Publications by authors named "David Sheffield"

80 Publications

Systematic Review of Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Nurs Res 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

University of Derby Online Learning, Derby, UK University of Derby College of Health, Psychology and Social Care, Derby, UK University of Derby Centre for Human Sciences Research, Derby, UK.

Background: The benefit of self-monitoring of blood glucose in reducing HbA1c in non-insulin-treated participants remains unclear. HbA1c may be improved in this population with self-monitoring.

Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis of the effect in non-insulin-treated participants with type 2 diabetes of self-monitoring of blood glucose versus usual care, structured versus unstructured self-monitoring of blood glucose on glycemic control, and use of self-monitoring of blood glucose readings used to adjust therapy versus usual care.

Methods: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central were electronically searched to identify articles published from January 1, 2000, to June 3, 2020. Trials investigating changes in HbA1c were selected. Screening was performed independently by two investigators. Two investigators extracted HbA1c at baseline and follow-up for each trial.

Results: Nineteen trials involving 4,965 participants were included. Overall, self-monitoring of blood glucose reduced HbA1c. Preplanned subgroup analysis showed that using self-monitoring of blood glucose readings to adjust therapy contributed significantly to the reduction. No significant improvement in HbA1c was shown in self-monitoring of blood glucose without therapy adjustment. The same difference was observed in structured versus unstructured self-monitoring of blood glucose.

Discussion: HbA1c is improved with therapy adjustment based on structured self-monitoring of blood glucose readings. Implications are for clinicians to prescribe structured self-monitoring of blood glucose to modify therapy adjustment based on the readings and not prescribe unstructured self-monitoring of blood glucose. Participants with suboptimal glycemic control may benefit most. A self-monitoring of blood glucose regimen that improves clinical- and cost-effectiveness is presented. Future studies can investigate this regimen specifically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNR.0000000000000542DOI Listing
July 2021

Positive Psychology for Mental Wellbeing of UK Therapeutic Students: Relationships with Engagement, Motivation, Resilience and Self-Compassion.

Int J Ment Health Addict 2021 Jan 12:1-16. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Human Sciences Research Centre, University of Derby, Kedleston Road, Derby, DE22 1GB UK.

This study aimed to examine the relationships between mental wellbeing and positive psychological constructs in therapeutic students (psychotherapy and occupational therapy students). The number of therapeutic students has increased recently; however, they suffer from poor mental health, which may be improved by potentiating their positive psychological constructs, bypassing mental health shame. Therapeutic students ( = 145) completed measures regarding positive psychological constructs, namely mental wellbeing, engagement, motivation, resilience, and self-compassion. Resilience and self-compassion predicted mental wellbeing, explaining a large effect. Self-compassion partially mediated the relationship between resilience and mental wellbeing. This study highlights the importance of positive psychological constructs, especially resilience and self-compassion, for mental wellbeing of therapeutic students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00466-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802612PMC
January 2021

Prescribing laughter to ameliorate mental health, sleep, and wellbeing in university students: A protocol for a feasibility study of a randomised controlled trial.

Contemp Clin Trials Commun 2020 Dec 26;20:100676. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Zayed University, College of Natural & Health Sciences, Department of Psychology, Abu Dhabi, PO Box 144534, United Arab Emirates.

Objectives: This research is the first study to investigate the potential effects of a laughter prescription on both psychological health and objective sleep parameters in university students. The primary objective is to evaluate the feasibility of prescribing laughter to inform a larger randomised controlled trial. Secondary objectives are to assess if a two-week laughter prescription improves subjective and objective sleep outcomes, wellbeing, and/or psychological health outcomes.

Trial Design: To assess the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial for laughter prescription in relation to sleep, psychological health, and wellbeing. Forty university students will be recruited and randomised to one of two conditions (control/experimental).

Methods: Wrist actigraphy and sleep diaries will be used to estimate sleep outcomes during a one-week baseline testing phase and across the two-week intervention. The experimental group will be shown how to record a Laughie (a 1-min recording of their joyful laughter on their smartphone) and prescribed to laugh with it three times daily for 14 days (the control group will only track sleep). All participants will complete the WHO (Five) Well-being Index, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale pre- and post-intervention. The CONSORT checklist, and the Feasibility, Reach-out, Acceptability, Maintenance, Efficacy, Implementation, and Tailorabilty (FRAME-IT) framework will guide intervention planning and evaluation. Participant interviews will be analysed using Differential Qualitative Analysis (DQA).

Results: The feasibility of a two-week laughter prescription in university students and its impact on sleep, wellbeing, and/or psychological health outcomes will be assessed.

Conclusions: Zayed University Research Ethics Committee approved the study in July 2019. The research will be completed following protocol publication.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov. ID: NCT04171245. Date of registration: 18 October 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.conctc.2020.100676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711131PMC
December 2020

An integrative systematic review of creative arts interventions for older informal caregivers of people with neurological conditions.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(12):e0243461. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

College of Health, Psychology and Social Care, University of Derby, Derby, United Kingdom.

Objective: We aimed to assess and synthesise the current state of quantitative and qualitative research concerning creative arts interventions for older informal caregivers of people with neurological conditions.

Methods: A systematic search was employed to identify studies that examined creative arts interventions for older informal caregivers, which were synthesised in this integrative review. We searched the following databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, EBSCO, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. We also backwards searched references of all relevant studies and inspected trials registers.

Results: Of the 516 studies identified, 17 were included: one was quantitative, nine were qualitative and seven used mixed methods. All included quantitative studies were pilot or feasibility studies employing pre- and post-test design with small sample sizes. Studies varied in relation to the type of creative intervention and evaluation methods, which precluded meta-analysis. Large effect sizes were detected in wellbeing measures following singing and art interventions. The qualitative synthesis highlighted that interventions created space for caregivers to make sense of, accept and adapt to their identity as a caregiver. Personal developments, such as learning new skills, were viewed positively by caregivers as well as welcoming the opportunity to gain cognitive and behavioural skills, and having opportunities to unload emotions in a safe space were important to caregivers. Group creative interventions were particularly helpful in creating social connections with their care-recipients and other caregivers.

Conclusions: The current review revealed all creative interventions focused on caregivers of people living with dementia; subsequently, this identified gaps in the evidence of creative interventions for informal caregivers of other neurological conditions. There are encouraging preliminary data on music and art interventions, however, little data exists on other art forms, e.g., drama, dance. Creative interventions may appeal to many caregivers, offering a range of psycho-social benefits. The findings of the current review open the way for future research to develop appropriate and creative arts programmes and to test their efficacy with robust tools.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0243461PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721165PMC
January 2021

What is the role of stress cardiovascular reactivity in health behaviour change? A systematic review, meta-analysis and research agenda.

Psychol Health 2021 Sep 30;36(9):1021-1040. Epub 2020 Sep 30.

School of Psychology, University of Derby, Derby, UK.

Objective: The stress reactivity hypothesis posits that the extremes of exaggerated and low or blunted cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) to stress may lead to adverse health outcomes via psychophysiological pathways. A potential indirect pathway between CVR and disease outcomes is through health-related behaviour and behaviour change. However, this is a less well understood pathway. A registered systematic review was undertaken to determine the association between cardiovascular reactivity (CVR) and health behaviour change, as well as identify mediators and moderators. Eight papers that met the inclusion criteria, focused on smoking cessation and weight loss, were identified. Pooling data from studies exploring the prospective relationship between CVR (as systolic blood pressure) and smoking cessation found that exaggerated CVR was associated with smoking relapse (Hedges' g = 0.39, SE = 0.00, 95% CI 0.38 - 0.40, p < .001; I2 = 0%; N = 257) but did not find evidence that CVR responses were associated with changes in weight. In order to advance our understanding of reactivity as a modifiable determinant of health behaviour change, our review recommends exploring the association between CVR and other health behaviours, to determine the influence of blunted reactivity versus low motivational effort identify mediators and moderators and determine the focus of interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2020.1825714DOI Listing
September 2021

Bioenergetics modelling to analyse and predict the joint effects of multiple stressors: Meta-analysis and model corroboration.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Dec 4;749:141509. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Environment Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD, UK.

Understanding the consequences of the combined effects of multiple stressors-including stress from man-made chemicals-is important for conservation management, the ecological risk assessment of chemicals, and many other ecological applications. Our current ability to predict and analyse the joint effects of multiple stressors is insufficient to make the prospective risk assessment of chemicals more ecologically relevant because we lack a full understanding of how organisms respond to stress factors alone and in combination. Here, we describe a Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) based bioenergetics model that predicts the potential effects of single or multiple natural and chemical stressors on life history traits. We demonstrate the plausibility of the model using a meta-analysis of 128 existing studies on freshwater invertebrates. We then validate our model by comparing its predictions for a combination of three stressors (i.e. chemical, temperature, and food availability) with new, independent experimental data on life history traits in the daphnid Ceriodaphnia dubia. We found that the model predictions are in agreement with observed growth curves and reproductive traits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that the combined effects of three stress factors on life history traits observed in laboratory studies have been predicted successfully in invertebrates. We suggest that a re-analysis of existing studies on multiple stressors within the modelling framework outlined here will provide a robust null model for identifying stressor interactions, and expect that a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms will arise from these new analyses. Bioenergetics modelling could be applied more broadly to support environmental management decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141509DOI Listing
December 2020

'Trying to bring attention to your body when you're not sure where it is': An interpretative phenomenological analysis of drivers and barriers to mindfulness for people with spinal cord injury.

Br J Health Psychol 2021 02 4;26(1):161-178. Epub 2020 Aug 4.

The University of Derby, UK.

Objectives: Work is beginning to explore the impact of mindfulness in managing the physical and psychological health of people with spinal cord injury (SCI). However, no previous work has sought to understand what drives people with such conditions to try mindfulness, and what barriers are experienced in accessing mindfulness.

Design: An exploratory, qualitative, interview design, utilizing interpretative phenomenological analysis.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 people with SCI who had experience of mindfulness since sustaining their injury. Verbatim transcripts were analysed using IPA to understand the lived experience of mindfulness post-SCI.

Results: Analysis suggested that managing physical and mental health, and viewing mindfulness as proactive and protective were key drivers for exploring mindfulness. However, multiple barriers to accessing opportunities and developing capability impeded engagement. These included the focus on areas of the body that participants had reduced sensation in, physical environments that could not be navigated in a wheelchair, social stigma surrounding the use of mindfulness, and a sense of obligation and risk of failure implied by perceived requirements for engagement.

Conclusions: The results demonstrate the need for specific interventions to accommodate the reduced sensory and physical function experienced by people with neurological conditions and to enhance sense of control and autonomy. In addition, recommendations include minimizing the stigma surrounding mindfulness, and the potentially demotivating impact of the perception of 'failing' to engage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjhp.12462DOI Listing
February 2021

Digital Self-Management Interventions for People With Osteoarthritis: Systematic Review With Meta-Analysis.

J Med Internet Res 2020 07 20;22(7):e15365. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

University of Derby Online Learning, Derby, United Kingdom.

Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is not curable, but the symptoms can be managed through self-management programs (SMPs). Owing to the growing burden of OA on the health system and the need to ensure high-quality integrated services, delivering SMPs through digital technologies could be an economic and effective community-based approach.

Objective: This study aims to analyze the effectiveness of digital-based structured SMPs on patient outcomes in people with OA.

Methods: A total of 7 web-based and 3 gray literature databases were searched for randomized controlled trials assessing digital-based structured SMPs on self-reported outcomes including pain, physical function, disability, and health-related quality of life (QoL) in people with OA. Two reviewers independently screened the search results and reference lists of the identified papers and related reviews. Data on the intervention components and delivery and behavioral change techniques used were extracted. A meta-analysis, risk of bias sensitivity analysis, and subgroup analysis were performed where appropriate. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluations (GRADE) approach was used to assess the quality of evidence.

Results: A total of 8 studies were included in this review involving 2687 patients with knee (n=2); knee, hip, or both (n=5); and unspecified joint (n=1) OA. SMPs were delivered via telephone plus audio and video, internet, or mobile apps. Studies reported that digital-based structured SMPs compared with the treatment as usual control group (n=7) resulted in a significant, homogeneous, medium reduction in pain and improvement in physical function (standardized mean difference [SMD] -0.28, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.18 and SMD -0.26, 95% CI -0.35 to -0.16, respectively) at posttreatment. The digital-based structured SMP effect on pain and function reduced slightly at the 12-month follow-up but remained to be medium and significant. The posttreatment effect of digital-based structured SMPs was small and significant for disability, but nonsignificant for QoL (SMD -0.10, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.03 and SMD -0.17, 95% CI -0.47 to 0.14, respectively; each reported in 1 study only). The 12-month follow-up effect of the intervention was very small for disability and QoL. The quality of evidence was rated as moderate for pain and physical function and low and very low for disability and QoL, respectively, using the GRADE approach.

Conclusions: Digital-based structured SMPs may result in improvement in pain and physical function that is largely sustained at the 12-month follow-up in people with knee and hip OA. The effects on disability and QoL are smaller and less clear. The quality of evidence is moderate to low, and further research is required to confirm the findings of the review and assess the effects of digital-based structured SMPs on other health-related outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/15365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428148PMC
July 2020

The Visual Search Strategies Underpinning Effective Observational Analysis in the Coaching of Climbing Movement.

Front Psychol 2020 28;11:1025. Epub 2020 May 28.

Human Sciences Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, United Kingdom.

Despite the importance of effective observational analysis in coaching the technical aspects of climbing performance, limited research informs this aspect of climbing coach education. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to explore the feasibility and the utility of a novel methodology, combining eye tracking technology and cued retrospective think-aloud (RTA), to capture the cognitive-perceptual mechanisms that underpin the visual search behaviors of climbing coaches. An analysis of gaze data revealed that expert climbing coaches demonstrate fewer fixations of greater duration and fixate on distinctly different areas of the visual display than their novice counterparts. Cued RTA further demonstrated differences in the cognitive-perceptual mechanisms underpinning these visual search strategies, with expert coaches being more cognizant of their visual search strategy. To expand, the gaze behavior of expert climbing coaches was underpinned by hierarchical and complex knowledge structures relating to the principles of climbing movement. This enabled the expert coaches to actively focus on the most relevant aspects of a climber's performance for analysis. The findings demonstrate the utility of combining eye tracking and cued RTA interviewing as a new, efficient methodology of capturing the cognitive-perceptual processes of climbing coaches to inform coaching education/strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7326104PMC
May 2020

Exposure to Contact Sports Results in Maintained Performance During Experimental Pain.

J Pain 2021 01 26;22(1):68-75. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

College of Life and Natural Sciences, University of Derby, Derby, Derbyshire, United Kingdom.

During pain, motor performance tends to decline. However, athletes who engage in contact sports are able to maintain performance despite the inherent pain that accompanies participation. This may be the result of being challenged rather than threatened by pain; adaptive coping strategies; habituation to pain; or finding pain less bothersome. This study aimed to measure performance of a novel motor task both in pain and not in pain within experienced contact athletes (n = 40), novice contact athletes (n = 40), and noncontact athletes (n = 40). Challenge and threat perceptions were manipulated during the pain condition and measures of pain tolerance, perception, coping styles, and bothersomeness were taken. Results indicated that contact athletes, regardless of experience, were able to maintain their performance during painful stimulation. Noncontact athletes, conversely, performed significantly worse during pain stimulation. In addition, contact athletes tended to be more challenged and the noncontact athletes more threatened within the pain condition. Experienced contact athletes demonstrated higher levels of pain tolerance and direct coping, and reported lower levels of pain bothersomeness and intensity than the other groups. The results suggest that even relatively brief exposure to contact sports may be enough to help maintain performance in pain. Being in a challenged state appears to be an important factor during performance in pain. Moreover, pain tolerance, intensity, and bothersomeness may differentiate novice and experienced athletes. PERSPECTIVE: Exposure to voluntary pain and challenge states are associated with adaptive responses to pain. Motor task performance may be maintained in individuals with more experience of sports-related pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2020.03.008DOI Listing
January 2021

Social ecological interventions to increase physical activity in children and young people living with and beyond cancer: a systematic review.

Psychol Health 2020 12 29;35(12):1477-1496. Epub 2020 May 29.

Human Sciences Research Centre, University of Derby, Derby, UK.

To identify the behaviour change techniques and intervention components associated with the promotion of physical activity (PA) for children and young people living with and beyond cancer. A systematic review and narrative synthesis was conducted on the evidence on PA interventions for children and young people (up to 30 years of age) living with and beyond cancer using a social ecological framework. Out of 12 studies, 8 were shown to change PA. Intervention components included (1) behavioural (Instruction on how to perform the behaviour, credible source, behavioural demonstration and rehearsal), (2) cognitive-emotional (targeting attitude, perceived behavioural control, intentions, resilience and achievement) (3) socio-cultural (family and peer support for PA), (4) environmental (providing access to resources, environmental restructuring, safety), (5) demographic (child, adolescent, young adult or mixed) and (6) medical (tailored exercise depending on age and cancer stage). Interventions designed to increase physical activity participation and adherence during and beyond cancer treatment for young people should integrate psychosocial (behavioural, cognitive-emotional, social), environmental and medical intervention components. Our conceptual model can be used to inform the development of interventions and guides future research objectives and priorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2020.1759601DOI Listing
December 2020

A Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes: A Revised Conceptualization.

Front Psychol 2020 6;11:126. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Department of Psychology, School of Health and Life Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, United Kingdom.

The Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) provides a psychophysiological framework for how athletes anticipate motivated performance situations. The purpose of this review is to discuss how research has addressed the 15 predictions made by the TCTSA, to evaluate the mechanisms underpinning the TCTSA in light of the research that has emerged in the last 10 years, and to inform a revised TCTSA (TCTSA-R). There was support for many of the 15 predictions in the TCTSA, with two main areas for reflection identified: to understand the physiology of challenge and to re-evaluate the concept of resource appraisals. This re-evaluation informs the TCTSA-R, which elucidates the physiological changes, predispositions, and cognitive appraisals that mark challenge and threat states. First, the relative strength of the sympathetic nervous system response is outlined as a determinant of challenge and threat patterns of reactivity and we suggest that oxytocin and neuropeptide Y are also key indicators of an adaptive approach to motivated performance situations and can facilitate a challenge state. Second, although predispositions were acknowledged within the TCTSA, how these may influence challenge and threat states was not specified. In the TCTSA-R, it is proposed that one's propensity to appraise stressors is a challenge that most strongly dictates acute cognitive appraisals. Third, in the TCTSA-R, a more parsimonious integration of Lazarusian ideas of cognitive appraisal and challenge and threat is proposed. Given that an athlete can make both challenge and threat primary appraisals and can have both high or low resources compared to perceived demands, a 2 × 2 bifurcation theory of challenge and threat is proposed. This reflects polychotomy of four states: high challenge, low challenge, low threat, and high threat. For example, in low threat, an athlete can evince a threat state but still perform well so long as they perceive high resources. Consequently, we propose suggestions for research concerning measurement tools and a reconsideration of resources to include social support. Finally, applied recommendations are made based on adjusting demands and enhancing resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00126DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7016194PMC
February 2020

Personality Predictors of Yips and Choking Susceptibility.

Front Psychol 2019 21;10:2784. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

Human Sciences Research Centre, University of Derby, Derby, United Kingdom.

The ability to perform under heightened levels of pressures is one of the largest discriminators of those who achieve success in competition and those who do not. There are several phenomena associated with breakdowns in an athlete's performance in a high-pressure environment, collectively known as paradoxical performances. The two most prevalent and researched forms of paradoxical performance are the yips and choking. The aim of the current study is to investigate a range of psychological traits (fear of negative evaluation, individual differences, anxiety sensitivity, self-consciousness, perfectionistic self-presentation, and perfectionism) and their ability to predict susceptibility to choking and the yips in an experienced athlete sample. 155 athletes (Golfers = 86; Archers = 69) completed six trait measures and a self-report measure of yips or choking experience. The prevalence rate for choking and yips in both archers and golfers was 67.7 and 39.4%, respectively. A 2 × 2 × 2 MANOVA and discriminant function analysis revealed that a combination of 11 variables correctly classified 71% of choking and non-choking participants. Furthermore, analysis confirmed that a combination of four variables correctly classified 69% of the yips and non-yips affected participants. In this first study to examine both paradoxical performances simultaneously, these findings revealed that for the yips, all predictors stemmed from social sources (i.e., perfectionistic self-presentation), whereas choking was associated with anxiety and perfectionism, as well as social traits. This important distinction identified here should now be tested to understand the role of these traits as development or consequential factors of choking and the yips.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6985575PMC
January 2020

Group singing improves quality of life for people with Parkinson's: an international study.

Aging Ment Health 2021 04 5;25(4):650-656. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Queensland Conservatorium Research Centre, Griffith University, South Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Group singing has been reported to enhance quality of life (QoL) and mental health in older people. This paper explored whether there are differences in the effects of group singing intervention on people with Parkinson's (PwPs) in Australia, UK and South Korea. The study included PwPs ( = 95; mean age = 70.26; male 45%) who participated in a standardised 6-month weekly group singing programme. Parkinson's health-related QoL measure (PDQ39) and mental health assessment (DASS) were administered at baseline and follow-up. ANOVAs were performed with significance set as < . ANOVAs revealed main effects of Time on the Stigma and Social Support subscales of PDQ39; both showed a small but significant improvement over time. However, the social support reduction was moderated by country; social support was improved only in South Korean participants. The reduction in stigma was greater than previously reported minimal clinically important differences, as was the social support reduction in South Korean participants. In terms of mental health, ANOVAs revealed that the scores of Anxiety and Stress domains of DASS significantly decreased from pre-test to post-test with small effect sizes. This first international singing study with PwPs demonstrated that group singing can reduce stigma, anxiety and stress and enhance social support in older adults living with Parkinson's. The findings are encouraging and warrant further research using more robust designs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2020.1720599DOI Listing
April 2021

A systematic review on the effects of group singing on persistent pain in people with long-term health conditions.

Eur J Pain 2020 01 15;24(1):71-90. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

School of Medicine, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia.

Background And Objectives: Singing can have a range of health benefits; this paper reviews the evidence of the effects of group singing for chronic pain in people with long-term health conditions.

Database And Data Treatment: We searched for published peer-reviewed singing studies reporting pain measures (intensity, interference and depression) using major electronic databases (last search date 31 July 2018). After screening 123 full texts, 13 studies met the inclusion criteria: five randomized controlled trials (RCTs), seven non-RCTs and one qualitative study. Included studies were appraised using Downs and Black and the Critical Appraisals Skills Programme quality assessments.

Results: Included studies reported differences in the type of singing intervention, long-term condition and pain measures. Due to the high heterogeneity, we conducted a narrative review. Singing interventions were found to reduce pain intensity in most studies, but there was more equivocal support for reducing pain interference and depression. Additionally, qualitative data synthesis identified three key linked and complementary themes: physical, psychological and social benefits.

Conclusion: Group singing appears to have the potential to reduce pain intensity, pain interference and depression; however, we conclude that there is only partial support for singing on some pain outcomes based on the limited available evidence of varied quality. Given the positive findings of qualitative studies, this review recommends that practitioners are encouraged to continue this work. More studies of better quality are needed. Future studies should adopt more robust methodology and report their singing intervention in details. Group singing may be an effective and safe approach for reducing persistent pain and depression in people with long-term health conditions.

Significance: This systematic review assesses research evidence for the effectiveness of group singing on chronic pain in people with long-term health conditions. Narrative syntheses revealed that there is partial support for singing effects on some pain outcomes based on the limited available evidence of varied quality. Qualitative data provided additional support of physical, psychological and social benefits. The review highlights implications for practice and future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejp.1485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6972717PMC
January 2020

A Smartphone App for Improving Mental Health through Connecting with Urban Nature.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 09 12;16(18). Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Department of Landscape Architecture, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.

In an increasingly urbanised world where mental health is currently in crisis, interventions to increase human engagement and connection with the natural environment are one of the fastest growing, most widely accessible, and cost-effective ways of improving human wellbeing. This study aimed to provide an evaluation of a smartphone app-based wellbeing intervention. In a randomised controlled trial study design, the app prompted 582 adults, including a subgroup of adults classified by baseline scores on the Recovering Quality of Life scale as having a common mental health problem ( = 148), to notice the good things about urban nature (intervention condition) or built spaces (active control). There were statistically significant and sustained improvements in wellbeing at one-month follow-up. Importantly, in the noticing urban nature condition, compared to a built space control, improvements in quality of life reached statistical significance for all adults and clinical significance for those classified as having a mental health difficulty. This improvement in wellbeing was partly explained by significant increases in nature connectedness and positive affect. This study provides the first controlled experimental evidence that noticing the good things about urban nature has strong clinical potential as a wellbeing intervention and social prescription.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16183373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6765898PMC
September 2019

The myotubularin MTMR4 regulates phagosomal phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate turnover and phagocytosis.

J Biol Chem 2019 11 22;294(45):16684-16697. Epub 2019 Sep 22.

Monash Biomedicine Discovery Institute and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Victoria 3800, Australia

Macrophage phagocytosis is required for effective clearance of invading bacteria and other microbes. Coordinated phosphoinositide signaling is critical both for phagocytic particle engulfment and subsequent phagosomal maturation to a degradative organelle. Phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) is a phosphoinositide that is rapidly synthesized and degraded on phagosomal membranes, where it recruits FYVE domain- and PX motif-containing proteins that promote phagosomal maturation. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate PtdIns(3)P removal from the phagosome have remained unclear. We report here that a myotubularin PtdIns(3)P 3-phosphatase, myotubularin-related protein-4 (MTMR4), regulates macrophage phagocytosis. MTMR4 overexpression reduced and siRNA-mediated silencing increased levels of cell-surface immunoglobulin receptors ( Fcγ receptors (FcγRs)) on RAW 264.7 macrophages, associated with altered pseudopodal F-actin. Furthermore, MTMR4 negatively regulated the phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized particles, indicating that MTMR4 inhibits FcγR-mediated phagocytosis, and was dynamically recruited to phagosomes of macrophages during phagocytosis. MTMR4 overexpression decreased and -specific siRNA expression increased the duration of PtdIns(3)P on phagosomal membranes. Macrophages treated with -specific siRNA were more resistant to -induced phagosome arrest, associated with increased maturation of mycobacterial phagosomes, indicating that extended PtdIns(3)P signaling on phagosomes in the -knockdown cells permitted trafficking of phagosomes to acidic late endosomal and lysosomal compartments. In conclusion, our findings indicate that MTMR4 regulates PtdIns(3)P degradation in macrophages and thereby controls phagocytosis and phagosomal maturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA119.009133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6851315PMC
November 2019

Sweating the small stuff: A meta-analysis of skin conductance on the Iowa gambling task.

Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 2019 10;19(5):1097-1112

Department of Psychology, University of Derby, Derby, UK.

To systematically examine the role of anticipatory skin conductance responses (aSCRs) in predicting Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) performance. Secondly, to assess the quality of aSCR evidence for the Somatic Marker Hypothesis (SMH) during the IGT. Finally, to evaluate the reliability of current psychophysiological measurements on the IGT. Electronic databases, journals and reference lists were examined for inclusion. Data were extracted by two reviewers and validated by another reviewer, using a standardised extraction sheet along with a quality assessment. Two meta-analyses of aSCR measures were conducted to test the relationship between overall aSCR and IGT performance, and differences in aSCR between advantageous and disadvantageous decks. Twenty studies were included in this review. Quality assessment revealed that five studies did not measure anticipatory responses, and few stated they followed standard IGT and/or psychophysiological procedures. The first meta-analysis of 15 studies revealed a significant, small-to-medium relationship between aSCR and IGT performance (r= .22). The second meta-analysis of eight studies revealed a significant, small difference in aSCR between the advantageous and disadvantageous decks (r= .10); however, publication bias is likely to be an issue. Meta-analyses revealed aSCR evidence supporting the SMH. However, inconsistencies in the IGT and psychophysiological methods, along with publication bias, cast doubt on these effects. It is recommended that future tests of the SMH use a range of psychophysiological measures, a standardised IGT protocol, and discriminate between advantageous and disadvantageous decks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13415-019-00744-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6785590PMC
October 2019

Exploring the relationship between gamma-band activity and maths anxiety.

Cogn Emot 2019 Mar 18:1-11. Epub 2019 Mar 18.

a Psychology Department , University of Derby , Derby , UK.

Previous research has outlined high anxiety in connection with gamma modulation, identifying that gamma-band activity (40-100 Hz) correlates with processing of threat perception, attention and anxiety. Maths anxiety research has also noted the involvement of these aspects, yet this has not been investigated from a neurophysiological standpoint. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to research gamma-band activity in relation to maths anxiety over two studies. The first measured gamma differences during the processing of complex addition and multiplication stimuli. Results identified differences between high and low maths anxious individuals; significantly greater gamma power was observed in those with high maths anxiety than those with low maths anxiety. As a control condition was not used, the second study replicated the design, but also applied a non-numerical control condition amongst the other stimuli sets. This showed significantly greater gamma activity in high maths anxious individuals across numerical conditions, but not in the non-numerical condition. High maths anxious individuals likely show attentional bias and threat perception to numerical-based stimuli, as indexed by gamma power. This study provides the first evidence of greater gamma-band activity in high maths anxious individuals and serves as a foundation for the exploration of gamma activity in high maths anxious individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02699931.2019.1590317DOI Listing
March 2019

Mental contrasting for health behaviour change: a systematic review and meta-analysis of effects and moderator variables.

Health Psychol Rev 2019 06 29;13(2):209-225. Epub 2019 Mar 29.

a Enterprise Centre , University of Derby , Derby , UK.

Mental contrasting is a self-regulation imagery strategy that involves imagining a desired future and mentally contrasting it with the present reality, which is assumed to prompt the individual to realise that action is required to achieve the desired future. Research has combined mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) ('if-then' plans), which is hypothesised to strengthen the effects. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mental contrasting for improving health-related behaviours. A meta-analysis (N = 1528) using random effects modelling found a main effect of mental contrasting on health outcomes, adjusted Hedges' g = 0.28 (SE = .07), 95% CI [0.13-0.43], p < .001 at up to four weeks, and an increased effect at up to three months (k = 5), g = 0.38 (SE = 0.6), CI [0.20-0.55], p < .001. The combination of mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII; k = 7) showed a similar effect, g = 0.28, CI [0.14-0.42], p < .001. Mental contrasting shows promise as a brief behaviour change strategy with a significant small to moderate-sized effect on changing health behaviour in the short-term. Analysis on a small subset of studies suggested that the addition of implementation intentions (MCII) did not further strengthen the effects of mental contrasting on health behaviours, although additional studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2019.1594332DOI Listing
June 2019

Shmapped: development of an app to record and promote the well-being benefits of noticing urban nature.

Transl Behav Med 2020 08;10(3):723-733

College of Life and Natural Sciences, Centre for Psychological Research, University of Derby, Derby, UK.

The majority of research to date on the links between well-being and green spaces comes from cross-sectional studies. Shmapped is an app that allows for the collection of well-being and location data live in the field and acts as a novel dual data collection tool and well-being intervention, which prompts users to notice the good things about their surroundings. We describe the process of developing Shmapped from storyboarding, budgeting, and timescales; selecting a developer; drawing up data protection plans; and collaborating with developers and end-user testers to ultimately publishing Shmapped. The development process and end-user testing resulted in a highly functional app. Limitations and future uses of such novel dual data collection and intervention apps are discussed and recommendations are made for prospective developers and researchers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/tbm/ibz027DOI Listing
August 2020

Motor performance during experimental pain: The influence of exposure to contact sports.

Eur J Pain 2019 05 19;23(5):1020-1030. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

University of Derby, Derby, UK.

Background: Athletes who play contact sports are regularly exposed to pain, yet manage to perform complex tasks without significant decrement. Limited research has suggested that superior pain tolerance in contact athletes may be important in this context and this may be altered via experience of pain. Other psychological variables such as challenge states, pain bothersomeness and coping style may also influence skill execution during pain.

Methods: Forty experienced contact athletes (>3 years experience), 40 novice contact athletes (<6 months experience) and 40 non-contact athletes performed a motor task both in pain and without pain. During the pain condition, pressure pain was induced and half of each group were given challenge instructions and the other half threat based instructions. Measures of cognitive appraisal, heart rate variability, pain bothersomeness, tolerance and intensity and coping styles were taken.

Results: Contact athletes, regardless of experience, performed better during pain compared to the non-contact athletes, this relationship was mediated by pain tolerance and physical bothersomeness. During the threat condition, experience of contact sports moderated performance. Contact athletes were challenged by the pain, regardless of the instructions given, had higher direct coping and found pain less psychologically bothersome. Experienced contact athletes had higher pain tolerance and reported pain as less intense than the other groups.

Conclusions: Athletes who play contact sports may have better coping and adjustment to experimental pain, especially during threatening conditions. Performance during experimental pain is mediated by pain tolerance and physical pain bothersomeness.

Significance: Athletes with even relatively small amounts of contact sport experience perform better during experimental pain than athletes who play non-contact sports. Experienced contact athletes had higher levels of direct coping and were more challenged and less threatened by pain than non-contact athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejp.1370DOI Listing
May 2019

An Exploration of Formal and Informal Mindfulness Practice and Associations with Wellbeing.

Mindfulness (N Y) 2019 21;10(1):89-99. Epub 2018 May 21.

5University of Derby, Derby, England.

Mindfulness has transdiagnostic applicability, but little is known about how people first begin to practice mindfulness and what sustains practice in the long term. The aim of the present research was to explore the experiences of a large sample of people practicing mindfulness, including difficulties with practice and associations between formal and informal mindfulness practice and wellbeing. In this cross-sectional study, 218 participants who were practicing mindfulness or had practiced in the past completed an online survey about how they first began to practice mindfulness, difficulties and supportive factors for continuing to practice, current wellbeing, and psychological flexibility. Participants had practiced mindfulness from under a year up to 43 years. There was no significant difference in the frequency of formal mindfulness practice between those who had attended a face-to-face taught course and those who had not. Common difficulties included finding time to practice formally and falling asleep during formal practice. Content analysis revealed "practical resources," "time/routine," "support from others," and "attitudes and beliefs," which were supportive factors for maintaining mindfulness practice. Informal mindfulness practice was related to positive wellbeing and psychological flexibility. Frequency (but not duration) of formal mindfulness practice was associated with positive wellbeing; however, neither frequency nor duration of formal mindfulness practice was significantly associated with psychological flexibility. Mindfulness teachers will be able to use the present findings to further support their students by reminding them of the benefits as well as normalising some of the challenges of mindfulness practice including falling asleep.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-0951-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6320743PMC
May 2018

Exploring Emptiness and its Effects on Non-attachment, Mystical Experiences, and Psycho-spiritual Wellbeing: A Quantitative and Qualitative Study of Advanced Meditators.

Explore (NY) 2019 Jul - Aug;15(4):261-272. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Human Sciences Research Centre, University of Derby, Kedleston Road, Derby, Derbyshire DE22 1GB, United Kingdom.

Wisdom-based Buddhist-derived practices (BDPs) are concerned with transmuting suffering by cultivating insight into the ultimate nature of both the self and reality. Arguably the most important wisdom-based BDP is emptiness (Sanskrit: śūnyatā) that implies that although phenomena are perceptible to the human mind, they do not intrinsically exist. Despite its significance in Buddhism, emptiness has received little empirical attention. Advancing scientific understanding of emptiness is important as it may yield novel insights not only into the nature of mind and reality, but also in terms of helping human beings realise more of their capacity for wisdom and wellbeing. This study recruited 25 advanced Buddhist meditators and compared emptiness meditation against a mindfulness meditation control condition within the same group of participants. Qualitative analytical techniques were also employed to investigate meditators' experiences of emptiness. Compared to the mindfulness control condition, emptiness meditation resulted in significantly greater improvements in non-attachment to self and environment, mystical experiences, compassion, positive affect, and negative affect. No significant relationship was observed between duration of emptiness meditation and any of the aforementioned outcome measures. Qualitative outcomes demonstrated that participants (i) combined concentrative and investigative meditation techniques to induce emptiness, (ii) elicited spiritually meaningful insights both during and following the meditation on emptiness, and (iii) retained volitional control over the content and duration of the emptiness meditation. Cultivating emptiness appears to be a means of reconnecting advanced Buddhist meditators to what they deem to be the innermost nature of their minds and phenomena.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.explore.2018.12.003DOI Listing
June 2020

Meditation-Induced Near-Death Experiences: a 3-Year Longitudinal Study.

Mindfulness (N Y) 2018 12;9(6):1794-1806. Epub 2018 Mar 12.

5Psychology Department, Nottingham Trent University, Nottinghamshire, UK.

Near-death experiences (NDEs) are life transformational events that are increasingly being subjected to empirical research. However, to date, no study has investigated the phenomenon of a meditation-induced near-death experience (MI-NDE) that is referred to in ancient Buddhist texts. Given that some advanced Buddhist meditators can induce NDEs at a pre-planned point in time, the MI-NDE may make NDEs more empirically accessible and thus advance understanding into the psychology of death-related processes. The present study recruited 12 advanced Buddhist meditators and compared the MI-NDE against two other meditation practices (i.e. that acted as control conditions) in the same participant group. Changes in the content and profundity of the MI-NDE were assessed longitudinally over a 3-year period. Findings demonstrated that compared to the control conditions, the MI-NDE prompted significantly greater pre-post increases in NDE profundity, mystical experiences and non-attachment. Furthermore, participants demonstrated significant increases in NDE profundity across the 3-year study period. Findings from an embedded qualitative analysis (using grounded theory) demonstrated that participants (i) were consciously aware of experiencing NDEs, (ii) retained volitional control over the content and duration of NDEs and (iii) elicited a rich array of non-worldly encounters and spiritual experiences. In addition to providing corroborating evidence in terms of the content of a "regular" (i.e. non-meditation-induced) NDE, novel NDE features identified in the present study indicate that there exist unexplored and/or poorly understood dimensions to NDEs. Furthermore, the study indicates that it would be feasible-including ethically feasible-for future research to recruit advanced meditators in order to assess real-time changes in neurological activity during NDEs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12671-018-0922-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6244634PMC
March 2018

Performance Under Stress: An Eye-Tracking Investigation of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT).

Front Behav Neurosci 2018 24;12:217. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

University of Derby Online Learning, University of Derby, Derby, United Kingdom.

Stress pervades everyday life and impedes risky decision making. The following experiment is the first to examine effects of stress on risky decision making in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), while measuring inspection time and conscious awareness of deck contingencies. This was original as it allowed a fine grained rigorous analysis of the way that stress impedes awareness of, and attention to maladaptive financial choices. The extended Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT) further afforded examination of the impact of impaired reflective thinking on risky decision making. Stressed participants were slower to avoid the disadvantageous decks and performed worse overall. They inspected disadvantageous decks for longer than the control condition and were slower in developing awareness of their poor deck quality compared to the control condition. Conversely, in the control condition greater inspection times for advantageous decks were observed earlier in the task, and better awareness of the deck contingencies was shown as early as the second block of trials than the stress condition. Path analysis suggested that stress reduced IGT performance by impeding reflective thinking and conscious awareness. Explicit cognitive processes, moreover, were important during the preliminary phase of IGT performance-a finding that has significant implications for the use of the IGT as a clinical diagnostic tool. It was concluded that stress impedes reflective thinking, attentional disengagement from poorer decks, and the development of conscious knowledge about choice quality that interferes with performance on the IGT. These data demonstrate that stress impairs risky decision making performance, by impeding attention to, and awareness of task characteristics in risky decision making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2018.00217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6166123PMC
September 2018

The psychosocial impact of caregiving in dementia and quality of life: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative research.

Psychol Health 2018 11 27;33(11):1321-1342. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

a University of Derby Online Learning , University of Derby , Derby , UK.

Objective: A systematic meta-synthesis of qualitative studies was conducted to interpret and synthesise findings from studies investigating the experiences, quality of life, and psychosocial impact of caregiving on adult informal caregivers of people with dementia.

Design: The meta-synthesis was conducted according to the principles of meta-ethnography.

Results: Fourteen studies describing the experiences of 265 informal caregivers were reviewed. The meta-synthesis elicited the following themes: (1) understanding and making sense of the dementia diagnosis, changing symptoms, and the caregiver role; (2) coping strategies, psychological facilitators and rewards of caregiver role; (3) challenges of caring for a person with dementia and their behaviour; (4) caregivers' relationships with care-recipient and other informal caregivers; and (5) caregivers' experiences of formal support services and material resources.

Conclusion: Our findings highlight the need for a person-centred approach to care planning that also accounts for the needs of the informal caregiver to promote better caregiver well-being and quality of life. Caregivers' emotional support, coping, resilience, need for information and respite care and adjustment to caregiver identity should be reviewed as part of the care package for the person with dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2018.1496250DOI Listing
November 2018

The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Quality of Life scale (PCOSQOL): Development and preliminary validation.

Health Psychol Open 2018 Jul-Dec;5(2):2055102918788195. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

University of Derby, UK.

Polycystic ovary syndrome is an endocrine disorder amongst women, which can negatively impact quality of life. Research proposes that a more sensitive PCOS quality of life measure is needed. This study aims to develop and initially validate a quality of life scale for women with the condition in the United Kingdom. Women with PCOS (n = 714) took part in the development and initial validation of the 35-item polycystic ovary syndrome quality of life scale (PCOSQOL)(α = .95). Subscales include Impact of PCOS (α = .95), Infertility (α = .95), Hirsutism (α = .97) and Mood (α = .89). The PCOSQOL scale represents aspects of quality of life important to women with PCOS and may be more sensitive for use in the clinical and research settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2055102918788195DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6053872PMC
July 2018

A study of inter-individual variability in the Phase II metabolism of xenobiotics in human skin.

Toxicol Lett 2018 Aug 27;292:63-72. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

Institute of Cancer Therapeutics, University of Bradford, Bradford, BD7 1DP, United Kingdom.

Understanding skin metabolism is key to improve in vitro to in vivo extrapolations used to inform risk assessments of topically applied products. However, published literature is scarce and usually covers a limited and non-representative number of donors. We developed a protocol to handle and store ex vivo skin samples post-surgery and prepare skin S9 fractions to measure the metabolic activity of Phase II enzymes. Preincubation of an excess of cofactors at 37 °C for fifteen minutes in the S9 before introduction of the testing probe, greatly increased the stability of the enzymes. Using this standardised assay, the rates of sulphation (SULT) and glucuronidation (UGT) of 7-hydroxycoumarin, methylation (COMT) of dopamine and N-acetylation (NAT) of procainamide were measured in the ng/mg protein/h (converted to ng/cm/h) range in eighty-seven individuals. Glutathione conjugation (GST) of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene was assessed in a smaller pool of fifty donors; the metabolic rate was much faster and measured over six minutes using a different methodology to express rates in μg/mg protein/min (converted to μg/cm/min). A comprehensive statistical analysis of these results was carried out, separating donors by age, gender and metabolic rate measured.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2018.04.011DOI Listing
August 2018
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