Publications by authors named "David S Strayer"

49 Publications

Migration of bone marrow progenitor cells in the adult brain of rats and rabbits.

World J Stem Cells 2016 Apr;8(4):136-57

Donnahue Dennie, Jean-Pierre Louboutin, Section of Anatomy, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, University of the West Indies, Mona Campus, Kingston 7, Jamaica.

Neurogenesis takes place in the adult mammalian brain in three areas: Subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus (DG); subventricular zone of the lateral ventricle; olfactory bulb. Different molecular markers can be used to characterize the cells involved in adult neurogenesis. It has been recently suggested that a population of bone marrow (BM) progenitor cells may migrate to the brain and differentiate into neuronal lineage. To explore this hypothesis, we injected recombinant SV40-derived vectors into the BM and followed the potential migration of the transduced cells. Long-term BM-directed gene transfer using recombinant SV40-derived vectors leads to expression of the genes delivered to the BM firstly in circulating cells, then after several months in mature neurons and microglial cells, and thus without central nervous system (CNS) lesion. Most of transgene-expressing cells expressed NeuN, a marker of mature neurons. Thus, BM-derived cells may function as progenitors of CNS cells in adult animals. The mechanism by which the cells from the BM come to be neurons remains to be determined. Although the observed gradual increase in transgene-expressing neurons over 16 mo suggests that the pathway involved differentiation of BM-resident cells into neurons, cell fusion as the principal route cannot be totally ruled out. Additional studies using similar viral vectors showed that BM-derived progenitor cells migrating in the CNS express markers of neuronal precursors or immature neurons. Transgene-positive cells were found in the subgranular zone of the DG of the hippocampus 16 mo after intramarrow injection of the vector. In addition to cells expressing markers of mature neurons, transgene-positive cells were also positive for nestin and doublecortin, molecules expressed by developing neuronal cells. These cells were actively proliferating, as shown by short term BrdU incorporation studies. Inducing seizures by using kainic acid increased the number of BM progenitor cells transduced by SV40 vectors migrating to the hippocampus, and these cells were seen at earlier time points in the DG. We show that the cell membrane chemokine receptor, CCR5, and its ligands, enhance CNS inflammation and seizure activity in a model of neuronal excitotoxicity. SV40-based gene delivery of RNAi targeting CCR5 to the BM results in downregulating CCR5 in circulating cells, suggesting that CCR5 plays an important role in regulating traffic of BM-derived cells into the CNS, both in the basal state and in response to injury. Furthermore, reduction in CCR5 expression in circulating cells provides profound neuroprotection from excitotoxic neuronal injury, reduces neuroinflammation, and increases neuronal regeneration following this type of insult. These results suggest that BM-derived, transgene-expressing, cells can migrate to the brain and that they become neurons, at least in part, by differentiating into neuron precursors and subsequently developing into mature neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4252/wjsc.v8.i4.136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4835673PMC
April 2016

Oxidative Stress Is Associated with Neuroinflammation in Animal Models of HIV-1 Tat Neurotoxicity.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2014 May 16;3(2):414-38. Epub 2014 May 16.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

HIV-1 trans-acting protein Tat, an essential protein for viral replication, is a key mediator of neurotoxicity. If Tat oxidant injury and neurotoxicity have been described, consequent neuroinflammation is less understood. Rat caudate-putamens (CPs) were challenged with Tat, with or without prior rSV40-delivered superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase. Tat injection caused oxidative stress. Administration of Tat in the CP induced an increase in numbers of Iba-1- and CD68-positive cells, as well as an infiltration of astrocytes. We also tested the effect of more protracted Tat exposure on neuroinflammation using an experimental model of chronic Tat exposure. SV(Tat): a recombinant SV40-derived gene transfer vector was inoculated into the rat CP, leading to chronic expression of Tat, oxidative stress, and ongoing apoptosis, mainly located in neurons. Intra-CP SV(Tat) injection induced an increase in microglia and astrocytes, suggesting that protracted Tat production increased neuroinflammation. SV(SOD1) or SV(GPx1) significantly reduced neuroinflammation following Tat administration into the CP. Thus, Tat-induced oxidative stress, CNS injury, neuron loss and inflammation may be mitigated by antioxidant gene delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox3020414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4665482PMC
May 2014

Relationship between the chemokine receptor CCR5 and microglia in neurological disorders: consequences of targeting CCR5 on neuroinflammation, neuronal death and regeneration in a model of epilepsy.

CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2013 Sep;12(6):815-29

Department of Pathology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Chemokines may play a role in leukocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during neuroinflammation and other neuropathological processes, such as epilepsy. The CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is a member of CC-chemokine receptor family that binds several chemokines, including CCL3 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, MIP-1alpha), CCL4 (macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta, MIP-1beta) and CCL5 (RANTES). The current review examines the relationship between CCR5 and the microglia in different neurological disorders and models of CNS injury. CCR5 expression is upregulated in different neurological diseases, where it is often immunolocalized in microglial cells. A multistep cascade couples CCR5 activation by chemokines to Ca(2+) increases in human microglia. Because changes in [Ca(2+)] (i) affect chemotaxis, secretion, and gene expression, pharmacologic modulation of this pathway may alter inflammatory and degenerative processes in the CNS. Consequently, targeting CCR5 by using CCR5 antagonists may attenuate critical aspects of neuroinflammation in different models of neurological disorders. To illustrate the interaction between CCR5 and microglia in the CNS, we used a model of excitotoxicity, and demonstrate the intimate involvement of CCR5 in neuron injury and inflammation attendant to kainic acid (KA)-induced neurotoxicity. CCR5 participates in neuronal injury caused by the excitotoxin, KA, brings inflammatory cells to the sites of KA-induced CNS injury, defines the extent of tissue loss after KA exposure and limits reparative responses. We used a SV40-derived vector carrying an interfering RNA (RNAi) that targets CCR5. Delivered directly to the bone marrow, this vector decreased CCR5 expression in circulating cells. Animals so treated showed greatly reduced expression of CCR5 and its ligands (MIP-1alpha and RANTES) in the CNS, including in the brain vasculature, decreased BBB leakage, demonstrated greater KA-stimulated neurogenesis and increased migration of bone marrow-derived cells to the brain to become neurons. Thus, therapeutic targeting of CCR5 may allow control of potentially injurious neuroinflammatory responses, including decrease in microglial cells activation and proliferation, and facilitate neurogenic repair in seizure-induced and, potentially, other forms of CNS injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/18715273113126660173DOI Listing
September 2013

Raphael Rubin, 1956-2011.

Authors:
David S Strayer

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2012 Nov 21;36(11):1835-6. Epub 2012 Sep 21.

Department of Pathology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2012.01957.xDOI Listing
November 2012

Ethanol protects from injury due to ischemia and reperfusion by increasing vascularity via vascular endothelial growth factor.

Alcohol 2012 Aug 2;46(5):441-54. Epub 2012 May 2.

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Unlabelled: The cardioprotective effects of moderate ethanol consumption have been known for years and have generally been ascribed to long-term effects of alcohol on blood lipids. However, other mechanisms, particularly ethanol-induced increase in blood vessel density, may also be involved. Our goal was to understand the relationship between ethanol consumption, new blood vessel formation in vivo and protection from injury due to ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion. Using paired ethanol fed and control rats, we assessed capillary density in the heart, brain and skeletal muscle by immunostaining and quantified expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by Western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Numbers of vessels were significantly increased in the brain, heart and skeletal muscle of animals fed ethanol-rich diets. VEGF (and its receptors) were upregulated in these organs. These effects were very rapid: highly significantly increased vascularization was seen within 2 weeks of commencing alcohol feeding. A neutralizing VEGF antibody, bevacizumab, inhibited new blood vessel formation induced by moderate doses of ethanol. Ethanol consumption increased vascularization and promoted skeletal muscle regeneration following hindlimb ischemia; these effects were prevented by bevacizumab. Finally, ethanol consumption protected myocardium following experimental ischemia/reperfusion.

Conclusion: Experimental ethanol ingestion rapidly increases VEGF production, significantly increasing the capillary bed in the heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. Moreover, the ethanol-induced increase of blood vessel density is protective against ischemic events (i.e., hindlimb ischemia and myocardium ischemia/reperfusion) and promotes skeletal muscle regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2012.02.001DOI Listing
August 2012

Blood-brain barrier abnormalities caused by HIV-1 gp120: mechanistic and therapeutic implications.

ScientificWorldJournal 2012 1;2012:482575. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street Room 255 Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is compromised in many systemic and CNS diseases, including HIV-1 infection of the brain. We studied BBB disruption caused by HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (gp120) as a model. Exposure to gp120, whether acute [by direct intra-caudate-putamen (CP) injection] or chronic [using SV(gp120), an experimental model of ongoing production of gp120] disrupted the BBB, and led to leakage of vascular contents. Gp120 was directly toxic to brain endothelial cells. Abnormalities of the BBB reflect the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). These target laminin and attack the tight junctions between endothelial cells and BBB basal laminae. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were upregulated following gp120-injection. Gp120 reduced laminin and tight junction proteins. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate MMPs. Injecting gp120 induced lipid peroxidation. Gene transfer of antioxidant enzymes protected against gp120-induced BBB abnormalities. NMDA upregulates the proform of MMP-9. Using the NMDA receptor (NMDAR-1) inhibitor, memantine, we observed partial protection from gp120-induced BBB injury. Thus, (1) HIV-envelope gp120 disrupts the BBB; (2) this occurs via lesions in brain microvessels, MMP activation and degradation of vascular basement membrane and vascular tight junctions; (3) NMDAR-1 activation plays a role in this BBB injury; and (4) antioxidant gene delivery as well as NMDAR-1 antagonists may protect the BBB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1100/2012/482575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3289936PMC
July 2012

HIV-1 gp120 upregulates matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in a rat model of HIV encephalopathy.

Eur J Neurosci 2011 Dec 17;34(12):2015-23. Epub 2011 Nov 17.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in diverse processes, such as neuroinflammation, leakiness of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and direct cellular damage in neurodegenerative and other CNS diseases. Tissue destruction by MMPs is regulated by their endogenous tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). TIMPs prevent excessive MMP-related degradation of extracellular matrix components. In a rat model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related encephalopathy, we described MMP-2 and MMP-9 upregulation by HIV-1 envelope gp120, probably via gp120-induced reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant gene delivery blunted gp120-induced MMP production. We also studied the effect of gp120 on TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 production. TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels increased 6 h after gp120 injection into rat caudate-putamen (CP). TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 colocalized mainly with neurons (92 and 95%, respectively). By 24 h, expression of these protease inhibitors diverged, as TIMP-1 levels remained high but TIMP-2 subsided. Gene delivery of the antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase into the CP before injecting gp120 there reduced levels of gp120-induced TIMP-1 and TIMP-2, recapitulating the effect of antioxidant enzymes on gp120-induced MMP-2 and MMP-9. A significant correlation was observed between MMP/TIMP upregulation and BBB leakiness. Thus, HIV-1 gp120 upregulated TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in the CP. Prior antioxidant enzyme treatment mitigated production of these TIMPs, probably by reducing MMP expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9568.2011.07908.xDOI Listing
December 2011

HIV-1 Tat neurotoxicity: a model of acute and chronic exposure, and neuroprotection by gene delivery of antioxidant enzymes.

Neurobiol Dis 2012 Feb 17;45(2):657-70. Epub 2011 Oct 17.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) is an increasingly common, progressive disease characterized by neuronal loss and progressively deteriorating CNS function. HIV-1 gene products, particularly gp120 and Tat elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) that lead to oxidant injury and cause neuron apoptosis. Understanding of, and developing therapies for, HAND requires accessible models of the disease. We have devised experimental approaches to studying the acute and chronic effects of Tat on the CNS. We studied acute exposure by injecting recombinant Tat protein into the caudate-putamen (CP). Ongoing Tat expression, which more closely mimics HIV-1 infection of the brain, was studied by delivering Tat-expression over time using an SV40-derived gene delivery vector, SV(Tat). Both acute and chronic Tat exposure induced lipid peroxidation and neuronal apoptosis. Finally, prior administration of recombinant SV40 vectors carrying antioxidant enzymes, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) or glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), protected from Tat-induced apoptosis and oxidative injury. Thus, injection of recombinant HIV-1 Tat and the expression vector, SV(Tat), into the rat CP cause respectively acute or ongoing apoptosis and oxidative stress in neurons and may represent useful animal models for studying the pathogenesis and, potentially, treatment of HIV-1 Tat-related damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2011.10.005DOI Listing
February 2012

Perfluorochemical liquid-adenovirus suspensions enhance gene delivery to the distal lung.

Pulm Med 2011 18;2011:918036. Epub 2011 Aug 18.

The Cardiopulmonary Research Institute and Departments of Medicine and Pediatrics, SUNY Stony Brook School of Medicine, Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, NY 11507, USA.

WE COMPARED LUNG DELIVERY METHODS OF RECOMBINANT ADENOVIRUS (RAD): (1) rAd suspended in saline, (2) rAd suspended in saline followed by a pulse-chase of a perfluorochemical (PFC) liquid mixture, and (3) a PFC-rAd suspension. Cell uptake, distribution, and temporal expression of rAd were examined using A549 cells, a murine model using luciferase bioluminescence, and histological analyses. Relative to saline, a 4X increase in transduction efficiency was observed in A549 cells exposed to PFC-rAd for 2-4 h. rAd transgene expression was improved in alveolar epithelial cells, and the level and distribution of luciferase expression when delivered in PFC-rAd suspensions consistently peaked at 24 h. These results demonstrate that PFC-rAd suspensions improve distribution and enhance rAd-mediated gene expression which has important implications in improving lung function by gene therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/918036DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3159382PMC
November 2011

Lymphocyte adhesion to CCR5 ligands is reduced by anti-CCR5 gene delivery.

J Neurol Sci 2011 Sep 13;308(1-2):25-7. Epub 2011 Jul 13.

Department of Pathology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

Immune-mediated damage to the central nervous system (CNS) is an important contributor to many CNS diseases, including epilepsy. Chemokines play a role in leukocyte recruitment to, and migration across, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during many such processes. We previously investigated the role of the chemokine receptor CCR5 in a rat model of epilepsy based on intraperitoneal kainic acid (KA) administration. Before KA injection, rats were given intramarrow inoculations of SV(RNAiR5-RevM10.AU1), which carries an interfering RNA (RNAi) that targets CCR5. Decreased CCR5 expression in blood cells after vector administration reduced expression of CCR5 ligands MIP-1α and RANTES in the microvasculature, and strongly protected from BBB leakage, CNS loss and inflammation and facilitated CNS repair. We show here that rSV40-mediated downregulation of CCR5 in lymphocytes decreased cellular adhesion to surfaces carrying CCR5 ligands. These data suggest that reducing CCR5 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) might alter their adhesion to the microvasculature and their participation in inflammatory processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2011.06.039DOI Listing
September 2011

Efficient CNS gene delivery by intravenous injection.

Nat Methods 2010 Nov 17;7(11):905-7. Epub 2010 Oct 17.

Department of Pathology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

We administered recombinant SV40-derived viral vectors (rSV40s) intravenously to mice with or without prior intraperitoneal injection of mannitol to deliver transgenes to the central nervous system (CNS). We detected transgene-expressing cells (mainly neurons) most prominently in the cortex and spinal cord; prior intraperitoneal mannitol injection increased CNS gene delivery tenfold. Intravenous injection of rSV40s, particularly with mannitol pretreatment, resulted in extensive expression of multiple transgenes throughout the CNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.1518DOI Listing
November 2010

Role of CCR5 and its ligands in the control of vascular inflammation and leukocyte recruitment required for acute excitotoxic seizure induction and neural damage.

FASEB J 2011 Feb 12;25(2):737-53. Epub 2010 Oct 12.

Department of Pathology, Jefferson Medical College, 1020 Locust St., Rm. 251, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Chemokines may play a role in leukocyte migration across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) during neuroinflammation and other neuropathological processes, such as epilepsy. We investigated the role of the chemokine receptor CCR5 in seizures. We used a rat model based on intraperitoneal kainic acid (KA) administration. Four months before KA injection, adult rats were given femoral intramarrow inoculations of SV (RNAiR5-RevM10.AU1), which carries an interfering RNA (RNAi) against CCR5, plus a marker epitope (AU1), or its monofunctional RNAi-carrying homologue, SV(RNAiR5). This treatment lowered expression of CCR5 in circulating cells. In control rats, seizures induced elevated expression of CCR5 ligands MIP-1α and RANTES in the microvasculature, increased BBB leakage and CCR5(+) cells, as well as neuronal loss, inflammation, and gliosis in the hippocampi. Animals given either the bifunctional or the monofunctional vector were largely protected from KA-induced seizures, neuroinflammation, BBB damage, and neuron loss. Brain CCR5 mRNA was reduced. Rats receiving RNAiR5-bearing vectors showed far greater repair responses: increased neuronal proliferation, and decreased production of MIP-1α and RANTES. Controls received unrelated SV(BUGT) vectors. Decrease in CCR5 in circulating cells strongly protected from excitotoxin-induced seizures, BBB leakage, CNS injury, and inflammation, and facilitated neurogenic repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.10-161851DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3023386PMC
February 2011

Gene transfer to the cerebellum.

Cerebellum 2010 Dec;9(4):587-97

Department of Pathology, Jefferson Medical College, Thomas Jefferson University, 1020 Locust Street, Room 255, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

There are several diseases for which gene transfer therapy to the cerebellum might be practicable. In these studies, we used recombinant Tag-deleted SV40-derived vectors (rSV40s) to study gene delivery targeting the cerebellum. These vectors transduce neurons and microglia very effectively in vitro and in vivo, and so we tested them to evaluate gene transfer to the cerebellum in vivo. Using a rSV40 vector carrying human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-Nef with a C-terminal FLAG epitope, we characterized the distribution, duration, and cell types transduced. Rats received test and control vectors by stereotaxic injection into the cerebellum. Transgene expression was assessed 1, 2, and 4 weeks later by immunostaining of serial brain sections. FLAG epitope-expressing cells were seen, at all times after vector administration, principally detected in the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum, identified as immunopositive for calbindin. Occasional microglial cells were tranduced; transgene expression was not detected in astrocytes or oligodendrocytes. No inflammatory or other reaction was detected at any time. Thus, SV40-derived vectors can deliver effective, safe, and durable transgene expression to the cerebellum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12311-010-0202-9DOI Listing
December 2010

HIV-1 gp120-induced injury to the blood-brain barrier: role of metalloproteinases 2 and 9 and relationship to oxidative stress.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2010 Aug;69(8):801-16

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption occurs during human immunodeficiency virus encephalopathy, but the mechanisms involved are not understood. We studied how acute and ongoing exposure to human immunodeficiency virus 1 envelope gp120 alters BBB structure and permeability. Intravenous Evans blue, given before stereotaxic gp120 injection into the caudate putamen of rats, was rapidly extravasated. Gelatinolytic activity, studied by in situ zymography, was increased after gp120 administration and was localized within cerebral vessel walls. The gp120 increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9. Laminin and claudin-5, key BBB components and targets of both MMPs, were greatly reduced upon gp120 administration. The gp120 increased lipid peroxidation in the vascular endothelium and in neurons. Prior administration of rSV40 vectors carrying the antioxidant enzymes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase protected from gp120-induced BBB damage. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation upregulated pro-MMP-9 and increased MMP-9 gelatinase activity, and memantine, an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blocker, mitigated gp120-induced BBB abnormalities. Using intra-caudate putamen SV(gp120) to test the effects of chronic exposure to expressed gp120, we determined that oxidant stress and increased BBB permeability occurred as in acute exposure. These data indicate that both direct administration and cellular expression of gp120 lead to disruption of the BBB by increasing MMPs and reducing vascular tight junction proteins via mechanisms involving reactive oxygen species generation and oxidant injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NEN.0b013e3181e8c96fDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4707960PMC
August 2010

Titering replication-defective rSV40 vectors.

Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2010 Jun;2010(6):pdb.prot5437

Recombinant simian virus 40 (rSV40)-derived vectors are particularly useful for gene delivery to bone marrow progenitor cells and their differentiated derivatives, certain types of epithelial cells (e.g., hepatocytes), and central nervous system neurons and microglia. They integrate rapidly into cellular DNA to provide long-term gene expression in vitro and in vivo in both resting and dividing cells. Techniques used to produce, purify, and quantitate these vectors are simple, give reproducible results, and may be used to generate vectors that are deleted only for large T antigen (Tag), or for all SV40-coding sequences capable of carrying up to 5 kb of foreign DNA. Viruses are purified by centrifugation using discontinuous sucrose or cesium chloride (CsCl) gradients. Resulting vectors are replication-incompetent and contain no detectable wild-type SV40 revertants. Viruses are titered by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), described here. qPCR measures the number of rSV40 genomes in purified viral stocks using primers specific for the rSV40, coupled with SYBR Green detection of PCR products. Sample purity is assessed using qPCR via melt (dissociation) curve analysis. The only specialized equipment necessary is a quantitative real-time PCR machine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/pdb.prot5437DOI Listing
June 2010

Production of SV40-derived vectors.

Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2010 Jun;2010(6):pdb.prot5436

Recombinant simian virus 40 (rSV40)-derived vectors are particularly useful for gene delivery to bone marrow progenitor cells and their differentiated derivatives, certain types of epithelial cells (e.g., hepatocytes), and central nervous system neurons and microglia. They integrate rapidly into cellular DNA to provide long-term gene expression in vitro and in vivo in both resting and dividing cells. Here we describe a protocol for production and purification of these vectors. These procedures require only packaging cells (e.g., COS-7) and circular vector genome DNA. Amplification involves repeated infection of packaging cells with vector produced by transfection. Cotransfection is not required in any step. Viruses are purified by centrifugation using discontinuous sucrose or cesium chloride (CsCl) gradients and resulting vectors are replication-incompetent and contain no detectable wild-type SV40 revertants. These approaches are simple, give reproducible results, and may be used to generate vectors that are deleted only for large T antigen (Tag), or for all SV40-coding sequences capable of carrying up to 5 kb of foreign DNA. These vectors are best applied to long-term expression of proteins normally encoded by mammalian cells or by viruses that infect mammalian cells, or of untranslated RNAs (e.g., RNA interference). The preparative approaches described facilitate application of these vectors and allow almost any laboratory to exploit their strengths for diverse gene delivery applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/pdb.prot5436DOI Listing
June 2010

Blood-brain barrier abnormalities caused by exposure to HIV-1 gp120--protection by gene delivery of antioxidant enzymes.

Neurobiol Dis 2010 May 26;38(2):313-25. Epub 2010 Feb 26.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

HIV-1 effects on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) structure and function are still poorly understood in animal models based on direct administration of recombinant HIV proteins. We therefore injected HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, into rat caudate-putamens (CPs) and examined vascular integrity and function. Gp120 coimmunostained with endothelial cell marker, CD31. It induced apoptosis of endothelial cells in vitro and in vivo. BBB function was assessed by administering Evans Blue (EB) intravenously before injecting gp120. EB leaked near the site of gp120 administration. Within 1h after intra-CP gp120 injection, structures positive for endothelial markers ICAM-1 and RECA-1 were greatly decreased. Vascular density assessed by laminin immunostaining remained decreased 1 month after gp120 injection. RECA-1-positive cells expressed hydroxynonenal, a marker of lipid peroxidation and rSV40-mediated gene delivery of antioxidant enzymes protected the BBB from gp120-related injury. Extravasated IgG accumulated following intra-CP SV(gp120) injection, an experimental model of continuing gp120 exposure. Thus: acute and chronic exposure to gp120 disrupts the BBB; gp120-mediated BBB abnormalities are related to lesions of brain microvessels; and gp120 is directly toxic to brain endothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2010.02.007DOI Listing
May 2010

HIV-1 gp120-induced neuroinflammation: relationship to neuron loss and protection by rSV40-delivered antioxidant enzymes.

Exp Neurol 2010 Jan 11;221(1):231-45. Epub 2009 Nov 11.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Room 255, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

HIV-1 gp120 neurotoxicity and oxidant injury are well documented, but consequent neuroinflammation is less understood. Rat caudate-putamens (CPs) were challenged with 100-500 ng HIV-1BaL gp120, with or without prior rSV40-delivered superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase. CD11b-positive microglia were increased 1 day post-challenge; Iba-1- and ED1-positive cells peaked at 7 days and 14 days. Astrocyte infiltration was maximal at 7-14 days. MIP-1alpha was produced immediately, mainly by neurons. ED1- and GFAP-positive cells correlated with neuron loss and gp120 dose. We also tested the effect of more chronic gp120 exposure on neuroinflammation using an experimental model of continuing gp120 exposure. SV(gp120), a recombinant SV40-derived gene transfer vector was inoculated into the rat CP, leading to chronic expression of gp120, ongoing apoptosis in microglia and neurons, and oxidative stress. Increase in microglia and astrocytes was seen following intra-CP SV(gp120) injection, suggesting that continuing gp120 production increased neuroinflammation. SV(SOD1) or SV(GPx1) significantly reduced MIP-1alpha and limited neuroinflammation following gp120 administration into the CP, as well as microglia and astrocytes proliferation after injection of SV(gp120) in the striatum. Thus, gp120-induced CNS injury, neuron loss and inflammation may be mitigated by antioxidant gene delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.expneurol.2009.11.004DOI Listing
January 2010

Dopaminergic neurotoxicity of HIV-1 gp120: reactive oxygen species as signaling intermediates.

Brain Res 2010 Jan 6;1306:116-30. Epub 2009 Oct 6.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

We examined the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in loss of dopaminergic neurons (DNs) from the substantia nigra (SN) in neuroAIDS. The frequency of Parkinson-like symptomatology, and DN loss, in neuroAIDS is often attributed to nonspecific DN fragility to oxidative stress. Cultured DN are more sensitive to ROS than non-dopaminergic neurons (RN): DN underwent apoptosis at far lower H(2)O(2) concentrations than RN. Gene delivery of glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), which detoxifies H(2)O(2), largely protected both neuron types. HIV-1 envelope, gp120, which elicits oxidative stress in neurons, caused apoptosis more readily in DN than in RN. However, unlike apoptosis caused by H(2)O(2), gp120-induced DN apoptosis was specific: DNs were specifically more sensitive than RN to receptor-mediated [Ca(2+)](i) fluxes triggered by gp120. Gp120-induced Ca(2+) signaling in both neuron types was inhibited by GPx1 or Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1), implicating superoxide and peroxide in ligand (gp120)-induced signaling upstream of Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores. In vivo, rats given 10 ng of gp120 stereotaxically showed rapid DN loss within the SN, while loss of RN in the SN and caudate-putamen (CP) was slower and required > or =100 ng of gp120. Furthermore, gp120 injected into the CP was transported axonally retrograde to the SN, causing delayed DN loss there. This, too, was prevented by SOD1 or GPx1. DNs are therefore specifically hypersensitive to gp120-induced apoptosis, signaling for which involves ROS intermediates. These findings may help explain why DN loss and Parkinson's-like dysfunction predominate in neuroAIDS and may apply to other neurodegenerative diseases involving the SN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2009.09.113DOI Listing
January 2010

A rat model of human immunodeficiency virus 1 encephalopathy using envelope glycoprotein gp120 expression delivered by SV40 vectors.

J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2009 May;68(5):456-73

Department of Pathology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) encephalopathy is thought to result in part from the toxicity of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 for neurons. Experimental systems for studying the effects of gp120 and other HIV proteins on the brain have been limited to the acute effects of recombinant proteins in vitro or in vivo in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected monkeys. We describe an experimental rodent model of ongoing gp120-induced neurotoxicity in which HIV-1 envelope is expressed in the brain using an SV40-derived gene delivery vector, SV(gp120). When it is inoculated stereotaxically into the rat caudate putamen, SV(gp120) caused a partly hemorrhagic lesion in which neuron and other cell apoptosis continues for at least 12 weeks. Human immunodeficiency virus gp120 is expressed throughout this time, and some apoptotic cells are gp120 positive. Malondialdehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal assays indicated that there was lipid peroxidation in these lesions. Prior administration of recombinant SV40 vectors carrying antioxidant enzymes, copper/ zinc superoxide dismutase or glutathione peroxidase, was protective against SV(gp120)-induced oxidative injury and apoptosis. Thus, in vivo inoculation of SV(gp120) into the rat caudate putamen causes ongoing oxidative stress and apoptosis in neurons and may therefore represent a useful animal model for studying the pathogenesis and treatment of HIV-1 envelope-related brain damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NEN.0b013e3181a10f83DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4711345PMC
May 2009

HIV-1 gp120 neurotoxicity proximally and at a distance from the point of exposure: protection by rSV40 delivery of antioxidant enzymes.

Neurobiol Dis 2009 Jun 25;34(3):462-76. Epub 2009 Mar 25.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Toxicity of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (gp120) for substantia nigra (SN) neurons may contribute to the Parkinsonian manifestations often seen in HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). We studied the neurotoxicity of gp120 for dopaminergic neurons and potential neuroprotection by antioxidant gene delivery. Rats were injected stereotaxically into their caudate-putamen (CP); CP and (substantia nigra) SN neuron loss was quantified. The area of neuron loss extended several millimeters from the injection site, approximately 35% of the CP area. SN neurons, outside of this area of direct neurotoxicity, were also severely affected. Dopaminergic SN neurons (expressing tyrosine hydroxylase, TH, in the SN and dopamine transporter, DAT, in the CP) were mostly affected: intra-CP gp120 caused approximately 50% DAT+ SN neuron loss. Prior intra-CP gene delivery of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) or glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) protected SN neurons from intra-CP gp120. Thus, SN dopaminergic neurons are highly sensitive to HIV-1 gp120-induced neurotoxicity, and antioxidant gene delivery, even at a distance, is protective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2009.03.003DOI Listing
June 2009

Complexity in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) co-receptor usage: roles of CCR3 and CCR5 in HIV-1 infection of monocyte-derived macrophages and brain microglia.

J Gen Virol 2009 Mar;90(Pt 3):710-722

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

CCR3 has been implicated as a co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), particularly in brain microglia cells. We sought to clarify the comparative roles of CCR3 and CCR5 in the central nervous system (CNS) HIV-1 infection and the potential utility of CCR3 as a target for manipulation via gene transfer. To target CCR3, we developed a single-chain antibody (SFv) and an interfering RNA (RNAi), R3-526. Coding sequences for both were cloned into Tag-deleted SV40-dervied vectors, as these vectors transduce brain microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) highly efficiently. These anti-CCR3 transgenes were compared to SFv-CCR5, an SFv against CCR5, and RNAi-R5, an RNAi that targets CCR5, for the ability to protect primary human brain microglia and MDM from infection with peripheral and neurotropic strains of HIV-1. Downregulation of CCR3 and CCR5 by these transgenes was independent from one another. Confocal microscopy showed that CCR3 and CCR5 co-localized at the plasma membrane with each other and with CD4. Targeting either CCR5 or CCR3 largely protected both microglia and MDM from infection by many strains of HIV-1. That is, some HIV-1 strains, isolated from either the CNS or periphery, required both CCR3 and CCR5 for optimal productive infection of microglia and MDM. Some HIV-1 strains were relatively purely CCR5-tropic. None was purely CCR3-tropic. Thus, some CNS-tropic strains of HIV-1 utilize CCR5 as a co-receptor but do not need CCR3, while for other isolates both CCR3 and CCR5 may be required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.006205-0DOI Listing
March 2009

Prolonged hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis syndrome as an initial presentation of Hodgkin lymphoma: a case report.

J Med Case Rep 2008 Dec 4;2:367. Epub 2008 Dec 4.

Cardeza Foundation for Hematologic Research and Kimmel Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Introduction: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is an immune-mediated syndrome that typically has a rapidly progressive course that can result in pancytopenia, coagulopathy, multi-system organ failure and death.

Case Presentation: A 57-year-old Caucasian woman was referred in fulminant hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, with fever, pancytopenia, splenomegaly, mental status changes and respiratory failure. She was found to have stage IV classical Hodgkin lymphoma, in addition to Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus viremia. Her presentation was preceded by a 3-year prodrome consisting of cytopenia and fever that were partially controlled by steroids and azathioprine.

Conclusion: Fulminant hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis may follow a prodromal phase that possesses features suggestive of a chronic form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, but which may also resemble immune cytopenias of other causes. A diagnosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis should be considered in the setting of chronic pancytopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-1947-2-367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2613409PMC
December 2008

In vivo gene transfer to the CNS using recombinant SV40-derived vectors.

Expert Opin Biol Ther 2008 Sep;8(9):1319-35

Thomas Jefferson University, Department of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, 1020 Locust Street, Room 255, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Background: Gene transfer to the CNS has been approached using various vectors.

Objective: We illustrate how SV40-derived vectors may be useful to deliver long-term gene expression to the brain, locally or diffusely.

Results/conclusion: SV40-derived vectors transduce neurons and microglial cells. The potential utility of both localized and widespread gene delivery in treating neuroAIDS and other CNS diseases characterized by excessive oxidative stress is demonstrated. Finally, direct injection of rSV40 vectors into rat femoral bone marrow (BM) led to transgene expression in CNS neurons and microglia, mostly in the dentate gyrus and in the periventricular subependymal zone, suggesting that BM-derived cells may be progenitors of some CNS cells in adult animals, and that gene delivery to BM may allow transgene expression in newly formed neurons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14712598.8.9.1319DOI Listing
September 2008

Delivering genes to the organ-localized immune system: long-term results of direct intramarrow transduction.

J Gene Med 2007 Oct;9(10):843-51

Department of Pathology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

We studied the distribution of transgene-expressing cells after direct gene transfer into the bone marrow (BM). Rats received direct injection into the femoral BM of SV(Nef-FLAG), a Tag-deleted recombinant SV40 carrying a marker gene (FLAG epitope). Controls received an unrelated rSV40 or saline. Blood cells (5%) and femoral marrow cells (25%) expressed FLAG throughout. FLAG expression was assessed in different organs at 1, 4 and 16 months. FLAG+ macrophages were seen throughout the body, and were prominent in the spleen. FLAG+ cells were common in pulmonary alveoli. The former included alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes. These cells were not detected at 1 month, occasional at 4 months and common at 16 months after intramarrow injection. Rare liver cells were positive for both FLAG and ferritin, indicating that some hepatocytes also expressed this BM-delivered transgene. Control animals were negative. Thus: (a) fixed tissue phagocytes may be accessible to gene delivery by intramarrow transduction of their progenitors; (b) transduced BM-resident cells or their derivatives may migrate to other organs (lungs) and may differentiate into epithelial cells; and (c) intramarrow injection of rSV40s does not detectably transduce parenchymal cells of other organs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgm.1084DOI Listing
October 2007

Preventing HIV-1 Tat-induced neuronal apoptosis using antioxidant enzymes: mechanistic and therapeutic implications.

Virology 2007 Jul 1;363(2):462-72. Epub 2007 Mar 1.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Thomas Jefferson University, Room 251, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

HIV-1 proteins, especially gp120 and Tat, elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause neuron apoptosis. We used antioxidant enzymes, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx1) to study signaling and neuroprotection from Tat-induced apoptosis. SOD1 converts superoxide to peroxide; GPx1 converts peroxide to water. Primary human neurons were transduced with SV40-derived vectors carrying SOD1 and GPx1, then HIV-1 Tat protein was added. Both SV(SOD1) and SV(GPx1) delivered substantial transgene expression. Tat decreased endogenous cellular, but not transduced, SOD1 and GPx1. Tat rapidly increased neuron [Ca(2+)](i), which effect was not altered by SV(SOD1) or SV(GPx1). However, both vectors together blocked Tat-induced [Ca(2+)](i) fluxes. Similarly, neither SV(SOD1) nor SV(GPx1) protected neurons from Tat-induced apoptosis, but both vectors together did. Tat therefore activates multiple signaling pathways, in one of which superoxide acts as an intermediate while the other utilizes peroxide. Gene delivery to protect neurons from Tat must therefore target both.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2007.02.004DOI Listing
July 2007

Long-term gene expression in dividing and nondividing cells using SV40-derived vectors.

Mol Biotechnol 2006 Oct;34(2):257-70

Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Among the goals of gene therapy is long-term expression of delivered transgenes. Recombinant Tagdeleted SV40 vectors (rSV40s) are especially well suited for this purpose. rSV40s deliver transgene expression that endures for extended periods of time in tissue culture and in vivo, in both dividing and nondividing cells. These vectors are particularly effective in transducing some cell types that have been almost unapproachable using other gene delivery systems, such as quiescent hematopoietic progenitor cells and their differentiated derivatives. Other cellular targets include neurons, brain microglia, hepatocytes, dendritic cells, vascular endothelium, and others. Because rSV40s do not elicit neutralizing antibodies they are useful for in vivo gene delivery in settings where more than one administration may be desirable. The key characteristics of these vectors include their high production titers and therefore suitability for large cell pools, effectiveness in delivering intracellular proteins, and untranslated RNAs, maintenance of transgene expression at constant levels for extended times, suitability for constitutive or conditional promoters and for combinatorial gene delivery and ability to integrate into genomes of both dividing and nondividing cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/MB:34:2:257DOI Listing
October 2006

Rat bone marrow progenitor cells transduced in situ by rSV40 vectors differentiate into multiple central nervous system cell lineages.

Stem Cells 2006 Dec 7;24(12):2801-9. Epub 2006 Sep 7.

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology, Jefferson Medical College, 1020 Locust Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107, USA.

Using bone marrow-directed gene transfer, we tested whether bone marrow-derived cells may function as progenitors of central nervous system (CNS) cells in adult animals. SV40-derived gene delivery vectors were injected directly into femoral bone marrow, and we examined transgene expression in blood and brain for 0-16 months thereafter by immunostaining for FLAG epitope marker. An average of 5% of peripheral blood cells and 25% of femoral marrow cells were FLAG(+) throughout the study. CNS FLAG-expressing cells were mainly detected in the dentate gyrus (DG) and periventricular subependymal zone (PSZ). Although absent before 1 month and rare at 4 months, DG and PSZ FLAG(+) cells were abundant 16 months after bone marrow injection. Approximately 5% of DG cells expressed FLAG, including neurons (48.6%) and microglia (49.7%), and occasional astrocytes (1.6%), as determined by double immunostaining for FLAG and lineage markers. These data suggest that one or more populations of cells resident within adult bone marrow can migrate to the brain and differentiate into CNS-specific cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/stemcells.2006-0124DOI Listing
December 2006

Using gene delivery to protect HIV-susceptible CNS cells: inhibiting HIV replication in microglia.

Virus Res 2006 Jun 18;118(1-2):87-97. Epub 2006 Jan 18.

Department of Pathology, Jefferson Medical College, 1020 Locust Street, Room 251, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Antiretroviral chemotherapy penetrates the CNS poorly. CNS HIV, thus sheltered, may injure the brain and complicate control of systemic HIV infection. Microglial cells play a major role in HIV persistence in the CNS but are rarely targeted for gene delivery. Because recombinant SV40 vectors (rSV40s) transduce other phagocytic cells efficiently, we tested rSV40 delivery of anti-HIV genetic therapy to microglial cells. Microglia prepared as enriched cultures from human fetal brain, were transduced with marker vectors, SV(RFP) and SV(Nef/FLAG), respectively, carrying DsRed and HIV-1 Nef bearing a FLAG epitope. By immunostaining and FACS, 95% of unselected cells expressed the transgenes, without detectable toxicity. Microglia were transduced with SV(AT), carrying human alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT), which blocks Env and Gag processing. SV(AT)-treated microglia strongly resisted challenge with HIV-1BaL, even when microglia were transduced with SV(AT) following HIV challenge. Thus, rSV40s effectively transduce microglia and protect them from HIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2005.11.016DOI Listing
June 2006

In vivo gene transfer into rat bone marrow progenitor cells using rSV40 viral vectors.

Blood 2005 Oct 30;106(8):2655-62. Epub 2005 Jun 30.

Department of Pathology, Jefferson Medical College, 1020 Locust St, Rm 251, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA.

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene transfer has been attempted almost entirely ex vivo and has been limited by cytokine-induced loss of self-renewal capacity and transplantation-related defects in homing and engraftment. Here, we attempted to circumvent such limitations by injecting vectors directly into the bone marrow (BM) to transduce HSCs in their native environment. Simian virus 40 (SV40)-derived gene delivery vectors were used because they transduce resting CD34+ cells very efficiently. Rats received SV-(Nef-FLAG), carrying FLAG marker epitope--or a control recombinant SV40 (rSV40)--directly into both femoral marrow cavities. Intracellular transgene expression by peripheral blood (PB) or BM cells was detected by cytofluorimetry. An average of 5.3% PB leukocytes expressed FLAG for the entire study--56 weeks. Transgene expression was sustained in multiple cell lineages, including granulocytes (average, 3.3% of leukocytes, 20.4% of granulocytes), CD3+ T lymphocytes (average, 0.53% of leukocytes, 1% of total T cells), and CD45R+ B lymphocytes, indicating gene transfer to long-lived progenitor cells with multilineage capacity. An average of 15% of femoral marrow cells expressed FLAG up to 16.5 months after transduction. Thus, direct intramarrow administration of rSV40s yields efficient gene transfer to rat BM progenitor cells and may be worthy of further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2005-01-0028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1895314PMC
October 2005