Publications by authors named "David T Mauger"

108 Publications

Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised controlled trials.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 May 30;9(5):276-292. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, and Asthma UK Centre for Applied Research, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: A 2017 meta-analysis of data from 25 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) revealed a protective effect of this intervention. We aimed to examine the link between vitamin D supplementation and prevention of ARIs in an updated meta-analysis.

Methods: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry for studies listed from database inception to May 1, 2020. Double-blind RCTs of vitamin D, vitamin D, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) supplementation for any duration, with a placebo or low-dose vitamin D control, were eligible if they had been approved by a research ethics committee, and if ARI incidence was collected prospectively and prespecified as an efficacy outcome. Studies reporting results of long-term follow-up of primary RCTs were excluded. Aggregated study-level data, stratified by baseline 25(OH)D concentration and age, were obtained from study authors. Using the proportion of participants in each trial who had one or more ARIs, we did a random-effects meta-analysis to obtain pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs to estimate the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of having one or more ARIs (primary outcome) compared with placebo. Subgroup analyses were done to estimate whether the effects of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of ARI varied according to baseline 25(OH)D concentration (<25 nmol/L vs 25·0-49·9 nmol/L vs 50·0-74·9 nmol/L vs >75·0 nmol/L), vitamin D dose (daily equivalent of <400 international units [IU] vs 400-1000 IU vs 1001-2000 IU vs >2000 IU), dosing frequency (daily vs weekly vs once per month to once every 3 months), trial duration (≤12 months vs >12 months), age at enrolment (<1·00 years vs 1·00-15·99 years vs 16·00-64·99 years vs ≥65·00 years), and presence versus absence of airway disease (ie, asthma only, COPD only, or unrestricted). Risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool. The study was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020190633.

Findings: We identified 1528 articles, of which 46 RCTs (75 541 participants) were eligible. Data for the primary outcome were obtained for 48 488 (98·1%) of 49 419 participants (aged 0-95 years) in 43 studies. A significantly lower proportion of participants in the vitamin D supplementation group had one or more ARIs (14 332 [61·3%] of 23 364 participants) than in the placebo group (14 217 [62·3%] of 22 802 participants), with an OR of 0·92 (95% CI 0·86-0·99; 37 studies; I=35·6%, p=0·018). No significant effect of vitamin D supplementation on the risk of having one or more ARIs was observed for any of the subgroups defined by baseline 25(OH)D concentration. However, protective effects of supplementation were observed in trials in which vitamin D was given in a daily dosing regimen (OR 0·78 [95% CI 0·65-0·94]; 19 studies; I=53·5%, p=0·003), at daily dose equivalents of 400-1000 IU (0·70 [0·55-0·89]; ten studies; I=31·2%, p=0·16), for a duration of 12 months or less (0·82 [0·72-0·93]; 29 studies; I=38·1%, p=0·021), and to participants aged 1·00-15·99 years at enrolment (0·71 [0·57-0·90]; 15 studies; I=46·0%, p=0·027). No significant interaction between allocation to the vitamin D supplementation group versus the placebo group and dose, dose frequency, study duration, or age was observed. In addition, no significant difference in the proportion of participants who had at least one serious adverse event in the vitamin supplementation group compared with the placebo group was observed (0·97 [0·86-1·07]; 36 studies; I=0·0%, p=0·99). Risk of bias within individual studies was assessed as being low for all but three trials.

Interpretation: Despite evidence of significant heterogeneity across trials, vitamin D supplementation was safe and overall reduced the risk of ARI compared with placebo, although the risk reduction was small. Protection was associated with administration of daily doses of 400-1000 IU for up to 12 months, and age at enrolment of 1·00-15·99 years. The relevance of these findings to COVID-19 is not known and requires further investigation.

Funding: None.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00051-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Benefits of Airway Androgen Receptor Expression in Human Asthma.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Indiana University School of Medicine, 12250, Department of Pediatrics, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States;

RATIONALE Androgens are potentially beneficial in asthma, but androgen receptor (AR) has not been studied in human airways. OBJECTIVES To measure whether AR and its ligands are associated with human asthma outcomes. METHODS We compared AR expression to lung function, symptom scores and fractional of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) in adults enrolled in the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP). Further, asthma exacerbations, and emergency department (ED) visits were also evaluated in the SARP, with validation studies in the Cleveland Clinic Health System (CCHS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS In SARP (n=128), AR gene expression from bronchoscopic epithelial brushings was positively correlated with FEV1/FVC ratio (R2=0.135, p=0.0002) and total AQLQ score (R2=0.056, p=0.016); and was negatively associated with FENO (R2=0.178, p=9.8e-06) and NOS2 gene expression (R2=0.281, p=1.2e-10). In SARP (n=1,659), CCHS (n=32,527) and NHANES (n=2,629), women had more asthma exacerbations and ED visits than men. Levels of the AR ligand precursor dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) correlated positively with FEV1 in both women and men. CONCLUSIONS Higher AR expression in bronchial epithelial cells, and higher androgen levels, are associated with better lung function, fewer symptoms and lower FENO in human asthma. The role of androgens should be considered in asthma management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202009-3720OCDOI Listing
March 2021

PrecISE: Precision Medicine in Severe Asthma: An adaptive platform trial with biomarker ascertainment.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Mar 2. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Biostatistics, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

Severe asthma accounts for almost half the cost associated with asthma. Severe asthma is driven by heterogeneous molecular mechanisms. Conventional clinical trial design often lacks the power and efficiency to target subgroups with specific pathobiological mechanisms. Furthermore, the validation and approval of new asthma therapies is a lengthy process. A large proportion of that time is taken by clinical trials to validate asthma interventions. The National Institutes of Health Precision Medicine in Severe and/or Exacerbation Prone Asthma (PrecISE) program was established with the goal of designing and executing a trial that uses adaptive design techniques to rapidly evaluate novel interventions in biomarker-defined subgroups of severe asthma, while seeking to refine these biomarker subgroups, and to identify early markers of response to therapy. The novel trial design is an adaptive platform trial conducted under a single master protocol that incorporates precision medicine components. Furthermore, it includes innovative applications of futility analysis, cross-over design with use of shared placebo groups, and early futility analysis to permit more rapid identification of effective interventions. The development and rationale behind the study design are described. The interventions chosen for the initial investigation and the criteria used to identify these interventions are enumerated. The biomarker-based adaptive design and analytic scheme are detailed as well as special considerations involved in the final trial design.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2021.01.037DOI Listing
March 2021

Adherence rates during a randomized controlled trial evaluating the use of blinded acetaminophen and ibuprofen in children with asthma.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Feb 27;104:106334. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Boston Children's Hospital, Division of Allergy and Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Background/aims: When conducting clinical trials comparing over-the-counter (OTC) medications, the wide availability of these treatments are a potential challenge to maintaining study integrity. We seek to describe adherence to a study protocol involving widely available OTC medications.

Methods: To prospectively evaluate associations between acetaminophen use and asthma in 300 children aged 1-5 years, we conducted a double blind, randomized, controlled trial where parents administered blinded forms of either acetaminophen or ibuprofen as needed to their children over a 48 week period. Written and verbal instructions encouraged the exclusive use of the blinded study medication and discouraged OTC use. Adherence was determined by evaluating the frequency of use of per-protocol blinded study medication compared to off-protocol use of OTC medications.

Results: 4195 doses of acetaminophen or ibuprofen were received by children during the study which included 3664 doses (87.3%) of blinded study medication adhering to the protocol and 531 doses (12.7%) of OTC products deviating from the protocol with better adherence among those randomized to ibuprofen as compared to acetaminophen (89.5% vs. 85.5% of doses, p < 0.01). Individually, 227 participants (75.7%) remained fully adherent by not receiving any OTC medications. Pre-study preference for either acetaminophen or ibuprofen by the participants' families was not associated with differential rates of adherence to the blinded medication.

Conclusion: This parallel study demonstrated greater than 85% of acetaminophen or ibuprofen doses were blinded study medications adhering to the protocol while less than 15% were OTC deviations from the protocol. This successfully implemented study design provides a template to comparatively evaluate these and other OTC medications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2021.106334DOI Listing
February 2021

Quantitative CT metrics are associated with longitudinal lung function decline and future asthma exacerbations: Results from SARP-3.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Kansas School of Medicine, Kansas City, Kan. Electronic address:

Background: Currently, there is limited knowledge regarding which imaging assessments of asthma are associated with accelerated longitudinal decline in lung function.

Objectives: We aimed to assess whether quantitative computed tomography (qCT) metrics are associated with longitudinal decline in lung function and morbidity in asthma.

Methods: We analyzed 205 qCT scans of adult patients with asthma and calculated baseline markers of airway remodeling, lung density, and pointwise regional change in lung volume (Jacobian measures) for each participant. Using multivariable regression models, we then assessed the association of qCT measurements with the outcomes of future change in lung function, future exacerbation rate, and changes in validated measurements of morbidity.

Results: Greater baseline wall area percent (β = -0.15 [95% CI = -0.26 to -0.05]; P < .01), hyperinflation percent (β = -0.25 [95% CI = -0.41 to -0.09]; P < .01), and Jacobian gradient measurements (cranial-caudal β = 10.64 [95% CI = 3.79-17.49]; P < .01; posterior-anterior β = -9.14, [95% CI = -15.49 to -2.78]; P < .01) were associated with more severe future lung function decline. Additionally, greater wall area percent (rate ratio = 1.06 [95% CI = 1.01-1.10]; P = .02) and air trapping percent (rate ratio =1.01 [95% CI = 1.00-1.02]; P = .03), as well as lower decline in the Jacobian determinant mean (rate ratio = 0.58 [95% CI = 0.41-0.82]; P < .01) and Jacobian determinant standard deviation (rate ratio = 0.52 [95% CI = 0.32-0.85]; P = .01), were associated with a greater rate of future exacerbations. However, imaging metrics were not associated with clinically meaningful changes in scores on validated asthma morbidity questionnaires.

Conclusions: Baseline qCT measures of more severe airway remodeling, more small airway disease and hyperinflation, and less pointwise regional change in lung volumes were associated with future lung function decline and asthma exacerbations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2021.01.029DOI Listing
February 2021

Mixed Sputum Granulocyte Longitudinal Impact on Lung Function in the Severe Asthma Research Program.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 04;203(7):882-892

College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona.

Some reports indicate longitudinal variability in sputum differential cell counts, whereas others describe stability. Highly variable sputum eosinophil percentages are associated with greater lung function loss than persistently elevated eosinophil percentages, but elevated neutrophils are linked to more severe asthma. To examine sputum granulocyte stability or variability longitudinally and associations with important clinical characteristics. The SARP III (Severe Asthma Research Program III) cohort underwent comprehensive phenotype characterization at baseline and annually over 3 years. Adult subjects with acceptable sputum levels were assigned to one of three longitudinal sputum groups: eosinophils predominantly <2%, eosinophils predominantly ≥2%, or highly variable eosinophil percentages (>2 SDs determined from independent, repeated baseline eosinophil percentages). Subjects were similarly assigned to one of three longitudinal neutrophil groups with a 50% cut point. The group with predominantly <2% sputum eosinophils had the highest lung function (prebronchodilator FEV% predicted,  < 0.01; FEV/FVC ratio,  < 0.001) at baseline and throughout 3 years compared with other eosinophil groups. Healthcare use did not differ, although the highly variable eosinophil group reported more asthma exacerbations at Year 3. Longitudinal neutrophil groups showed few differences. However, a combination of predominantly ≥2% eosinophil and ≥50% neutrophil groups resulted in the lowest prebronchodilator FEV% predicted ( = 0.049) compared with the combination with predominantly <2% eosinophils and<50% neutrophils. Subjects with predominantly ≥2% sputum eosinophils in combination with predominantly ≥50% neutrophils showed greater loss of lung function, whereas those with highly variable sputum eosinophils had greater healthcare use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202009-3713OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017570PMC
April 2021

Enhanced Neutralizing Antibody Responses to Rhinovirus C and Age-Dependent Patterns of Infection.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 04;203(7):822-830

University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.

Rhinovirus (RV) C can cause asymptomatic infection and respiratory illnesses ranging from the common cold to severe wheezing. To identify how age and other individual-level factors are associated with susceptibility to RV-C illnesses. Longitudinal data from the COAST (Childhood Origins of Asthma) birth cohort study were analyzed to determine relationships between age and RV-C infections. Neutralizing antibodies specific for RV-A and RV-C (three types each) were determined using a novel PCR-based assay. Data were pooled from 14 study cohorts in the United States, Finland, and Australia, and mixed-effects logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the proportion of RV-C versus RV-A detection. In COAST, RV-A and RV-C infections were similarly common in infancy, whereas RV-C was detected much less often than RV-A during both respiratory illnesses and scheduled surveillance visits ( < 0.001, χ) in older children. The prevalence of neutralizing antibodies to RV-A or RV-C types was low (5-27%) at the age of 2 years, but by the age of 16 years, RV-C seropositivity was more prevalent (78% vs. 18% for RV-A;  < 0.0001). In the pooled analysis, the RV-C to RV-A detection ratio during illnesses was significantly related to age ( < 0.0001), genotype ( < 0.05), and wheezing illnesses ( < 0.05). Furthermore, certain RV types (e.g., C2, C11, A78, and A12) were consistently more virulent and prevalent over time. Knowledge of prevalent RV types, antibody responses, and populations at risk based on age and genetics may guide the development of vaccines or other novel therapies against this important respiratory pathogen.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202010-3753OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017585PMC
April 2021

Responsiveness to Parenteral Corticosteroids and Lung Function Trajectory in Adults with Moderate-to-Severe Asthma.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2021 04;203(7):841-852

Divisions of Pulmonary and Critical Care and of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts.

It is unclear why select patients with moderate-to-severe asthma continue to lose lung function despite therapy. We hypothesized that participants with the smallest responses to parenteral corticosteroids have the greatest risk of undergoing a severe decline in lung function. To evaluate corticosteroid-response phenotypes as longitudinal predictors of lung decline. Adults within the NHLBI SARP III (Severe Asthma Research Program III) who had undergone a course of intramuscular triamcinolone at baseline and at ≥2 annual follow-up visits were evaluated. Longitudinal slopes were calculated for each participant's post-bronchodilator FEV% predicted. Categories of participant FEV slope were defined: severe decline, >2% loss/yr; mild decline, >0.5-2.0% loss/yr; no change, 0.5% loss/yr to <1% gain/yr; and improvement, ≥1% gain/yr. Regression models were used to develop predictors of severe decline. Of 396 participants, 78 had severe decline, 91 had mild decline, 114 had no change, and 113 showed improvement. The triamcinolone-induced difference in the post-bronchodilator FEV% predicted (derived by baseline subtraction) was related to the 4-year change in lung function or slope category in univariable models ( < 0.001). For each 5% decrement in the triamcinolone-induced difference the FEV1% predicted, there was a 50% increase in the odds of being in the severe decline group (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.8), when adjusted for baseline FEV, exacerbation history, blood eosinophils and body mass index. Failure to improve the post-bronchodilator FEV after a challenge with parenteral corticosteroids is an evoked biomarker for patients at risk for a severe decline in lung function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202002-0454OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017577PMC
April 2021

Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of aggregate data from randomised controlled trials.

medRxiv 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Institute for Population Health Sciences, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK.

Background: A 2017 meta-analysis of data from 25 randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory infections revealed a protective effect of the intervention. Since then, 20 new RCTs have been completed.

Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of vitamin D for ARI prevention using a random effects model. Pre-specified sub-group analyses were done to determine whether effects of vitamin D on risk of ARI varied according to baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentration or dosing regimen. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Web of Science and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry from inception to 1st May 2020. Double-blind RCTs of supplementation with vitamin D or calcidiol, of any duration, were eligible if they were approved by a Research Ethics Committee and if ARI incidence was collected prospectively and pre-specified as an efficacy outcome. Aggregate data, stratified by baseline 25(OH)D concentration, were obtained from study authors. The study was registered with PROSPERO (no. CRD42020190633).

Findings: We identified 45 eligible RCTs (total 73,384 participants). Data were obtained for 46,331 (98.0%) of 47,262 participants in 42 studies, aged 0 to 95 years. For the primary comparison of vitamin D supplementation vs. placebo, the intervention reduced risk of ARI overall (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.91, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.99; P for heterogeneity 0.01). No statistically significant effect of vitamin D was seen for any of the sub-groups defined by baseline 25(OH)D concentration. However, protective effects were seen for trials in which vitamin D was given using a daily dosing regimen (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.93); at daily dose equivalents of 400-1000 IU (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.89); and for a duration of ≤12 months (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.93). No significant interaction was seen between allocation to vitamin D vs. placebo and dose frequency, dose size, or study duration. Vitamin D did not influence the proportion of participants experiencing at least one serious adverse event (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.09). Risk of bias within individual studies was assessed as being low for all but three trials. A funnel plot showed left-sided asymmetry (P=0.008, Egger's test).

Interpretation: Vitamin D supplementation was safe and reduced risk of ARI, despite evidence of significant heterogeneity across trials. Protection was associated with administration of daily doses of 400-1000 IU vitamin D for up to 12 months. The relevance of these findings to COVID-19 is not known and requires investigation.

Funding: None.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.14.20152728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709175PMC
November 2020

Preventing asthma in high risk kids (PARK) with omalizumab: Design, rationale, methods, lessons learned and adaptation.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 Jan 24;100:106228. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States of America; Brigham and Women's Hospital, Divisions of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and Allergy and Immunology, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Asthma remains one of the most important challenges to pediatric public health in the US. A large majority of children with persistent and chronic asthma demonstrate aeroallergen sensitization, which remains a pivotal risk factor associated with the development of persistent, progressive asthma throughout life. In individuals with a tendency toward Type 2 inflammation, sensitization and exposure to high concentrations of offending allergens is associated with increased risk for development of, and impairment from, asthma. The cascade of biological responses to allergens is primarily mediated through IgE antibodies and their production is further stimulated by IgE responses to antigen exposure. In addition, circulating IgE impairs innate anti-viral immune responses. The latter effect could magnify the effects of another early life exposure associated with increased risk of the development of asthma - viral infections. Omalizumab binds to circulating IgE and thus ablates antigen signaling through IgE-related mechanisms. Further, it has been shown restore IFN-α response to rhinovirus and to reduce asthma exacerbations during the viral season. We therefore hypothesized that early blockade of IgE and IgE mediated responses with omalizumab would prevent the development and reduce the severity of asthma in those at high risk for developing asthma. Herein, we describe a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of omalizumab in 2-3 year old children at high risk for development of asthma to prevent the development and reduce the severity of asthma. We describe the rationale, methods, and lessons learned in implementing this potentially transformative trial aimed at prevention of asthma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2020.106228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887056PMC
January 2021

The precision interventions for severe and/or exacerbation-prone asthma (PrecISE) adaptive platform trial: statistical considerations.

J Biopharm Stat 2020 11 17;30(6):1026-1037. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

University of Chicago, Chicago, IL.

The Precision Interventions for Severe and/or Exacerbation-prone Asthma (PrecISE) study is an adaptive platform trial designed to investigate novel interventions to severe asthma. The study is conducted under a master protocol and utilizes a crossover design with each participant receiving up to five interventions and at least one placebo. Treatment assignments are based on the patients' biomarker profiles and precision health methods are incorporated into the interim and final analyses. We describe key elements of the PrecISE study including the multistage adaptive enrichment strategy, early stopping of an intervention for futility, power calculations, and the primary analysis strategy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10543406.2020.1821705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954787PMC
November 2020

COVID-19-related Genes in Sputum Cells in Asthma. Relationship to Demographic Features and Corticosteroids.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2020 07;202(1):83-90

Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine and the Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2), and TMPRSS2 (transmembrane protease serine 2) mediate viral infection of host cells. We reasoned that differences in ACE2 or TMPRSS2 gene expression in sputum cells among patients with asthma may identify subgroups at risk for COVID-19 morbidity. To determine the relationship between demographic features and sputum ACE2 and TMPRSS2 gene expression in asthma.: We analyzed gene expression for ACE2 and TMPRSS2, and for ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) (rhinovirus receptor as a comparator) in sputum cells from 330 participants in SARP-3 (Severe Asthma Research Program-3) and 79 healthy control subjects. Gene expression of ACE2 was lower than TMPRSS2, and expression levels of both genes were similar in asthma and health. Among patients with asthma, male sex, African American race, and history of diabetes mellitus were associated with higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2. Use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) was associated with lower expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, but treatment with triamcinolone acetonide did not decrease expression of either gene. These findings differed from those for ICAM-1, where gene expression was increased in asthma and less consistent differences were observed related to sex, race, and use of ICS. Higher expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 in males, African Americans, and patients with diabetes mellitus provides rationale for monitoring these asthma subgroups for poor COVID-19 outcomes. The lower expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 with ICS use warrants prospective study of ICS use as a predictor of decreased susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection and decreased COVID-19 morbidity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.202003-0821OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328313PMC
July 2020

Distinct associations of sputum and oral microbiota with atopic, immunologic, and clinical features in mild asthma.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 11 13;146(5):1016-1026. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. Electronic address:

Background: Whether microbiome characteristics of induced sputum or oral samples demonstrate unique relationships to features of atopy or mild asthma in adults is unknown.

Objective: We sought to determine sputum and oral microbiota relationships to clinical or immunologic features in mild atopic asthma and the impact on the microbiota of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment administered to ICS-naive subjects with asthma.

Methods: Bacterial microbiota profiles were analyzed in induced sputum and oral wash samples from 32 subjects with mild atopic asthma before and after inhaled fluticasone treatment, 18 atopic subjects without asthma, and 16 nonatopic healthy subjects in a multicenter study (NCT01537133). Associations with clinical and immunologic features were examined, including markers of atopy, type 2 inflammation, immune cell populations, and cytokines.

Results: Sputum bacterial burden inversely associated with bronchial expression of type 2 (T2)-related genes. Differences in specific sputum microbiota also associated with T2-low asthma phenotype, a subgroup of whom displayed elevations in lung inflammatory mediators and reduced sputum bacterial diversity. Differences in specific oral microbiota were more reflective of atopic status. After ICS treatment of patients with asthma, the compositional structure of sputum microbiota showed greater deviation from baseline in ICS nonresponders than in ICS responders.

Conclusions: Novel associations of sputum and oral microbiota to immunologic features were observed in this cohort of subjects with or without ICS-naive mild asthma. These findings confirm and extend our previous report of reduced bronchial bacterial burden and compositional complexity in subjects with T2-high asthma, with additional identification of a T2-low subgroup with a distinct microbiota-immunologic relationship.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.03.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554083PMC
November 2020

Heterogeneity of Mild to Moderate Persistent Asthma in Children: Confirmation by Latent Class Analysis and Association with 1-Year Outcomes.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2020 09 7;8(8):2617-2627.e4. Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State University, Hershey, Pa.

Background: Compared with adults, phenotypic characterization of children with asthma is still limited and it remains difficult to predict which children with asthma are at highest risk for poor outcomes.

Objective: To identify latent classes in a large population of treatment-adherent children with mild to moderate asthma enrolled in clinical trials and determine whether latent class assignment predicts future lung function abnormalities and exacerbation rate.

Methods: Latent class analysis was performed on 2593 children with mild to moderate asthma aged 5 18 years, with 19 variables encompassing demographic characteristics, medical history, symptoms, lung function, allergic sensitization, and type 2 inflammation. Outcomes included lung function and the annualized exacerbation rate at 12 months of follow-up.

Results: Five latent classes were identified with differing demographic features, asthma control, sensitization, type 2 inflammatory markers, and lung function. Exacerbation rates were 1.30 ± 0.12 for class 1 (multiple sensitization with partially reversible airflow limitation), 0.90 ± 0.05 for class 2 (multiple sensitization with reversible airflow limitation), 0.87 ± 0.08 for class 3 (lesser sensitization with reversible airflow limitation), 0.87 ± 0.05 for class 4 (multiple sensitization with normal lung function), and 0.71 ± 0.06 for class 5 (lesser sensitization with normal lung function). Lung function abnormalities persisted in class 1 at 12 months.

Conclusions: Children with mild to moderate asthma are a heterogeneous group. Allergic sensitization and lung function may be particularly useful in identifying children at the greatest risk for future exacerbation. Additional studies are needed to determine whether latent classes correspond to meaningful phenotypes for the purpose of personalized treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.02.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7483393PMC
September 2020

genotype identifies glucocorticoid responsiveness in severe asthma.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2020 01 13;117(4):2187-2193. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Lerner Research Institute and the Respiratory Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH 44195;

Asthma resistance to glucocorticoid treatment is a major health problem with unclear etiology. Glucocorticoids inhibit adrenal androgen production. However, androgens have potential benefits in asthma. encodes for 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 (3β-HSD1), which catalyzes peripheral conversion from adrenal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to potent androgens and has a germline missense-encoding polymorphism. The adrenal restrictive (1245A) allele limits conversion, whereas the adrenal permissive (1245C) allele increases DHEA metabolism to potent androgens. In the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP) III cohort, we determined the association between DHEA-sulfate and percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEVPP). (1245) genotypes were assessed, and association between adrenal restrictive and adrenal permissive alleles and FEVPP in patients with (GC) and without (noGC) daily oral glucocorticoid treatment was determined ( = 318). Validation was performed in a second cohort (SARP I&II; = 184). DHEA-sulfate is associated with FEVPP and is suppressed with GC treatment. GC patients homozygous for the adrenal restrictive genotype have lower FEVPP compared with noGC patients (54.3% vs. 75.1%; < 0.001). In patients with the homozygous adrenal permissive genotype, there was no FEVPP difference in GC vs. noGC patients (73.4% vs. 78.9%; = 0.39). Results were independently confirmed: FEVPP for homozygous adrenal restrictive genotype in GC vs. noGC is 49.8 vs. 63.4 ( < 0.001), and for homozygous adrenal permissive genotype, it is 66.7 vs. 67.7 ( = 0.92). The adrenal restrictive (1245) genotype is associated with GC resistance. This effect appears to be driven by GC suppression of 3β-HSD1 substrate. Our results suggest opportunities for prediction of GC resistance and pharmacologic intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1918819117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995013PMC
January 2020

Severe asthma during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal study.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 01 14;145(1):140-146.e9. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Department of Pediatrics, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio. Electronic address:

Background: Morbidity and mortality associated with childhood asthma are driven disproportionately by children with severe asthma. However, it is not known from longitudinal studies whether children outgrow severe asthma.

Objective: We sought to study prospectively whether well-characterized children with severe asthma outgrow their asthma during adolescence.

Methods: Children with asthma were assessed at baseline with detailed questionnaires, allergy tests, and lung function tests and were reassessed annually for 3 years. The population was enriched for children with severe asthma, as assessed by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines, and subject classification was reassessed annually.

Results: At baseline, 111 (59%) children had severe asthma. Year to year, there was a decrease in the proportion meeting the criteria for severe asthma. After 3 years, only 30% of subjects met the criteria for severe asthma (P < .001 compared with enrollment). Subjects experienced improvements in most indices of severity, including symptom scores, exacerbations, and controller medication requirements, but not lung function. Surprisingly, boys and girls were equally likely to has resolved asthma (33% vs 29%). The odds ratio in favor of resolution of severe asthma was 2.75 (95% CI, 1.02-7.43) for those with a peripheral eosinophil count of greater than 436 cells/μL.

Conclusions: In longitudinal analysis of this well-characterized cohort, half of the children with severe asthma no longer had severe asthma after 3 years; there was a stepwise decrease in the proportion meeting severe asthma criteria. Surprisingly, asthma severity decreased equally in male and female subjects. Peripheral eosinophilia predicted resolution. These data will be important for planning clinical trials in this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.09.030DOI Listing
January 2020

Development and initial validation of the Asthma Severity Scoring System (ASSESS).

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 01 8;145(1):127-139. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.

Background: Tools for quantification of asthma severity are limited.

Objective: We sought to develop a continuous measure of asthma severity, the Asthma Severity Scoring System (ASSESS), for adolescents and adults, incorporating domains of asthma control, lung function, medications, and exacerbations.

Methods: Baseline and 36-month longitudinal data from participants in phase 3 of the Severe Asthma Research Program (NCT01606826) were used. Scale properties, responsiveness, and a minimally important difference were determined. External replication was performed in participants enrolled in the Severe Asthma Research Program phase 1/2. The utility of ASSESS for detecting treatment response was explored in participants undergoing corticosteroid responsiveness testing with intramuscular triamcinolone and participants receiving biologics.

Results: ASSESS scores ranged from 0 to 20 (8.78 ± 3.9; greater scores reflect worse severity) and differed among 5 phenotypic groups. Measurement properties were acceptable. ASSESS was responsive to changes in quality of life with a minimally important difference of 2, with good specificity for outcomes of asthma improvement and worsening but poor sensitivity. Replication analyses yielded similar results, with a 2-point decrease (improvement) associated with improvements in quality of life. Participants with a 2-point or greater decrease (improvement) in ASSESS scores also had greater improvement in lung function and asthma control after triamcinolone, but these differences were limited to phenotypic clusters 3, 4, and 5. Participants treated with biologics also had a 2-point or greater decrease (improvement) in ASSESS scores overall.

Conclusions: The ASSESS tool is an objective measure that might be useful in epidemiologic and clinical research studies for quantification of treatment response in individual patients and phenotypic groups. However, validation studies are warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.09.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6949388PMC
January 2020

Estimated Ventricular Size, Asthma Severity, and Exacerbations: The Severe Asthma Research Program III Cohort.

Chest 2020 02 12;157(2):258-267. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Applied Chest Imaging Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Background: Relative enlargement of the pulmonary artery (PA) on chest CT imaging is associated with respiratory exacerbations in patients with COPD or cystic fibrosis. We sought to determine whether similar findings were present in patients with asthma and whether these findings were explained by differences in ventricular size.

Methods: We measured the PA and aorta diameters in 233 individuals from the Severe Asthma Research Program III cohort. We also estimated right, left, and total epicardial cardiac ventricular volume indices (eERVVI, eELVVI, and eETVVI, respectively). Associations between the cardiac and PA measures (PA-to-aorta [PA/A] ratio, eERVVI-to-eELVVI [eRV/eLV] ratio, eERVVI, eELVVI, eETVVI) and clinical measures of asthma severity were assessed by Pearson correlation, and associations with asthma severity and exacerbation rate were evaluated by multivariable linear and zero-inflated negative binomial regression.

Results: Asthma severity was associated with smaller ventricular volumes. For example, those with severe asthma had 36.1 mL/m smaller eETVVI than healthy control subjects (P = .003) and 14.1 mL/m smaller eETVVI than those with mild/moderate disease (P = .011). Smaller ventricular volumes were also associated with a higher rate of asthma exacerbations, both retrospectively and prospectively. For example, those with an eETVVI less than the median had a 57% higher rate of exacerbations during follow-up than those with eETVVI greater than the median (P = .020). Neither PA/A nor eRV/eLV was associated with asthma severity or exacerbations.

Conclusions: In patients with asthma, smaller cardiac ventricular size may be associated with more severe disease and a higher rate of asthma exacerbations.

Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT01761630; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2019.08.2185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005378PMC
February 2020

Clinical significance of the bronchodilator response in children with severe asthma.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2019 11 19;54(11):1694-1703. Epub 2019 Aug 19.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine in Saint Louis, St. Louis, Missouri.

Background: Our objective was to determine those characteristics associated with reversibility of airflow obstruction and response to maximal bronchodilation in children with severe asthma through the Severe Asthma Research Program (SARP).

Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis evaluating children ages 6 to 17 years with nonsevere asthma (NSA) and severe asthma (SA). Participants underwent spirometry before and after 180 µg of albuterol to determine reversibility (≥12% increase in FEV ). Participants were then given escalating doses up to 720 µg of albuterol to determine their maximum reversibility.

Results: We evaluated 230 children (n = 129 SA, n = 101 NSA) from five centers across the United States in the SARP I and II cohorts. SA (odds ratio [OR], 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-4.13), second-hand smoke exposure (OR, 2.81, 95%CI, 1.23-6.43), and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO; OR, 1.97, 95%CI, 1.35-2.87) were associated with increased odds of airway reversibility after maximal bronchodilation, while higher prebronchodilator (BD) FEV % predicted (OR, 0.91, 95%CI, 0.88-0.94) was associated with decreased odds. In an analysis using the SARP III cohort (n = 186), blood neutrophils, immunoglobulin E (IgE), and FEV % predicted were significantly associated with BD reversibility. In addition, children with BD response have greater healthcare utilization. BD reversibility was associated with reduced lung function at enrollment and 1-year follow-up though less decline in lung function over 1 year compared to those without reversibility.

Conclusions: Lung function, that is FEV % predicted, is a predictor of BD response in children with asthma. Additionally, smoke exposure, higher FeNO or IgE level, and low peripheral blood neutrophils are associated with a greater likelihood of BD reversibility. BD response can identify a phenotype of pediatric asthma associated with low lung function and poor asthma control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24473DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7015037PMC
November 2019

Mometasone or Tiotropium in Mild Asthma with a Low Sputum Eosinophil Level.

N Engl J Med 2019 05 19;380(21):2009-2019. Epub 2019 May 19.

From the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine and the Cardiovascular Research Institute (S.C.L., H.A.B., J.V.F., P.G.W.) and the Department of Pediatrics, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics (M.D.C.), University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco; the University of Illinois at Chicago (J.A.K.), the Department of Pediatrics, Rush University Medical Center (J.N.M.), Ann and Robert Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago (J.A.P.), and Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine (L.S.) - all in Chicago; the Department of Public Health Sciences, Penn State University, Hershey (T.S.K., V.M.C., D.T.M., A.-M.D.), and the University of Pittsburgh Asthma Institute (S.W., F.H.) and Allegheny General Hospital (D.G.), Pittsburgh - all in Pennsylvania; Nemours Children's Hospital, University of Central Florida College of Medicine, Orlando (J.E.L., K.V.B.), and Nemours Children's Health System, Jacksonville (J.E.L., K.V.B.) - both in Florida; the Department of Pediatrics and Medicine, National Jewish Health, Denver (R.C., S.J.S., M.E.W.), and Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (R.C., S.J.S., M.E.W.) - both in Colorado; Duke Allergy, Asthma, and Airway Center, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham (N.L., M.K., L.Q.), Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem (A.H., W.M., S.P.P.), and North Carolina Clinical Research, Raleigh (C.L.) - all in North Carolina; the Departments of Pediatrics and Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine, St. Louis (L.B.B., M.C.); Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School (J.C.C., E.I.) and Boston Children's Hospital (W.P.) - all in Boston; Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland (J.C., R.M., K.R.); the University of Wisconsin, Madison (L.D., D.J., R.F.L., C.A.S.); Columbia University, New York (E.D.); the Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta (A.M.F.); and the Arizona Respiratory Center, University of Arizona, Tucson (F.D.M., W.J.M.).

Background: In many patients with mild, persistent asthma, the percentage of eosinophils in sputum is less than 2% (low eosinophil level). The appropriate treatment for these patients is unknown.

Methods: In this 42-week, double-blind, crossover trial, we assigned 295 patients who were at least 12 years of age and who had mild, persistent asthma to receive mometasone (an inhaled glucocorticoid), tiotropium (a long-acting muscarinic antagonist), or placebo. The patients were categorized according to the sputum eosinophil level (<2% or ≥2%). The primary outcome was the response to mometasone as compared with placebo and to tiotropium as compared with placebo among patients with a low sputum eosinophil level who had a prespecified differential response to one of the trial agents. The response was determined according to a hierarchical composite outcome that incorporated treatment failure, asthma control days, and the forced expiratory volume in 1 second; a two-sided P value of less than 0.025 denoted statistical significance. A secondary outcome was a comparison of results in patients with a high sputum eosinophil level and those with a low level.

Results: A total of 73% of the patients had a low eosinophil level; of these patients, 59% had a differential response to a trial agent. However, there was no significant difference in the response to mometasone or tiotropium, as compared with placebo. Among the patients with a low eosinophil level who had a differential treatment response, 57% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48 to 66) had a better response to mometasone, and 43% (95% CI, 34 to 52) had a better response to placebo (P = 0.14). In contrast 60% (95% CI, 51 to 68) had a better response to tiotropium, whereas 40% (95% CI, 32 to 49) had a better response to placebo (P = 0.029). Among patients with a high eosinophil level, the response to mometasone was significantly better than the response to placebo (74% vs. 26%) but the response to tiotropium was not (57% vs. 43%).

Conclusions: The majority of patients with mild, persistent asthma had a low sputum eosinophil level and had no significant difference in their response to either mometasone or tiotropium as compared with placebo. These data provide equipoise for a clinically directive trial to compare an inhaled glucocorticoid with other treatments in patients with a low eosinophil level. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; SIENA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02066298.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1814917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6711475PMC
May 2019

The effect of BPIFA1/SPLUNC1 genetic variation on its expression and function in asthmatic airway epithelium.

JCI Insight 2019 04 18;4(8). Epub 2019 Apr 18.

National Jewish Health, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Bacterial permeability family member A1 (BPIFA1), also known as short palate, lung, and nasal epithelium clone 1 (SPLUNC1), is a protein involved in the antiinflammatory response. The goal of this study was to determine whether BPIFA1 expression in asthmatic airways is regulated by genetic variations, altering epithelial responses to type 2 cytokines (e.g., IL-13). Nasal epithelial cells from patients with mild to severe asthma were collected from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Severe Asthma Research Program centers, genotyped for rs750064, and measured for BPIFA1. To determine the function of rs750064, cells were cultured at air-liquid interface and treated with IL-13 with or without recombinant human BPIFA1 (rhBPIFA1). Noncultured nasal cells with the rs750064 CC genotype had significantly less BPIFA1 mRNA expression than the CT and TT genotypes. Cultured CC versus CT and TT cells without stimulation maintained less BPIFA1 expression. With IL-13 treatment, CC genotype cells secreted more eotaxin-3 than CT and TT genotype cells. Also, rhBPIFA1 reduced IL-13-mediated eotaxin-3. BPIFA1 mRNA levels negatively correlated with serum IgE and fractional exhaled nitric oxide. Baseline FEV1% levels were lower in the asthma patients with the CC genotype (n = 1,016). Our data suggest that less BPIFA1 in asthma patients with the CC allele may predispose them to greater eosinophilic inflammation, which could be attenuated by rhBPIFA1 protein therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.127237DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6538329PMC
April 2019

Extracellular DNA, Neutrophil Extracellular Traps, and Inflammasome Activation in Severe Asthma.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2019 05;199(9):1076-1085

1 Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, and.

Extracellular DNA (eDNA) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are implicated in multiple inflammatory diseases. NETs mediate inflammasome activation and IL-1β secretion from monocytes and cause airway epithelial cell injury, but the role of eDNA, NETs, and IL-1β in asthma is uncertain. To characterize the role of activated neutrophils in severe asthma through measurement of NETs and inflammasome activation. We measured sputum eDNA in induced sputum from 399 patients with asthma in the Severe Asthma Research Program-3 and in 94 healthy control subjects. We subdivided subjects with asthma into eDNA-low and -high subgroups to compare outcomes of asthma severity and of neutrophil and inflammasome activation. We also examined if NETs cause airway epithelial cell damage that can be prevented by DNase. We found that 13% of the Severe Asthma Research Program-3 cohort is "eDNA-high," as defined by sputum eDNA concentrations above the upper 95th percentile value in health. Compared with eDNA-low patients with asthma, eDNA-high patients had lower Asthma Control Test scores, frequent history of chronic mucus hypersecretion, and frequent use of oral corticosteroids for maintenance of asthma control (all values <0.05). Sputum eDNA in asthma was associated with airway neutrophilic inflammation, increases in soluble NET components, and increases in caspase 1 activity and IL-1β (all values <0.001). In studies, NETs caused cytotoxicity in airway epithelial cells that was prevented by disruption of NETs with DNase. High extracellular DNA concentrations in sputum mark a subset of patients with more severe asthma who have NETs and markers of inflammasome activation in their airways.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201810-1869OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6515873PMC
May 2019

Multiview Cluster Analysis Identifies Variable Corticosteroid Response Phenotypes in Severe Asthma.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2019 06;199(11):1358-1367

14 Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Corticosteroids (CSs) are the most effective asthma therapy, but responses are heterogeneous and systemic CSs lead to long-term side effects. Therefore, an improved understanding of the contributing factors in CS responses could enhance precision management. Although several factors have been associated with CS responsiveness, no integrated/cluster approach has yet been undertaken to identify differential CS responses. To identify asthma subphenotypes with differential responses to CS treatment using an unsupervised multiview learning approach. Multiple-kernel -means clustering was applied to 100 clinical, physiological, inflammatory, and demographic variables from 346 adult participants with asthma in the Severe Asthma Research Program with paired (before and 2-3 weeks after triamcinolone administration) sputum data. Machine-learning techniques were used to select the top baseline variables that predicted cluster assignment for a new patient. Multiple-kernel clustering revealed four clusters of individuals with asthma and different CS responses. Clusters 1 and 2 consisted of young, modestly CS-responsive individuals with allergic asthma and relatively normal lung function, separated by contrasting sputum neutrophil and macrophage percentages after CS treatment. The subjects in cluster 3 had late-onset asthma and low lung function, high baseline eosinophilia, and the greatest CS responsiveness. Cluster 4 consisted primarily of young, obese females with severe airflow limitation, little eosinophilic inflammation, and the least CS responsiveness. The top 12 baseline variables were identified, and the clusters were validated using an independent Severe Asthma Research Program test set. Our machine learning-based approaches provide new insights into the mechanisms of CS responsiveness in asthma, with the potential to improve disease treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201808-1543OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6543720PMC
June 2019

Racial disparities in asthma-related health care use in the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Severe Asthma Research Program.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 06 8;143(6):2052-2061. Epub 2019 Jan 8.

University of Virginia, Department of Pediatrics, Charlottesville, Va.

Background: Despite advances in asthma care, disparities persist. Black patients are disproportionally affected by asthma and also have poorer outcomes compared with white patients.

Objective: We sought to determine associations between black and white patients and asthma-related health care use, accounting for complex relationships.

Methods: This study was completed as part of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Severe Asthma Research Program, a prospective observational cohort. Between November 2012 and February 2015, it enrolled 579 participants 6 years and older with 1 year of observation time and complete data. Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to balance racial groups with respect to community and family socioeconomic variables and environmental exposure variables. The primary outcome was emergency department (ED) use for asthma. Secondary outcomes included inhaled corticosteroid use, outpatient physician's office visits for asthma, and asthma-related hospitalization.

Results: Black patients had greater odds of ED use over 1 year (odds ratio, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.43-3.35) but also differed in the majority (>50%) of baseline variables measured. After statistical balancing of the racial groups, the difference between black and white patients with respect to ED use no longer reached the level of significance. Instead, in secondary analyses black patients were less likely to see an outpatient physician for asthma management (adjusted odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.38-0.85).

Conclusions: The disparity in ED use was eliminated after consideration of multiple variables. Social and environmental policies and interventions tailored to black populations with a high burden of asthma are critical to reduction (or elimination) of these disparities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2018.11.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6556425PMC
June 2019

Adapting clinical trial design to maintain meaningful outcomes during a multicenter asthma trial in the precision medicine era.

Contemp Clin Trials 2019 02 27;77:98-103. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.

Precision medicine is expected to impact the care of people with asthma, given its high disease prevalence, heterogeneity of pathophysiologic mechanisms, and consequent clinical phenotypes. A novel phenotype-stratified clinical trial conducted by the NHLBI AsthmaNet Consortium, titled Steroids in Eosinophil Negative Asthma (SIENA), was a randomized, multicenter, clinical trial that prospectively stratified individuals according to their baseline level of sputum inflammation during a screening period. Two phenotypic strata were assigned based on an a priori defined extent of sputum eosinophilia (Eos Low versus Eos High). This article describes: the scientific premise for the trial design, including assumptions used for power calculations; modifications to the analysis plan implemented after the trial started due to a higher than expected prevalence of one phenotypic stratum which impacted the ability to accrue sufficient subjects within the planned budget and study period; investigator alternatives to address the strata imbalance weighing scientific impact and study feasibility; and the final modified SIENA study design and analysis plan. SIENA was successfully completed in a manner that maintained meaningful outcomes. We conclude with recommendations for incorporation of pre-specified contingency plans into phenotype-directed protocols, to address the potential for differences in observed compared to estimated prevalence of different phenotypes in a study population. These approaches can be applied to precision medicine trials for the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2018.12.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6425934PMC
February 2019

Phenotypes of Recurrent Wheezing in Preschool Children: Identification by Latent Class Analysis and Utility in Prediction of Future Exacerbation.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 03 26;7(3):915-924.e7. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Department of Statistics, Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, Pa.

Background: Recurrent preschool wheezing is a heterogeneous disorder with significant morbidity, yet little is known about phenotypic determinants and their impact on clinical outcomes.

Objective: Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify latent classes of recurrent preschool wheeze and their association with future exacerbations and inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment response.

Methods: Data from 5 clinical trials of 1708 children aged 12 to 71 months with recurrent wheezing were merged. LCA was performed on 10 demographic, exposure, and sensitization variables to determine the optimal number of latent classes. The primary outcome was the annualized rate of wheezing exacerbations requiring systemic corticosteroids during the study intervention period; the secondary outcome was the time to first exacerbation. Exploratory analyses examined the effect of daily ICS treatment on exacerbation outcomes.

Results: Four latent classes of recurrent wheezing were identified; these were not distinguished by current symptoms or historical exacerbations but differed with regard to allergen sensitization and/or exposures. Annualized exacerbation rates (mean ± SEM/year) were 0.65 ± 0.06 for class 1 ("minimal sensitization"), 0.93 ± 0.10 for class 2 ("sensitization with indoor pet exposure"), 0.60 ± 0.07 for class 3 ("sensitization with tobacco smoke exposure"), and 0.81 ± 0.10 for class 4 ("multiple sensitization and eczema") (P < .001). In a research setting of high adherence, daily ICS treatment improved exacerbation rates in classes 2 and 4 but not the other groups.

Conclusions: Sensitization and exposure assessments are useful in the prediction of future exacerbation and may identify children most likely to respond favorably to daily ICS treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2018.09.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401237PMC
March 2019

Neutrophil cytoplasts induce T17 differentiation and skew inflammation toward neutrophilia in severe asthma.

Sci Immunol 2018 08;3(26)

Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Severe asthma is a debilitating and treatment refractory disease. As many as half of these patients have complex neutrophil-predominant lung inflammation that is distinct from milder asthma with type 2 eosinophilic inflammation. New insights into severe asthma pathogenesis are needed. Concomitant exposure of mice to an aeroallergen and endotoxin during sensitization resulted in complex neutrophilic immune responses to allergen alone during later airway challenge. Unlike allergen alone, sensitization with allergen and endotoxin led to NETosis. In addition to neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), enucleated neutrophil cytoplasts were evident in the lungs. Surprisingly, allergen-driven airway neutrophilia was decreased in peptidyl arginine deiminase 4-deficient mice with defective NETosis but not by deoxyribonuclease treatment, implicating the cytoplasts for the non-type 2 immune responses to allergen. Neutrophil cytoplasts were also present in mediastinal lymph nodes, and the cytoplasts activated lung dendritic cells in vitro to trigger antigen-specific interleukin-17 (IL-17) production from naïve CD4 T cells. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with severe asthma and high neutrophil counts had detectable NETs and cytoplasts that were positively correlated with IL-17 levels. Together, these translational findings have identified neutrophil cytoplast formation in asthmatic lung inflammation and linked the cytoplasts to T helper 17-mediated neutrophilic inflammation in severe asthma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.aao4747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6320225PMC
August 2018

Bacterial biogeography of adult airways in atopic asthma.

Microbiome 2018 06 9;6(1):104. Epub 2018 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Background: Perturbations to the composition and function of bronchial bacterial communities appear to contribute to the pathophysiology of asthma. Unraveling the nature and mechanisms of these complex associations will require large longitudinal studies, for which bronchoscopy is poorly suited. Studies of samples obtained by sputum induction and nasopharyngeal brushing or lavage have also reported asthma-associated microbiota characteristics. It remains unknown, however, whether the microbiota detected in these less-invasive sample types reflect the composition of bronchial microbiota in asthma.

Results: Bacterial microbiota in paired protected bronchial brushings (BB; n = 45), induced sputum (IS; n = 45), oral wash (OW; n = 45), and nasal brushings (NB; n = 27) from adults with mild atopic asthma (AA), atopy without asthma (ANA), and healthy controls (HC) were profiled using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Though microbiota composition varied with sample type (p < 0.001), compositional similarity was greatest for BB-IS, particularly in AAs and ANAs. The abundance of genera detected in BB correlated with those detected in IS and OW (r median [IQR] 0.869 [0.748-0.942] and 0.822 [0.687-0.909] respectively), but not with those in NB (r = 0.004 [- 0.003-0.011]). The number of taxa shared between IS-BB and NB-BB was greater in AAs than in HCs (p < 0.05) and included taxa previously associated with asthma. Of the genera abundant in NB, only Moraxella correlated positively with abundance in BB; specific members of this genus were shared between the two compartments only in AAs. Relative abundance of Moraxella in NB of AAs correlated negatively with that of Corynebacterium but positively with markers of eosinophilic inflammation in the blood and BAL fluid. The genus, Corynebacterium, trended to dominate all NB samples of HCs but only half of AAs (p = 0.07), in whom abundance of this genus was negatively associated with markers of eosinophilic inflammation.

Conclusions: Induced sputum is superior to nasal brush or oral wash for assessing bronchial microbiota composition in asthmatic adults. Although compositionally similar to the bronchial microbiota, the microbiota in induced sputum are distinct, reflecting enrichment of oral bacteria. Specific bacterial genera are shared between the nasal and the bronchial mucosa which are associated with markers of systemic and bronchial inflammation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-018-0487-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5994066PMC
June 2018