitive abilities and fitness is integral to an evolutionary study of brain and behavior. However, these relationships are often difficult to measure and detect. Here we draw upon an opportunistic sample of brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) subjects that had two separate research experiences: First, they engaged in a large series of cognitive tests in David Sherry's Lab in the Advanced Facility for Avian Research (AFAR) at Western University, then subsequently moved to the Field Avian Research Megalab (FARM) at Wilfrid Laurier University where they lived in large breeding flocks in aviaries with other wild-caught cowbirds. Thus, we had extensive measures of cognitive abilities, breeding behavior, and reproductive success for these birds. We report here, for the fist time, the surprisingly strong connections we found among these different measures. Female cowbirds' spatial cognitive abilities correlated positively with how intensely they were courted by males, and with their overall egg production. Males' spatial cognition correlated positively with their ability to engage in singing contests ("countersinging") with other males. In addition, a separate non-spatial cognitive ability correlated positively with the attractiveness of the songs they sung. In sum, these results suggest the cognitive skills assessed in the lab were strongly connected to breeding behavior and reproductive success. Moreover, since certain cognitive abilities related to different aspects of breeding success, it suggests that cognitive modules may have specialized adaptive value, but also that these specialized skills may interact and influence fitness in surprising ways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13420-021-00506-0DOI Listing
December 2021

The Relationship between Alcohol Hangover Severity, Sleep and Cognitive Performance; a Naturalistic Study.

J Clin Med 2021 Dec 3;10(23). Epub 2021 Dec 3.

Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC 3122, Australia.

Alcohol hangover (AH) has been associated with poor sleep due to the negative effects of alcohol intoxication on sleep quantity and sleep quality. The aim of the current study was to further explore the relationship between AH severity and sleep using a naturalistic study design. A further aim was to determine whether quantitative aspects of sleep were a mediating influence on the relationship between AH severity and cognitive performance. As part of the naturalistic study design, 99 drinkers were recruited following a night of drinking in an Australian state capital, with breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) measured as participants were leaving the entertainment district. The following morning at home, participants answered online questions regarding their drinking behaviour on the previous evening, current AH symptoms and sleep quality. Participants also completed an online version of the Trail-Making Test B (TMT-B) to assess cognitive performance. The findings reveal the duration of nightly awakenings to be negatively related to six individual AH symptoms as well as overall AH severity. The number of nightly awakenings, sleep quality and total sleep time correlated with four AH symptoms including overall AH severity. Total AH severity accounted for a moderate amount of variance (11%) in the time to complete the TMT-B. These findings confirm that alcohol consumption negatively affects sleep, which is related to higher next-day hangover severity ratings and poorer cognitive performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10235691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8658514PMC
December 2021

Leukotrienes Are Dispensable for Vaginal Neutrophil Recruitment as Part of the Immunopathological Response During Experimental Vulvovaginal Candidiasis.

Front Microbiol 2021 17;12:739385. Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Center of Excellence in Oral and Craniofacial Biology, School of Dentistry, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, United States.

Recruitment of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) into the vaginal lumen is the hallmark of an acute immunopathologic inflammatory response during vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) caused by Recurrent VVC (RVVC) remains a chronic health burden in affected women worldwide despite the use of antifungal therapy. Based on the role leukotrienes (LTs) play in promoting inflammation, leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) targeted for LTB (etalocib) or LTC, LTD and LTE (zafirlukast or montelukast) have been shown to reduce inflammation of epithelial tissues. An open-label pilot study using long-term regimens of zafirlukast in women with RVVC indicated the potential for some relief from recurrent episodes. To investigate this clinical observation further, we evaluated the effects of LT antagonistic agents and LT deficiency on the immunopathogenic response in a mouse model of VVC. Results showed that mice given daily intraperitoneal injections of individual LTRAs, starting 2days prior to vaginal inoculation with and continuing through 14days post-inoculation, had no measurable reduction in PMN migration. The LTRAs were also ineffective in reducing levels of the hallmark vaginal inflammatory markers (S100A8, IL-1β) and tissue damage (LDH) associated with the immunopathogenic response. Finally, LT-deficient 5-lipoxygenase knockout mice showed comparable levels of vaginal fungal burden and PMN infiltration to wild-type mice following inoculation with a vaginal (ATCC 96113) or laboratory (SC5314) isolate. These results indicate that despite some clinical evidence suggestive of off-target efficacy of LTRAs in RVVC, LTs and associated signaling pathways appear to be dispensable in the immunopathogenesis of VVC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.739385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8635733PMC
November 2021

Diet May Moderate the Relationship Between Arterial Stiffness and Cognitive Performance in Older Adults.

J Alzheimers Dis 2021 Nov 30. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Centre for Human Psychopharmacology, Swinburne University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: Cognitive decline is influenced by various factors including diet, cardiovascular disease, and glucose control. However, the combined effect of these risk factors on cognitive performance is yet to be fully understood.

Objective: The current study aimed to explore the inter-relationship between these risk factors and cognitive performance in older adults at risk of future cognitive decline.

Methods: The sample comprised 163 (Age: M = 65.23 years, SD = 6.50) participants. Food Frequency Questionnaire data was used to score diet quality and adherence to the Western Style Diet (WSD) and Prudent Style Diet (PSD). Glucose control was gauged by serum levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and arterial stiffness was measured using carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity. Cognitive performance was assessed using two subtests of the Swinburne University Computerized Cognitive Assessment Battery (SUCCAB) and Rey's Verbal Learning Test (RVLT).

Results: Diet quality, adherence to the WSD or PSD, and glucose control were not significantly related to cognitive outcomes. However, a significant negative association was found between arterial stiffness and the spatial working memory subtest of SUCCAB (β= -0.21, p <  0.05). Arterial stiffness also significantly interacted with the PSD to impact total recall (F change (1,134) = 5.37, p <  0.05) and the composite score of RVLT (F change (1,134) = 4.03, p <  0.05).

Conclusion: In this sample of older adults at risk of cognitive decline, diet alone was not found to predict cognitive performance; however, it was found to moderate the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-210567DOI Listing
November 2021

Partitioning natural face image variability emphasises within-identity over between-identity representation for understanding accurate recognition.

Cognition 2022 Feb 30;219:104966. Epub 2021 Nov 30.

School of Psychology, UNSW Sydney, Kensington, Australia.

Accurately recognising faces enables social interactions. In recent years it has become clear that people's accuracy differs markedly depending on viewer's familiarity with a face and their individual skill, but the cognitive and neural bases of these accuracy differences are not understood. We examined cognitive representations underlying these accuracy differences by measuring similarity ratings to natural facial image variation. Natural variation was sampled from uncontrolled images on the internet to reflect the appearance of faces as they are encountered in daily life. Using image averaging, and inspired by the computation of Analysis of Variance, we partitioned this variation into differences between faces (between-identity variation) and differences between photos of the same face (within-identity variation). This allowed us to compare modulation of these two sources of variation attributable to: (i) a person's familiarity with a face and, (ii) their face recognition ability. Contrary to prevailing accounts of human face recognition and perceptual learning, we found that modulation of within-identity variation - rather than between-identity variation - was associated with high accuracy. First, familiarity modulated similarity ratings to within-identity variation more than to between-face variation. Second, viewers that are extremely accurate in face recognition - 'super-recognisers' - differed from typical perceivers mostly in their ratings of within-identity variation, compared to between-identity variation. In a final computational analysis, we found evidence that transformations of between- and within-identity variation make separable contributions to perceptual expertise in face recognition. We conclude that inter- and intra-individual accuracy differences primarily arise from differences in the representation of within-identity image variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2021.104966DOI Listing
February 2022

VEGF-A, PDGF-BB and HB-EGF engineered for promiscuous super affinity to the extracellular matrix improve wound healing in a model of type 1 diabetes.

NPJ Regen Med 2021 Nov 18;6(1):76. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60615, USA.

Chronic non-healing wounds, frequently caused by diabetes, lead to lower quality of life, infection, and amputation. These wounds have limited treatment options. We have previously engineered growth factors to bind to exposed extracellular matrix (ECM) in the wound environment using the heparin-binding domain of placental growth factor-2 (PlGF-2), which binds promiscuously to ECM proteins. Here, in the type 1 diabetic (T1D) NOD mouse model, engineered growth factors (eGFs) improved both re-epithelialization and granulation tissue formation. eGFs were even more potent in combination, and the "triple therapy" of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-PlGF-2), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB-PlGF-2), and heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF-PlGF-2) both improved wound healing and remained at the site of administration for significantly longer than wild-type growth factors. In addition, we also found that changes in the cellular milieu of a wound, including changing amounts of M1 macrophages, M2 macrophages and effector T cells, are most predictive of wound-healing success in the NOD mouse model. These results suggest that the triple therapy of VEGF-PlGF-2, PDGF-BB-PlGF-2, and HB-EGF-PlGF-2 may be an effective therapy for chronic non-healing wounds in that occur as a complication of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41536-021-00189-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8602425PMC
November 2021

Ventilatory Drive Withdrawal Rather Than Reduced Genioglossus Compensation as a Mechanism of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in REM Sleep.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2022 Jan;205(2):219-232

Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Departments of Medicine and Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts; and.

REM sleep is associated with reduced ventilation and greater obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity than non-REM (nREM) sleep for reasons that have not been fully elucidated. Here, we use direct physiological measurements to determine whether the pharyngeal compromise in REM sleep OSA is most consistent with ) of neural ventilatory drive or ) deficits in pharyngeal pathophysiology (i.e., increased and decreased muscle ). Sixty-three participants with OSA completed sleep studies with gold standard measurements of ventilatory "drive" (calibrated intraesophageal diaphragm EMG), ventilation (oronasal "ventilation"), and genioglossus EMG activity. Drive withdrawal was assessed by examining these measurements at nadir drive (first decile of drive within a stage). Pharyngeal physiology was assessed by examining collapsibility (lowered ventilation at eupneic drive) and responsiveness (ventilation-drive slope). Mixed-model analysis compared REM sleep with nREM sleep; sensitivity analysis examined phasic REM sleep. REM sleep (⩾10 min) was obtained in 25 patients. Compared with drive in nREM sleep, drive in REM sleep dipped to markedly lower nadir values (first decile, estimate [95% confidence interval], -21.8% [-31.2% to -12.4%] of eupnea;  < 0.0001), with an accompanying reduction in ventilation (-25.8% [-31.8% to -19.8%] of eupnea;  < 0.0001). However, there was no effect of REM sleep on collapsibility (ventilation at eupneic drive), baseline genioglossus EMG activity, or responsiveness. REM sleep was associated with increased OSA severity (+10.1 [1.8 to 19.8] events/h), but this association was not present after adjusting for nadir drive (+4.3 [-4.2 to 14.6] events/h). Drive withdrawal was exacerbated in phasic REM sleep. In patients with OSA, the pharyngeal compromise characteristic of REM sleep appears to be predominantly explained by ventilatory drive withdrawal rather than by preferential decrements in muscle activity or responsiveness. Preventing drive withdrawal may be the leading target for REM sleep OSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202101-0237OCDOI Listing
January 2022

Nephrologist Performance in the Merit-Based Incentive Payment System.

Kidney Med 2021 Sep-Oct;3(5):816-826.e1. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Division of Healthcare Delivery Science & Innovation, Department of Population Health Sciences, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, NY.

Rationale & Objective: The Merit-Based Incentive Payment System (MIPS) is the largest quality payment program administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Little is known about predictors of nephrologist performance in MIPS.

Study Design: Cross-sectional analysis.

Setting & Participants: Nephrologists participating in MIPS in performance year 2018.

Predictors: Nephrologist characteristics: (1) participation type (individual, group, or MIPS alternative payment model [APM]), (2) practice size, (3) practice setting (rural, Health Professional Shortage Area [HPSA], or hospital based), and (4) geography (Census Division).

Outcomes: MIPS Final, Quality, Promoting Interoperability, Improvement Activities, and Cost scores. Using published consensus ratings, we also examined the validity of MIPS Quality measures selected by nephrologists.

Analytical Approach: Unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted linear regression models assessing the associations between nephrologist characteristics and MIPS Final scores.

Results: Among 6,117 nephrologists participating in MIPS in 2018, the median MIPS Final score was 100 (interquartile range, 94-100). In multivariable-adjusted analyses, MIPS APM participation was associated with a 12.5-point (95% CI, 10.6-14.4) higher score compared with individual participation. Nephrologists in large (355-4,294 members) and medium (15-354 members) practices scored higher than those in small practices (1-14 members). In analyses adjusted for practice size, practice setting, and geography, among individual and group participants, HPSA nephrologists scored 1.9 (95% CI, -3.6 to -0.1) points lower than non-HPSA nephrologists, and hospital-based nephrologists scored 6.0 (95% CI, -8.3 to -3.7) points lower than non-hospital-based nephrologists. The most frequently reported quality measures by individual and group participants had medium to high validity and were relevant to nephrology care, whereas MIPS APM measures had little relevance to nephrology.

Limitations: Lack of adjustment for patient characteristics.

Conclusions: MIPS APM participation, larger practice size, non-HPSA setting, and non-hospital-based setting were associated with higher MIPS scores among nephrologists. Our results inform strategies to improve MIPS program design and generate meaningful distinctions between practices that will drive improvements in care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xkme.2021.06.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8515074PMC
July 2021

Mnemonic Discrimination Deficits in First-Episode Psychosis and a Ketamine Model Suggest Dentate Gyrus Pathology Linked to NMDA Receptor Hypofunction.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Dec 12;6(12):1185-1192. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama. Electronic address:

Background: Converging evidence from neuroimaging and postmortem studies suggests that hippocampal subfields are differentially affected in schizophrenia. Recent studies report dentate gyrus dysfunction in chronic schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we sought to examine if this deficit is already present in first-episode psychosis and if NMDA receptor hypofunction, a putative central pathophysiological mechanism in schizophrenia, experimentally induced by ketamine, would result in a similar abnormality.

Methods: We applied a mnemonic discrimination task selectively taxing pattern separation in two experiments: 1) a group of 23 patients with first-episode psychosis and 23 matched healthy volunteers and 2) a group of 19 healthy volunteers before and during a ketamine challenge (0.27 mg/kg over 10 min, then 0.25 mg/kg/hour for 50 min, 0.01 mL/s). We calculated response bias-corrected pattern separation and recognition scores. We also examined the relationships between task performance and symptom severity as well as ketamine levels.

Results: We reported a deficit in pattern separation performance in patients with first-episode psychosis compared with healthy volunteers (p = .04) and in volunteers during the ketamine challenge compared with baseline (p = .003). Pattern recognition was lower in patients with first-episode psychosis than in control subjects (p < .01). Exploratory analyses revealed no correlation between task performance and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status total scores or positive symptoms in patients with first-episode psychosis or with ketamine serum levels.

Conclusions: We observed a mnemonic discrimination deficit in both datasets. Our findings suggest a tentative mechanistic link between dentate gyrus dysfunction in first-episode psychosis and NMDA receptor hypofunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2021.09.008DOI Listing
December 2021

Public attitudes towards the use of automatic facial recognition technology in criminal justice systems around the world.

PLoS One 2021 13;16(10):e0258241. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

School of Psychology, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

Automatic facial recognition technology (AFR) is increasingly used in criminal justice systems around the world, yet to date there has not been an international survey of public attitudes toward its use. In Study 1, we ran focus groups in the UK, Australia and China (countries at different stages of adopting AFR) and in Study 2 we collected data from over 3,000 participants in the UK, Australia and the USA using a questionnaire investigating attitudes towards AFR use in criminal justice systems. Our results showed that although overall participants were aligned in their attitudes and reasoning behind them, there were some key differences across countries. People in the USA were more accepting of tracking citizens, more accepting of private companies' use of AFR, and less trusting of the police using AFR than people in the UK and Australia. Our results showed that support for the use of AFR depends greatly on what the technology is used for and who it is used by. We recommend vendors and users do more to explain AFR use, including details around accuracy and data protection. We also recommend that governments should set legal boundaries around the use of AFR in investigative and criminal justice settings.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0258241PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8513835PMC
November 2021

A Master Class in Family Doctor Leadership: Evaluating an Innovative Program.

Fam Med 2021 09;53(8):701-707

College of Health and Medicine, Australian National University, Australia.

Background And Objectives: In family medicine, leadership is critical for health care delivery, advancing curricula, research, and quality improvement. Systematic reviews of leadership development programs in health care identify limitations, calling for innovative designs and rigorous assessment. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of applying master class principles to leadership development in academic family medicine.

Methods: We used mixed methods to assess the impact of an innovative master class program on 15 emerging leaders in a large academic department of family medicine. The program consisted of five sessions where family physician masters shared their wisdom, techniques, and feedback with promising leaders. Quantitative evaluation involved participants' ratings of each session's content and delivery using a 5-point Likert scale. We assessed postcourse semistructured interviews with participants qualitatively using descriptive thematic content analysis.

Results: Individual sessions were highly evaluated, with a combined mean of 4.82/5. Qualitative thematic analysis identified self-perceived increased effectiveness in leadership activities; increased confidence as a leader; increased motivation to be a leader; and perceptions of value from the program, contributing to what participants described as unexpected potential change within themselves. Themes related to effectiveness of the program were practical advice; networking; diverse topics; accessible speakers sharing personal stories; and small-group, informal, early-evening format.

Conclusions: Master class concepts can be adapted to leadership development in academic family medicine, with evidence of early positive impact on participants' self-perception of leadership skills and confidence. Further research is warranted to assess organizational impact and applicability to other settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22454/FamMed.2021.512946DOI Listing
September 2021

Experiences of trial participants and site staff of participating in and running a large randomised trial within fertility (the endometrial scratch trial): a qualitative interview study.

BMJ Open 2021 09 16;11(9):e051698. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Obstetrics, Gynaecology & Neonatology, Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Sheffield, UK.

Objectives: To explore the experiences of endometrial scratch (ES) trial participants and site staff of trial recruitment and participation, in order to improve the experience of participants in future trials.

Design: Qualitative study of a subset of participants in the ES randomised controlled trial and a subset of trial site staff.

Setting: A purposeful sample of 9 of the 16 UK Fertility Units that participated in the trial.

Participants: A purposeful sample of 27 trial participants and 7 site staff.

Results: Participants were largely happy with the recruitment practices, however, some were overwhelmed with the amount of information received. Interviewees had positive preconceptions regarding the possible effect of the ES on the outcome of their in vitro fertilisation (IVF) cycle, which often originated from their own internet research and seemed to be exacerbated by how site staff described the intervention. Some participants appeared to not understand that receiving the ES could potentially reduce their chances of a successful IVF outcome. Those randomised to the control arm discussed feeling discontent; site staff developed mechanisms of dealing with this.

Conclusions: A lack of equipoise in both study participants and the recruiting site staff led to trial participants having positive preconceptions of the potential impact of the ES on their upcoming IVF cycle. Trial participants may not have understood the potential harms of participating in a randomised trial. The trial information sheet did not clearly state this; further research should assess how such information should be presented to potential participants, to proportionately present the level of risk, but to not unduly discourage participation. The amount of information fertility patients require about a research study should also be investigated, in order to avoid participants feeling overwhelmed by the amount of information they receive prior to starting IVF.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN23800982.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-051698DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8449983PMC
September 2021

Comparison of Water Absorption and Drying in Distal Radius Fracture Casts and Orthoses.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev 2021 09 13;5(9). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

From the BioDesign Lab, School of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand.

Introduction: Traditional plaster and fiberglass casts are not waterproof. This experimental study compares the water-resistant and drying properties of two commercially available orthoses with traditional cast liners.

Methods: Two orthotic brace systems were selected for comparative waterproof testing with plaster and fiberglass traditional cast liners. This entailed water submersion for 10 seconds, followed by light drip drying for another 10 seconds. Moisture levels were then measured at four different locations immediately after drip drying and then every 15 minutes up to 45 minutes.

Results: The Zero-Cast Wx orthosis retained the least moisture after initial immersion and was fully dry within 45 minutes. The Exos upper extremity brace also demonstrated a low initial mean moisture content but lost little moisture during drying. In comparison, both the cotton-lined plaster cast and Delta Dr. cast liner systems demonstrated the greatest amount of water absorbed and moisture retention.

Discussion: Both orthotic brace systems demonstrated markedly less water absorption compared with the cotton-lined plaster cast and Delta Dr. cast liner systems. The Zero-Cast Wx was the only orthosis to fully dry in 45 minutes.

Conclusion: Both orthotic brace systems provide superior water-resistant properties to traditional cotton-lined plaster cast or fiberglass Delta Dr. cast liner systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOSGlobal-D-21-00115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8439993PMC
September 2021

The Effectiveness of Digital Insomnia Treatment with Adjunctive Wearable Technology: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

Behav Sleep Med 2021 Aug 20:1-14. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

CRC for Alertness, Safety and Productivity, Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: This pilot trial aimed to provide evidence for whether the integration of a wearable device with digital behavioral therapy for insomnia (dBTi) improves treatment outcomes and engagement.

Participants And Methods: One hundred and twenty-eight participants with insomnia symptoms were randomized to a 3-week dBTi program (SleepFix®) with a wearable device enabling sleep data synchronization (dBTi+wearable group; n = 62) or dBTi alone (n = 66). Participants completed the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and modified Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) parameters: wake-after-sleep-onset (WASO), sleep-onset-latency (SOL), and total sleep time (TST) at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 3, and primary endpoint of week 6 and follow-up at 12 weeks. Engagement was measured by the number of daily sleep diaries logged in the app.

Results: There was no difference in ISI change scores between the groups from pre- to post-treatment (Cohen's = 0.7, = .061). The dBTi+wearable group showed greater improvements in WASO (= 0.8, = .005) and TST (= 0.3, = .049) compared to the dBTi group. Significantly greater engagement (sleep diary entries) was observed in the dBTi+wearable group (mean = 22.4, SD = 10.0) compared to the dBTi group (mean = 14.1, SD = 14.2) ( = .010).

Conclusions: This pilot trial found that integration of wearable device with a digital insomnia therapy enhanced user engagement and led to improvements in sleep parameters compared to dBTi alone. These findings suggest that adjunctive wearable technologies may improve digital insomnia therapy effectiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2021.1967157DOI Listing
August 2021

Correction to: Choosing face: The curse of self in profile image selection.

Cogn Res Princ Implic 2021 Aug 13;6(1):55. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

School of Psychology, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41235-021-00320-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8363730PMC
August 2021

Engineering Control Technologies to Protect Operators in Agricultural All-Terrain Vehicle Rollovers.

J Agric Saf Health 2021 Jul;27(3):177-201

School of Social and Behavioral Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

HIGHLIGHTS Rollovers are the leading cause of injury and fatality in farm all-terrain vehicle (ATV) incidents. Engineering technologies to prevent rollovers or protect the operator in ATV crashes were reviewed in this study. The advances in safety for ATVs are correlated with improvements in stability, handling, and crashworthiness. Operator protection devices and crash notification systems can protect the operator in ATV rollover incidents. ABSTRACT. All-terrain vehicles (ATVs) are the second most common source of injury, following tractors, in U.S. agriculture. Rollovers are the leading cause of death in farm ATV incidents, constituting about 85% of ATV-related deaths. There is neither a significant practical solution for ATV rollover crashes in the U.S. nor standards and rules for implementing such a solution. Behavior-based control methods have been used for several decades but have reached their limit of success. Hence, engineering controls are needed to significantly decrease the severity of injuries in ATV rollover incidents (as in tractor incidents). In this study, engineering technologies to protect the operator in agricultural ATV crashes were reviewed. The discussion includes improving crash testing and stability ratings, evaluating static stability of ATVs, dynamic handling tests of ATVs, using automatic systems to notify first responders of a crash, and testing and applying operator protection devices. The available standards, rules, and recommendations related to these technologies around the world are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/jash.14189DOI Listing
July 2021

Weekly Frequency of Meeting the Physical Activity Guidelines and Cardiometabolic Health in Children and Adolescents.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2022 Jan;54(1):106-112

Division of Physical Activity and Weight Management, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS.

Purpose: This study aimed to examine the association of the frequency component of the weekly PA guidelines on CmH in youth.

Methods: Cross-sectional accelerometer data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey included youth age 6-18 yr with ≥4 d, ≥10 h of wear time, and averaging ≥60 min·d-1 of MVPA (n = 656). Participants were categorized into quartiles based on the proportion of days where they met the guidelines (≥60 min of MVPA). CmH variables were categorized as weight status/body anthropometrics, blood pressure, cholesterol, and fasting serum laboratory results. Propensity score weighting was applied to quartiles, and general linear modeling was used to compare associations of quartiles with CmH variables.

Results: Results are displayed as percent of days meeting guidelines (DMG; 95% confidence interval): MVPA in minutes per week: Q1 (n = 156; DMG = 45.8% (43.4%-48.1%); MVPA 467.5, min·wk-1), Q2 (n = 165; DMG = 62.6% (61.6%-63.7%); MVPA, 474.4 min·wk-1), Q3 (n = 148; DMG = 75% (74.1%-75.8%); MVPA, 446.5 min·wk-1), Q4 (n = 187; DMG = 92.2% (87.7%-96.6%); MVPA, 453.2 min·wk-1). After adjusting for confounders and multiple comparisons, there were no clinically significant differences in weight status/body anthropometrics, blood pressure, cholesterol, or fasting serum laboratory results between DMG quartiles.

Conclusions: We found no association between the proportion of DMG and CmH in children and adolescents. Our study suggests that achieving an overall weekly average of 60 min·d-1 of MVPA seems to be sufficient for CmH regardless of the 7 d·wk-1 frequency requirement of the PA guideline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002767DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8678143PMC
January 2022

Dysfunction of the Auditory System in Children With Hypothyroidism: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Ear Hear 2021 Jul 16;43(1):23-31. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, U.S.A.

Objective: To examine the prevalence of hearing impairment in children with hypothyroidism, and to characterize clinical and subclinical hearing loss by examining cochlear function, auditory brainstem pathways, and integration of the auditory system as a whole.

Design: An electronic search was conducted using PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases. This systematic review was performed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Original observational studies that utilized audiological tests for auditory system evaluations in hypothyroidism were included. A total of 2004 studies were found in the search, with 23 studies meeting the inclusion criteria.

Results: The pooled prevalence of hearing loss was 16.1% [95% confidence interval 10.7, 22.4] for children with congenital hypothyroidism. Hearing thresholds at pure-tone averages (0.5-2 kHz) were 1.6 dB [95% confidence interval 1.7, 4.8] higher for children with hypothyroidism compared to age-matched controls. Cochlear dysfunction was detected at middle frequencies (1-3 kHz) by otoacoustic emission testing, indicating abnormalities of hair cell function or cochlear integration. Retrocochlear involvement was detected on auditory brainstem response (ABR), with prolonged Wave I indicating a peripheral conduction abnormality localized to the middle or inner ear and eighth cranial nerve.

Conclusions: Children with hypothyroidism have a higher prevalence of hearing loss than children without hypothyroidism. For children with congenital hypothyroidism, evidence of subclinical abnormalities at the level of the cochlea and eighth cranial nerve are present despite early initiation of levothyroxine therapy. Dysfunction of the auditory system might begin with predominance of peripheral conduction abnormalities early in development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/AUD.0000000000001082DOI Listing
July 2021

Inhaled nasopharyngeal nitric oxide concentrations during unilateral nostril breathing - A pilot study.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2021 11 29;293:103734. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

BioDesign Lab, School of Engineering, Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. Electronic address:

The yogic pranayama technique of unilateral nostril breathing (UNB) has previously demonstrated improvements in language and anxiety in stroke sufferers, as well as reduced blood pressure and increased heart rate in normal healthy adults. The nose typically passes different amounts of air through each nostril with the greater amount of air passing through the 'patent' side, and a lesser amount through the 'congested' side. Each side of the nose periodically takes turns at carrying the dominant tidal air flow in what is termed the' nasal cycle'. The nasal sinuses are a rich source of inhaled nitric oxide, a colourless and odourless gas that acts as a bronchodilator, vasodilator, and neurotransmitter. Nasal derived nitric oxide (NO) may contribute to the benefits attributed to UNB. This investigation seeks to assess the influence the nasal cycle has on inhaled nasopharyngeal NO concentrations during UNB by comparing unobstructed bilateral nostril breathing to patent-side and congested-side UNB in healthy individuals demonstrating a nasal cycle. After determining the patent and congested nasal sides in healthy adult volunteers, and sampling air at both nostrils, nasopharyngeal inhaled NO concentrations were then assessed during normal nasal at-rest tidal breathing during three different nasal breathing states: first both nostrils, then allocated in randomised order, patent side only, and congested side with only UNB. Nasopharyngeal NO concentrations were found to be consistently higher on both exhalation and inhalation during congested side UNB, when compared with either unilateral patent side UNB or breathing through both nostrils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2021.103734DOI Listing
November 2021

cAMP binding to closed pacemaker ion channels is non-cooperative.

Nature 2021 07 30;595(7868):606-610. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Neuroscience, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Electrical activity in the brain and heart depends on rhythmic generation of action potentials by pacemaker ion channels (HCN) whose activity is regulated by cAMP binding. Previous work has uncovered evidence for both positive and negative cooperativity in cAMP binding, but such bulk measurements suffer from limited parameter resolution. Efforts to eliminate this ambiguity using single-molecule techniques have been hampered by the inability to directly monitor binding of individual ligand molecules to membrane receptors at physiological concentrations. Here we overcome these challenges using nanophotonic zero-mode waveguides to directly resolve binding dynamics of individual ligands to multimeric HCN1 and HCN2 ion channels. We show that cAMP binds independently to all four subunits when the pore is closed, despite a subsequent conformational isomerization to a flip state at each site. The different dynamics in binding and isomerization are likely to underlie physiologically distinct responses of each isoform to cAMP and provide direct validation of the ligand-induced flip-state model. This approach for observing stepwise binding in multimeric proteins at physiologically relevant concentrations can directly probe binding allostery at single-molecule resolution in other intact membrane proteins and receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03686-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8513821PMC
July 2021

GFMT2: A psychometric measure of face matching ability.

Behav Res Methods 2021 Jun 22. Epub 2021 Jun 22.

Department of Psychology, University of York, York, UK.

We present an expanded version of a widely used measure of unfamiliar face matching ability, the Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT). The GFMT2 is created using the same source database as the original test but makes five key improvements. First, the test items include variation in head angle, pose, expression and subject-to-camera distance, making the new test more difficult and more representative of challenges in everyday face identification tasks. Second, short and long versions of the test each contain two forms that are calibrated to be of equal difficulty, allowing repeat tests to be performed to examine effects of training interventions. Third, the short-form tests contain no repeating face identities, thereby removing any confounding effects of familiarity that may have been present in the original test. Fourth, separate short versions are created to target exceptionally high performing or exceptionally low performing individuals using established psychometric principles. Fifth, all tests are implemented in an executable program, allowing them to be administered automatically. All tests are available free for scientific use via www.gfmt2.org .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13428-021-01638-xDOI Listing
June 2021

A randomised controlled trial to assess the clinical effectiveness and safety of the endometrial scratch procedure prior to first-time IVF, with or without ICSI.

Hum Reprod 2021 06;36(7):1841-1853

Hull Health Trials Unit, The University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX, UK.

Study Question: What is the clinical-effectiveness and safety of the endometrial scratch (ES) procedure compared to no ES, prior to usual first time in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment?

Summary Answer: ES was safe but did not improve pregnancy outcomes when performed in the mid-luteal phase prior to the first IVF cycle, with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).

What Is Known Already: ES is an 'add-on' treatment that is available to women undergoing a first cycle of IVF, with or without ICSI, despite a lack of evidence to support its use.

Study Design, Size, Duration: This pragmatic, superiority, open-label, multi-centre, parallel-group randomised controlled trial involving 1048 women assessed the clinical effectiveness and safety of the ES procedure prior to first time IVF, with or without ICSI, between July 2016 and October 2019.

Participants/materials, Setting, Methods: Participants aged 18-37 years undergoing their first cycle of IVF, with or without ICSI, were recruited from 16 UK fertility clinics and randomised (1:1) by a web-based system with restricted access rights that concealed allocation. Stratified block randomisation was used to allocate participants to TAU or ES in the mid-luteal phase followed by usual IVF with or without ICSI treatment. The primary outcome was live birth after completing 24 weeks gestation within 10.5 months of egg collection.

Main Results And The Role Of Chance: In total, 1048 women randomised to TAU (n = 525) and ES (n = 523) were available for intention to treat analysis. In the ES group, 453 (86.6%) received the ES procedure. IVF, with or without ICSI, was received in 494 (94.1%) and 497 (95.0%) of ES and TAU participants respectively. Live birth rate was 37.1% (195/525) in the TAU and 38.6% (202/523) in the ES: an unadjusted absolute difference of 1.5% (95% CI -4.4% to 7.4%, P = 0.621). There were no statistical differences in secondary outcomes. Adverse events were comparable across groups.

Limitations, Reasons For Caution: A sham ES procedure was not undertaken in the control group, however, we do not believe this would have influenced the results as objective fertility outcomes were used.

Wider Implications Of The Findings: This is the largest trial that is adequately powered to assess the impact of ES on women undergoing their first cycle of IVF. ES was safe, but did not significantly improve pregnancy outcomes when performed in the mid-luteal phase prior to the first IVF or ICSI cycle. We recommend that ES is not undertaken in this population.

Study Funding/competing Interest(s): Funded by the National Institute of Health Research. Stephen Walters is an National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Senior Investigator (2018 to present) and was a member of the following during the project: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Clinical Trials and Evaluation Committee (2011-2017), NIHR HTA Commissioning Strategy Group (2012 to 2017); NIHR Programme Grants for Applied Research Committee (2020 to present); NIHR Pre doctoral Fellowship Committee (2019 to present). Dr. Martins da Silva reports grants from AstraZeneca, during the conduct of the study; and is Associate editor of Human Reproduction and Editorial Board member of Reproduction and Fertility. Dr. Bhide reports grants from Bart's Charity and grants and non-financial support from Pharmasure Pharmaceuticals outside the submitted work.

Trial Registration Number: ISRCTN number: ISRCTN23800982.

Trial Registration Date: 31 May 2016.

Date Of First Patient’s Enrolment: 04 July 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/humrep/deab041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213451PMC
June 2021

A randomized, double-blind, phase 2b study to investigate the efficacy, safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of a single-dose regimen of ferroquine with artefenomel in adults and children with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

Malar J 2021 May 19;20(1):222. Epub 2021 May 19.

Kenya Medical Research Institute, Kisumu, Kenya.

Background: For uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, highly efficacious single-dose treatments are expected to increase compliance and improve treatment outcomes, and thereby may slow the development of resistance. The efficacy and safety of a single-dose combination of artefenomel (800 mg) plus ferroquine (400/600/900/1200 mg doses) for the treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria were evaluated in Africa (focusing on children ≤ 5 years) and Asia.

Methods: The study was a randomized, double-blind, single-dose, multi-arm clinical trial in patients aged > 6 months to < 70 years, from six African countries and Vietnam. Patients were followed up for 63 days to assess treatment efficacy, safety and pharmacokinetics. The primary efficacy endpoint was the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-adjusted adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) at Day 28 in the Per-Protocol [PP] Set comprising only African patients ≤ 5 years. The exposure-response relationship for PCR-adjusted ACPR at Day 28 and prevalence of kelch-13 mutations were explored.

Results: A total of 373 patients were treated: 289 African patients ≤ 5 years (77.5%), 64 African patients > 5 years and 20 Asian patients. None of the treatment arms met the target efficacy criterion for PCR-adjusted ACPR at Day 28 (lower limit of 95% confidence interval [CI] > 90%). PCR-adjusted ACPR at Day 28 [95% CI] in the PP Set ranged from 78.4% [64.7; 88.7%] to 91.7% [81.6; 97.2%] for the 400 mg to 1200 mg ferroquine dose. Efficacy rates were low in Vietnamese patients, ranging from 20 to 40%. A clear relationship was found between drug exposure (artefenomel and ferroquine concentrations at Day 7) and efficacy (primary endpoint), with higher concentrations of both drugs resulting in higher efficacy. Six distinct kelch-13 mutations were detected in parasite isolates from 10/272 African patients (with 2 mutations known to be associated with artemisinin resistance) and 18/20 Asian patients (all C580Y mutation). Vomiting within 6 h of initial artefenomel administration was common (24.6%) and associated with lower drug exposures.

Conclusion: The efficacy of artefenomel/ferroquine combination was suboptimal in African children aged ≤ 5 years, the population of interest, and vomiting most likely had a negative impact on efficacy. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02497612. Registered 14 Jul 2015, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02497612?term=NCT02497612&draw=2&rank=1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03749-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8135182PMC
May 2021

ε4 alters associations between docosahexaenoic acid and preclinical markers of Alzheimer's disease.

Brain Commun 2021 11;3(2):fcab085. Epub 2021 May 11.

Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.

Docosahexaenoic acid is the main long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain and accounts for 30-40% of fatty acids in the grey matter of the human cortex. Although the influence of docosahexaenoic acid on memory function is widely researched, its association with brain volumes is under investigated and its association with spatial navigation is virtually unknown. This is despite the fact that spatial navigation deficits are a new cognitive fingerprint for symptomatic and asymptomatic Alzheimer's disease. We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between docosahexaenoic acid levels and the major structural and cognitive markers of preclinical Alzheimer's disease, namely hippocampal volume, entorhinal volume and spatial navigation ability. Fifty-three cognitively normal adults underwent volumetric magnetic resonance imaging, measurements of serum docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, including lysophosphatidylcholine DHA) and ε4 genotyping. Relative regional brain volumes were calculated and linear regression models were fitted to examine DHA associations with brain volume. genotype modulated serum DHA associations with entorhinal cortex volume and hippocampal volume. Linear models showed that greater serum DHA was associated with increased entorhinal cortex volume, but not hippocampal volume, in non ε4 carriers. also interacted with serum lysophosphatidylcholine DHA to predict hippocampal volume. After testing interactions between DHA and on brain volume, we investigated whether DHA and interact to predict spatial navigation performance on a novel virtual reality diagnostic test for Alzheimer's disease in an independent population of genotyped adults ( = 46). genotype modulated DHA associations with spatial navigation performance, showing that DHA was inversely associated with path integration in ε4 carriers only. This exploratory analysis suggests that interventions aiming to increase DHA blood levels to protect against cognitive decline should consider ε4 carrier status. Future work should focus on replicating our initial findings and establishing whether a specific dose of supplementary DHA, at a particular time in the preclinical disease course can have a positive impact on Alzheimer's disease progression in ε4 carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/braincomms/fcab085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8112902PMC
May 2021

Size Discrimination of Carbohydrates via Conductive Carbon [email protected] Organic Framework Composites.

J Am Chem Soc 2021 06 18;143(21):8022-8033. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260, United States.

Traditional chemical sensing methodologies have typically relied on the specific chemistry of the analyte for detection. Modifications to the local environment surrounding the sensor represent an alternative pathway to impart selective differentiation. Here, we present the hybridization of a 2-D metal organic framework (Cu(HHTP)) with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as a methodology for size discrimination of carbohydrates. Synthesis and the resulting conductive performance are modulated by both mass loading of SWCNTs and their relative oxidation. Liquid gated field-effect transistor (FET) devices demonstrate improved on/off characteristics and differentiation of carbohydrates based on molecular size. Glucose molecule detection is limited to the single micromolar concentration range. Molecular Dynamics (MD) calculations on model systems revealed decreases in ion diffusivity in the presence of different sugars as well as packing differences based on the size of a given carbohydrate molecule. The proposed sensing mechanism is a reduction in gate capacitance initiated by the filling of the pores with carbohydrate molecules. Restricting diffusion around a sensor in combination with FET measurements represents a new type of sensing mechanism for chemically similar analytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.1c01673DOI Listing
June 2021

Diagnostic feature training improves face matching accuracy.

J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 2021 Aug 29;47(8):1288-1298. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Psychology.

Identifying unfamiliar faces is surprisingly error-prone, even for experienced professionals who perform this task regularly. Previous attempts to train this ability have been largely unsuccessful, leading many to conclude that face identity processing is hard-wired and not amenable to further perceptual learning. Here, we take a novel expert knowledge elicitation approach to training, based on the feature-based comparison strategy used by high-performing professional facial examiners. We show that instructing novices to focus on the facial features that are most diagnostic of identity for these experts-the ears and facial marks (e.g., scars, freckles and blemishes)-improves accuracy on unfamiliar face matching tasks by 6%. This training takes just 6 min to complete and yet accounts for approximately half of experts' superiority on the task. Benefits of training are strongest when diagnostic features are clearly visible and absent when participants are trained to rely on nondiagnostic features. Our data-driven approach contrasts with theory-driven training that is designed to improve holistic face processing mechanisms associated with familiar face recognition. This suggests that protocols which bypass the core face recognition system-and instead reorient attention to features that are undervalued by novices-offer a more promising route to training for unfamiliar face matching. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/xlm0000972DOI Listing
August 2021

Vanadium: environmental hazard or environmental opportunity? A perspective on some key research needs.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2021 Apr 9;23(4):527-534. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

David White Chemical and Metallurgical Consulting, Tewkesbury, Gloucestershire, UK.

Vanadium remains an important microalloying element in the metallurgical industry and has more recently become important in energy storage. Such applications provide important opportunities in carbon reduction initiatives. They must be exploited safely and therefore understanding the toxicological profile of vanadium and its compounds, and ensuring ongoing regulatory efforts are appropriate is vital. This perspective details some of the technical challenges and common misconceptions in vanadium chemistry and toxicology and outlines knowledge gaps and areas of research that the authors believe must be addressed to achieve full benefit within a scientifically sound regulatory framework.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0em00470gDOI Listing
April 2021
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