Publications by authors named "David S Siscovick"

465 Publications

Premature ventricular complexes and development of heart failure in a community-based population.

Heart 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Division of Cardiology, Electrophysiology Section, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA

Objective: A higher premature ventricular complex (PVC) frequency is associated with incident congestive heart failure (CHF) and death. While certain PVC characteristics may contribute to that risk, the current literature stems from patients in medical settings and is therefore prone to referral bias. This study aims to identify PVC characteristics associated with incident CHF in a community-based setting.

Methods: The Cardiovascular Health Study is a cohort of community-dwelling individuals who underwent prospective evaluation and follow-up. We analysed 24-hour Holter data to assess PVC characteristics and used multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazards models to identify predictors of a left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) decline and incident CHF, respectively.

Results: Of 871 analysed participants, 316 participants exhibited at least 10 PVCs during the 24-hour recording. For participants with PVCs, the average age was 72±5 years, 41% were women and 93% were white. Over a median follow-up of 11 years, 34% developed CHF. After adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular comorbidities, antiarrhythmic drug use and PVC frequency, a greater heterogeneity of the PVC coupling interval was associated with an increased risk of LVEF decline and incident CHF. Of note, neither PVC duration nor coupling interval duration exhibited a statistically significant relationship with either outcome.

Conclusions: In this first community-based study to identify Holter-based features of PVCs that are associated with LVEF reduction and incident CHF, the fact that coupling interval heterogeneity was an independent risk factor suggests that the mechanism of PVC generation may influence the risk of heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2021-319473DOI Listing
September 2021

Association of Trimethylamine N-Oxide and Related Metabolites in Plasma and Incident Type 2 Diabetes: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Aug 2;4(8):e2122844. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts.

Importance: Although rodent studies suggest that trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) influences glucose homeostasis and risk of type 2 diabetes, evidence in humans is limited.

Objective: To examine the associations of serial measures of plasma TMAO and related metabolite concentrations with incident type 2 diabetes, fasting plasma insulin and glucose levels, and the Gutt insulin sensitivity index (ISI).

Design, Setting, And Participants: This prospective cohort design assessed the association of plasma TMAO and related metabolite concentrations with diabetes outcome, whereas a cross-sectional design assessed the association with insulin and glucose levels and Gutt ISI. The participants were a cohort of older US adults from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Data from June 1989 to May 1990, from November 1992 to June 1993, and from June 1995 to June 1997 were included, with follow-up through June 2010. Levels of TMAO and related metabolites were measured in CHS plasma samples. Data were analyzed from July 2019 to September 2020.

Exposures: Plasma concentrations of TMAO, carnitine, betaine, choline, crotonobetaine, and γ-butyrobetaine, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Linear regression for associations of TMAO and related metabolites with insulin and glucose levels and Gutt ISI, and proportional hazards regression for associations with diabetes.

Results: The study included 4442 participants without diabetes at baseline (mean [SD] age, 73 [6] years at entry; 2710 [61%] women). In multivariable analyses, plasma TMAO, carnitine, crotonobetaine, and γ-butyrobetaine concentrations were positively associated with fasting insulin level (insulin mean geometric ratio comparing fifth with first quintiles of metabolite concentration: 1.07 [95% CI, 1.04-1.10] for TMAO; 1.07 [95% CI, 1.03-1.10] for carnitine; 1.05 [95% CI, 1.02-1.08] for crotonobetaine; and 1.06 [95% CI, 1.02-1.09] for γ-butyrobetaine). In contrast, betaine and choline concentrations were associated with greater insulin sensitivity (mean difference in Gutt ISI comparing fifth with first quintiles: 6.46 [95% CI, 4.32-8.60] and 2.27 [95% CI, 0.16-4.38], respectively). Incident diabetes was identified in 661 participants during a median 12.1 (interquartile range, 6.9-17.1) years of follow-up. In multivariable analyses, TMAO and metabolites were not significantly associated with type 2 diabetes risk (hazard ratios of diabetes comparing fifth with first quintile: 1.20 [95% CI, 0.94-1.55] for TMAO; 0.96 [95% CI, 0.74-1.24] for choline; 0.88 [95% CI, 0.67-1.15] for betaine; 1.07 [95% CI, 0.83-1.37] for carnitine; 0.79 [95% CI, 0.60-1.04] for γ-butyrobetaine; and 1.06 [95% CI, 0.83-1.35] for crotonobetaine).

Conclusions And Relevance: Plasma TMAO and related metabolites were not significantly associated with type 2 diabetes among older adults. The metabolites TMAO, carnitine, γ-butyrobetaine, and crotonobetaine may be associated with insulin resistance, and betaine and choline may be associated with greater insulin sensitivity, but temporality of the associations was not established.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.22844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397925PMC
August 2021

Longitudinal Plasma Measures of Trimethylamine N-Oxide and Risk of Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Events in Community-Based Older Adults.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Sep 16;10(17):e020646. Epub 2021 Aug 16.

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy Tufts University Boston MA.

Background Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) is a gut microbiota-dependent metabolite of dietary choline, L-carnitine, and phosphatidylcholine-rich foods. On the basis of experimental studies and patients with prevalent disease, elevated plasma TMAO may increase risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). TMAO is also renally cleared and may interact with and causally contribute to renal dysfunction. Yet, how serial TMAO levels relate to incident and recurrent ASCVD in community-based populations and the potential mediating or modifying role of renal function are not established. Methods and Results We investigated associations of serial measures of plasma TMAO, assessed at baseline and 7 years, with incident and recurrent ASCVD in a community-based cohort of 4131 (incident) and 1449 (recurrent) older US adults. TMAO was measured using stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (laboratory coefficient of variation, <6%). Incident ASCVD (myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, stroke, sudden cardiac death, or other atherosclerotic death) was centrally adjudicated using medical records. Risk was assessed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, including time-varying demographics, lifestyle factors, medical history, laboratory measures, and dietary habits. Potential mediating effects and interaction by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were assessed. During prospective follow-up, 1766 incident and 897 recurrent ASCVD events occurred. After multivariable adjustment, higher levels of TMAO were associated with a higher risk of incident ASCVD, with extreme quintile hazard ratio (HR) compared with the lowest quintile=1.21 (95% CI, 1.02-1.42; -trend=0.029). This relationship appeared mediated or confounded by eGFR (eGFR-adjusted HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.90-1.27), as well as modified by eGFR (-interaction <0.001). High levels of TMAO were associated with higher incidence of ASCVD in the presence of impaired renal function (eGFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m: HR, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.13-2.14]; -trend=0.007), but not normal or mildly reduced renal function (eGFR ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m: HR, 1.03 [95% CI, 0.85-1.25]; -trend=0.668). Among individuals with prior ASCVD, TMAO associated with higher risk of recurrent ASCVD (HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.01-1.56]; -trend=0.009), without significant modification by eGFR. Conclusions In this large community-based cohort of older US adults, serial measures of TMAO were associated with higher risk of incident ASCVD, with apparent modification by presence of impaired renal function and with higher risk of recurrent ASCVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020646DOI Listing
September 2021

Assessment of Plasma Phospholipid Very-Long-Chain Saturated Fatty Acid Levels and Healthy Aging.

JAMA Netw Open 2021 Aug 2;4(8):e2120616. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Identifying novel factors that protect against age-related diseases and promote healthy aging is critical to public health. Higher levels of circulating very-long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFAs) are integrated biomarkers of diet and metabolism shown to have beneficial associations in cardiovascular disease and total mortality, but whether they are associated with overall healthy aging is unknown.

Objective: To examine the association of circulating levels of 3 VLSFAs with unhealthy aging events, including incident chronic disease (cardiovascular disease, cancer, lung disease or severe kidney disease), physical dysfunction, and cognitive decline.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cohort study used 1992 to 2014 data from the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). The CHS is a multicenter, population-based study of cardiovascular disease among older adults. Among the 4559 CHS participants with available fatty acid data, 1879 participants who had an age-related event before their first measurement were excluded. Data analysis was performed in 2020.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Plasma phospholipid VLSFA levels were measured by thin-layer chromatography followed by gas chromatography. The main outcome was the hazard ratio (HR) of an incident unhealthy aging event associated with serial measures of plasma arachidic acid, behenic acid, and lignoceric acid.

Results: Among the 2680 study participants (976 men [36.4%]), the mean (SD) age was 74.7 (4.8) years old at entry. During a median (interquartile range) of 6.4 (2.9-12.9) years of follow-up, 2484 participants experienced an unhealthy event. Compared with the lowest quintile, levels of behenic acid in the highest quintile of the fatty acid distribution were associated with 15% lower risk of an unhealthy event (HR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.97; P for trend = .01) after adjustment for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and clinical conditions. In analogous comparisons, levels of lignoceric acid were similarly associated with 16% lower risk of an unhealthy event (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.73-0.95; P for trend = .001).

Conclusions And Relevance: These findings suggest that higher levels of circulating behenic acid and lignoceric acid are associated with lower risk of unhealthy aging events. These results highlight the need to explore determinants of circulating VLSFAs for potential novel efforts to promote healthy aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.20616DOI Listing
August 2021

Associations of Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference in Young Adulthood with Later Life Incident Diabetes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Division of General Medicine; Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Context: The independent contribution of young adult exposure to overweight and obesity to later life incident diabetes is not well studied.

Objective: To assess the associations of exposures to elevated body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in young adulthood (ages 18 to 39 years) with incident diabetes later in life (≥40 years).

Design: Pooled data from six US prospective cohorts (ARIC, CARDIA, CHS, Framingham Offspring, Health ABC, MESA).

Setting: Population-based cohort studies.

Participants: 30,780 participants (56.1% female, 69.8% non-Hispanic White) without a diagnosis of diabetes by age 40.

Interventions: We imputed BMI and WC trajectories from age 18 for every participant and estimated time-weighted average exposures to BMI or WC during young adulthood and later life.

Main Outcome Measure(s): Incident diabetes defined as fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, non-fasting glucose ≥200 mg/dL, or use of diabetes medications.

Results: During a 9-year median follow-up, 4,323 participants developed incident diabetes. Young adult BMI and WC were associated with later life incident diabetes after controlling for later life exposures (hazard ratios [HR] 1.99 for BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 and 2.13 for WC >88cm [women]/>102cm [men] compared to normal ranges). Young adult homeostatic model of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) mediated 49% and 44% of the association between BMI and WC with later life incident diabetes. HDL and triglycerides mediated a smaller proportion of these associations.

Conclusions: Elevated BMI and WC during young adulthood were independently associated with later life incident diabetes. Insulin resistance appears to be a key mediator.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab551DOI Listing
July 2021

Healthy food retail availability and cardiovascular mortality in the United States: a cohort study.

BMJ Open 2021 07 9;11(7):e048390. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

New York Academy of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Objectives: We investigated the association of healthy food retail presence and cardiovascular mortality, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. This association could inform efforts to preserve or increase local supermarkets or produce market availability.

Design: Cohort study, combining Mortality Disparities in American Communities (individual-level data from 2008 American Community Survey linked to National Death Index records from 2008 to 2015) and retail establishment data.

Setting: Across the continental US area-based sociodemographic and retail characteristics were linked to residential location by ZIP code tabulation area (ZCTA). Sensitivity analyses used census tracts instead, restricted to urbanicity or county-based strata, or accounted for non-independence using frailty models.

Participants: 2 753 000 individuals age 25+ living in households with full kitchen facilities, excluding group quarters.

Primary And Secondary Outcome Measures: Cardiovascular mortality (primary) and all-cause mortality (secondary).

Results: 82% had healthy food retail (supermarket, produce market) within their ZCTA. Density of such retail was correlated with density of unhealthy food sources (eg, fast food, convenience store). Healthy food retail presence was not associated with reduced cardiovascular (HR: 1.03; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.07) or all-cause mortality (HR: 1.05; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.06) in fully adjusted models (with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, nativity, Black race, Hispanic ethnicity, educational attainment, income, median household income, population density, walkable destination density). The null finding for cardiovascular mortality was consistent across adjustment strategies including minimally adjusted models (individual demographics only), sensitivity analyses related to setting, and across gender or household type strata. However, unhealthy food retail presence was associated with elevated all-cause mortality (HR: 1.15; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.20).

Conclusions: In this study using food establishment locations within administrative areas across the USA, the hypothesised association of healthy food retail availability with reduced cardiovascular mortality was not supported; an association of unhealthy food retail presence with higher mortality was not specific to cardiovascular causes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-048390DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273445PMC
July 2021

Blood n-3 fatty acid levels and total and cause-specific mortality from 17 prospective studies.

Nat Commun 2021 04 22;12(1):2329. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge, UK.

The health effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been controversial. Here we report the results of a de novo pooled analysis conducted with data from 17 prospective cohort studies examining the associations between blood omega-3 fatty acid levels and risk for all-cause mortality. Over a median of 16 years of follow-up, 15,720 deaths occurred among 42,466 individuals. We found that, after multivariable adjustment for relevant risk factors, risk for death from all causes was significantly lower (by 15-18%, at least p < 0.003) in the highest vs the lowest quintile for circulating long chain (20-22 carbon) omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic, docosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids). Similar relationships were seen for death from cardiovascular disease, cancer and other causes. No associations were seen with the 18-carbon omega-3, alpha-linolenic acid. These findings suggest that higher circulating levels of marine n-3 PUFA are associated with a lower risk of premature death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22370-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8062567PMC
April 2021

Plasma epoxyeicosatrienoic acids and dihydroxyeicosatrieonic acids, insulin, glucose and risk of diabetes: The strong heart study.

EBioMedicine 2021 Apr 19;66:103279. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are metabolites of arachidonic acid with multiple biological functions. Rodent experiments suggest EETs play a role in insulin sensitivity and diabetes, but evidence in humans is limited. To address this knowledge gap, we conducted a case-cohort study in the Strong Heart Family Study, a prospective cohort among American Indians.

Methods: We measured 4 EET species and 4 species of corresponding downstream metabolites, dihydroxyeicosatrieonic acids (DHETs), in plasma samples from 1161 participants, including 310 with type 2 diabetes. We estimated the associations of total (esterified and free) EETs and DHETs with incident diabetes risk, adjusting for known risk factors. We also examined cross-sectional associations with plasma fasting insulin and glucose in the case-cohort and in 271 participants without diabetes from the older Strong Heart Study cohort, and meta-analyzed the results from the 2 cohorts.

Findings: We observed no significant association of total EET or DHET levels with incident diabetes. In addition, plasma EETs were not associated with plasma insulin or plasma glucose. However, higher plasma 14,15-DHET was associated with lower plasma insulin and lower plasma glucose.

Interpretation: In this first prospective study of EETs and diabetes, we found no evidence for a role of total plasma EETs in diabetes. The novel associations of 14,15-DHET with insulin and glucose warrant replication and exploration of possible mechanisms.

Funding: US National Institutes of Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2021.103279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010619PMC
April 2021

Discovery and fine-mapping of height loci via high-density imputation of GWASs in individuals of African ancestry.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 04 12;108(4):564-582. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

The Charles R. Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029, USA.

Although many loci have been associated with height in European ancestry populations, very few have been identified in African ancestry individuals. Furthermore, many of the known loci have yet to be generalized to and fine-mapped within a large-scale African ancestry sample. We performed sex-combined and sex-stratified meta-analyses in up to 52,764 individuals with height and genome-wide genotyping data from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC). We additionally combined our African ancestry meta-analysis results with published European genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. In the African ancestry analyses, we identified three novel loci (SLC4A3, NCOA2, ECD/FAM149B1) in sex-combined results and two loci (CRB1, KLF6) in women only. In the African plus European sex-combined GWAS, we identified an additional three novel loci (RCCD1, G6PC3, CEP95) which were equally driven by AAAGC and European results. Among 39 genome-wide significant signals at known loci, conditioning index SNPs from European studies identified 20 secondary signals. Two of the 20 new secondary signals and none of the 8 novel loci had minor allele frequencies (MAF) < 5%. Of 802 known European height signals, 643 displayed directionally consistent associations with height, of which 205 were nominally significant (p < 0.05) in the African ancestry sex-combined sample. Furthermore, 148 of 241 loci contained ≤20 variants in the credible sets that jointly account for 99% of the posterior probability of driving the associations. In summary, trans-ethnic meta-analyses revealed novel signals and further improved fine-mapping of putative causal variants in loci shared between African and European ancestry populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8059339PMC
April 2021

n-3 Fatty Acid Biomarkers and Incident Type 2 Diabetes: An Individual Participant-Level Pooling Project of 20 Prospective Cohort Studies.

Diabetes Care 2021 05 3;44(5):1133-1142. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

Objective: Prospective associations between n-3 fatty acid biomarkers and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk are not consistent in individual studies. We aimed to summarize the prospective associations of biomarkers of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) with T2D risk through an individual participant-level pooled analysis.

Research Design And Methods: For our analysis we incorporated data from a global consortium of 20 prospective studies from 14 countries. We included 65,147 participants who had blood measurements of ALA, EPA, DPA, or DHA and were free of diabetes at baseline. De novo harmonized analyses were performed in each cohort following a prespecified protocol, and cohort-specific associations were pooled using inverse variance-weighted meta-analysis.

Results: A total of 16,693 incident T2D cases were identified during follow-up (median follow-up ranging from 2.5 to 21.2 years). In pooled multivariable analysis, per interquintile range (difference between the 90th and 10th percentiles for each fatty acid), EPA, DPA, DHA, and their sum were associated with lower T2D incidence, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of 0.92 (0.87, 0.96), 0.79 (0.73, 0.85), 0.82 (0.76, 0.89), and 0.81 (0.75, 0.88), respectively (all < 0.001). ALA was not associated with T2D (HR 0.97 [95% CI 0.92, 1.02]) per interquintile range. Associations were robust across prespecified subgroups as well as in sensitivity analyses.

Conclusions: Higher circulating biomarkers of seafood-derived n-3 fatty acids, including EPA, DPA, DHA, and their sum, were associated with lower risk of T2D in a global consortium of prospective studies. The biomarker of plant-derived ALA was not significantly associated with T2D risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc20-2426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8132316PMC
May 2021

Serum Individual Nonesterified Fatty Acids and Risk of Heart Failure in Older Adults.

Cardiology 2021;146(3):351-358. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

New York Academy of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Heart failure (HF) is highly prevalent among older adults and is associated with high costs. Although serum total nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) have been positively associated with HF risk, the contribution of each individual NEFA to HF risk has not been examined.

Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the association of individual fasting NEFAs with HF risk in older adults.

Methods: In this prospective cohort study of older adults, we measured 35 individual NEFAs in 2,140 participants of the Cardiovascular Health Study using gas chromatography. HF was ascertained using review of medical records by an endpoint committee.

Results: The mean age was 77.7 ± 4.4 years, and 38.8% were male. During a median follow-up of 9.7 (maximum 19.0) years, 655 new cases of HF occurred. In a multivariable Cox regression model controlling for demographic and anthropometric variables, field center, education, serum albumin, glomerular filtration rate, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, hormone replacement therapy, unintentional weight loss, and all other measured NEFAs, we observed inverse associations (HR [95% CI] per standard deviation) of nonesterified pentadecanoic (15:0) (0.73 [0.57-0.94]), γ-linolenic acid (GLA) (0.87 [0.75-1.00]), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (0.73 [0.61-0.88]) acids with HF, and positive associations of nonesterified stearic (18:0) (1.30 [1.04-1.63]) and nervonic (24:1n-9) (1.17 [1.06-1.29]) acids with HF.

Conclusion: Our data are consistent with a higher risk of HF with nonesterified stearic and nervonic acids and a lower risk with nonesterified 15:0, GLA, and DHA in older adults. If confirmed in other studies, specific NEFAs may provide new targets for HF prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000513917DOI Listing
August 2021

The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis individual response to vitamin D trial: Building a randomized clinical trial into an observational cohort study.

Contemp Clin Trials 2021 04 12;103:106318. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Division of Nephrology and Kidney Research Institute, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States of America.

The INdividual response to VITamin D (INVITe) trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial of vitamin D supplementation (2000 IU daily) designed to determine clinical and genetic characteristics that modify the response to vitamin D supplementation. To enhance internal and external validity and reduce cost, the INVITe trial was nested within the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), an ongoing prospective observational cohort study. The INVITe trial enrolled a community-based population of 666 racially and ethnically diverse participants from January 2017 to April 2019. This represents 30% of 2210 MESA participants approached for screening, and 96% of those found to be eligible. Barriers to enrollment included delayed initiation of the trial relative to scheduled MESA study visits, a lower number of available MESA participants than expected, and a high prevalence (18%) of high-dose vitamin D supplementation (>1000 IU daily, an exclusion criterion). The final study visit was attended by 611 participants (92%), and median adherence was 98%. Our experience suggests that integration of a randomized trial into an existing observational cohort study may leverage strengths of the source population and enhance enrollment, retention, and adherence, although with limited enrollment capacity. The INVITe trial will use rigorously-collected data to advance understanding of individual determinants of vitamin D response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cct.2021.106318DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8089051PMC
April 2021

Holocaust Experience and Mortality Patterns: 4-Decade Follow-up in a Population-Based Cohort.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 08;190(8):1541-1549

Research on mortality associated with exposure to the Holocaust is relevant for a better understanding of the effects of genocides on survivors. To our knowledge, previous studies have not investigated the long-term cause-specific mortality of Holocaust survivors. We compared mortality rates among Israelis born in European countries controlled by the Nazis during World War II with those among Israelis of European descent who did not have this exposure. Records of 22,671 people (45% women; 5,042 survivors) from the population-based Jerusalem Perinatal Study (1964-1976) were linked to the Israeli Population Registry, which was updated through 2016. Cox models were used for analysis, with 2-sided tests of statistical significance. Risk of all-cause mortality was higher among exposed women (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.27) than in unexposed women. No association was found between Holocaust exposure and male all-cause mortality. In both sexes, survivors had higher cancer-specific mortality (HR = 1.17 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.35) in women and HR = 1.14 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.28) in men). Exposed men also had excess mortality due to coronary heart disease (HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.77) and lower mortality from other known causes combined (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75, 0.99). In summary, experiencing the Holocaust was associated with excess all-cause and cancer-specific mortality in women and cancer- and coronary heart disease-specific mortality in men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwab021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8327196PMC
August 2021

Individual non-esterified fatty acids and incident atrial fibrillation late in life.

Heart 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Medical Service, San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Francisco, California, USA.

Objective: Obesity and dysmetabolism are major risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF). Expansion of fat depots is associated with increased circulating total non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), elevated levels of which are associated with incident AF. We undertook comprehensive serum measurement of individual NEFA to identify specific associations with new-onset AF late in life.

Methods: The present study focused on participants with available serum and free of AF selected from the Cardiovascular Health Study, a community-based longitudinal investigation of older US adults. Thirty-five individual NEFAs were measured by gas chromatography. Cox regression was used to evaluate the association of individual NEFAs with incident AF.

Results: The study sample included 1872 participants (age 77.7±4.4). During median follow-up of 11.3 years, 715 cases of incident AF occurred. After concurrent adjustment of all NEFAs and full adjustment for potential confounders, higher serum concentration of nervonic acid (24:1 n-9), a long-chain monounsaturated fatty acid, was associated with higher risk of AF (HR per SD: 1.18, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.29; p<0.001). Conversely, higher serum concentration of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (18:3 n-6), a polyunsaturated n-6 fatty acid, was associated with lower risk of AF (HR per SD: 0.81, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.94; p=0.004). None of the remaining NEFAs was significantly associated with AF.

Conclusions: Among older adults, serum levels of non-esterified nervonic acid were positively associated, while serum levels of non-esterified GLA were inversely associated, with incident AF. If confirmed, these results could offer new strategies for AF prevention and early intervention in this segment of the population at highest risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2020-317929DOI Listing
January 2021

Sex-dimorphic genetic effects and novel loci for fasting glucose and insulin variability.

Nat Commun 2021 01 5;12(1):24. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Biostatistics and Data Science, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Differences between sexes contribute to variation in the levels of fasting glucose and insulin. Epidemiological studies established a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in men and impaired glucose tolerance in women, however, the genetic component underlying this phenomenon is not established. We assess sex-dimorphic (73,089/50,404 women and 67,506/47,806 men) and sex-combined (151,188/105,056 individuals) fasting glucose/fasting insulin genetic effects via genome-wide association study meta-analyses in individuals of European descent without diabetes. Here we report sex dimorphism in allelic effects on fasting insulin at IRS1 and ZNF12 loci, the latter showing higher RNA expression in whole blood in women compared to men. We also observe sex-homogeneous effects on fasting glucose at seven novel loci. Fasting insulin in women shows stronger genetic correlations than in men with waist-to-hip ratio and anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, waist-to-hip ratio is causally related to insulin resistance in women, but not in men. These results position dissection of metabolic and glycemic health sex dimorphism as a steppingstone for understanding differences in genetic effects between women and men in related phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19366-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785747PMC
January 2021

The Difference Between Cystatin C- and Creatinine-Based Estimated GFR and Incident Frailty: An Analysis of the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS).

Am J Kidney Dis 2020 12 16;76(6):896-898. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Division of Nephrology-Hypertension, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA; Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.ajkd.2020.05.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7967899PMC
December 2020

Fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway and incidence of type 2 diabetes: A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies.

PLoS Med 2020 06 12;17(6):e1003102. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Background: De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is the primary metabolic pathway synthesizing fatty acids from carbohydrates, protein, or alcohol. Our aim was to examine associations of in vivo levels of selected fatty acids (16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, 18:1n9) in DNL with incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2D).

Methods And Findings: Seventeen cohorts from 12 countries (7 from Europe, 7 from the United States, 1 from Australia, 1 from Taiwan; baseline years = 1970-1973 to 2006-2010) conducted harmonized individual-level analyses of associations of DNL-related fatty acids with incident T2D. In total, we evaluated 65,225 participants (mean ages = 52.3-75.5 years; % women = 20.4%-62.3% in 12 cohorts recruiting both sexes) and 15,383 incident cases of T2D over the 9-year follow-up on average. Cohort-specific association of each of 16:0, 16:1n7, 18:0, and 18:1n9 with incident T2D was estimated, adjusted for demographic factors, socioeconomic characteristics, alcohol, smoking, physical activity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, menopausal status, and adiposity. Cohort-specific associations were meta-analyzed with an inverse-variance-weighted approach. Each of the 4 fatty acids positively related to incident T2D. Relative risks (RRs) per cohort-specific range between midpoints of the top and bottom quintiles of fatty acid concentrations were 1.53 (1.41-1.66; p < 0.001) for 16:0, 1.40 (1.33-1.48; p < 0.001) for 16:1n-7, 1.14 (1.05-1.22; p = 0.001) for 18:0, and 1.16 (1.07-1.25; p < 0.001) for 18:1n9. Heterogeneity was seen across cohorts (I2 = 51.1%-73.1% for each fatty acid) but not explained by lipid fractions and global geographical regions. Further adjusted for triglycerides (and 16:0 when appropriate) to evaluate associations independent of overall DNL, the associations remained significant for 16:0, 16:1n7, and 18:0 but were attenuated for 18:1n9 (RR = 1.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.94-1.13). These findings had limitations in potential reverse causation and residual confounding by imprecisely measured or unmeasured factors.

Conclusions: Concentrations of fatty acids in the DNL were positively associated with T2D incidence. Our findings support further work to investigate a possible role of DNL and individual fatty acids in the development of T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292352PMC
June 2020

Fatty Acid Binding Protein-4 and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 04 6;9(7):e014070. Epub 2020 Apr 6.

Division of General Medicine Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Boston MA.

Background FABP-4 (fatty acid binding protein-4) is a lipid chaperone in adipocytes and has been associated with prognosis in selected clinical populations. We investigated the associations between circulating FABP-4, risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD), and risk of CVD mortality among older adults with and without established CVD. Methods and Results In the Cardiovascular Health Study, we measured FABP4 levels in stored specimens from the 1992-993 visit and followed participants for incident CVD if they were free of prevalent CVD at baseline and for CVD mortality through June 2015. We used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios for incident CVD and CVD mortality per doubling in serum FABP-4 adjusted for age, sex, race, field center, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids, fasting glucose, and C-reactive protein. Among 4026 participants free of CVD and 681 with prevalent CVD, we documented 1878 cases of incident CVD and 331 CVD deaths, respectively. In adjusted analyses, FABP-4 was modestly associated with risk of incident CVD (mean, 34.24; SD, 18.90; HR, 1.10 per doubling in FABP-4, 95% CI, 1.00-1.21). In contrast, FABP-4 was more clearly associated with risk of CVD mortality among participants without (HR hazard ratio 1.24, 95% CI, 1.10-1.40) or with prevalent CVD (HR hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI, 1.24-1.98). These associations were not significantly modified by sex, age, and waist circumference. Conclusions Serum FABP-4 is modestly associated with risk of incident CVD even after adjustment for standard risk factors, but more strongly associated with CVD mortality among older adults with and without established CVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.014070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428637PMC
April 2020

Serial Biomarkers of De Novo Lipogenesis Fatty Acids and Incident Heart Failure in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 02 5;9(4):e014119. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy Tufts University Boston MA.

Background De novo lipogenesis (DNL) is an endogenous pathway that converts excess dietary starch, sugar, protein, and alcohol into specific fatty acids (FAs). Although elevated DNL is linked to several metabolic abnormalities, little is known about how long-term habitual levels and changes in levels of FAs in the DNL pathway relate to incident heart failure (HF). Methods and Results We investigated whether habitual levels and changes in serial measures of FAs in the DNL pathway were associated with incident HF among 4249 participants free of HF at baseline. Plasma phospholipid FAs were measured at baseline, 6 years, and 13 years using gas chromatography, and risk factors for HF were measured using standardized methods. Incident HF was centrally adjudicated using medical records. We prospectively evaluated associations with HF risk of (1) habitual FA levels, using cumulative updating to assess long-term exposure, and (2) changes in FA levels over time. During 22.1 years of follow-up, 1304 HF cases occurred. After multivariable adjustment, habitual levels and changes in levels of palmitic acid (16:0) were positively associated with incident HF (interquintile hazard ratio [95% CI]=1.17 [1.00-1.36] and 1.26 [1.03-1.55], respectively). Changes in levels of 7-hexadecenoic acid (16:1n-9) and vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) were each positively associated with risk of HF (1.36 [1.13-1.62], and 1.43 [1.18-1.72], respectively). Habitual levels and changes in levels of myristic acid (14:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), stearic acid (18:0), and oleic acid (18:1n-9) were not associated with incident HF. Conclusions Both habitual levels and changes in levels of 16:0 were positively associated with incident HF in older adults. Changes in 16:1n-9 and 18:1n-7 were also positively associated with incident HF. These findings support a potential role of DNL or these DNL-related FAs in the development of HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.014119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070205PMC
February 2020

Plasma Ceramides and Sphingomyelins in Relation to Atrial Fibrillation Risk: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2020 02 5;9(4):e012853. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Cardiovascular Health Research Unit Department of Medicine University of Washington Seattle WA.

Background Ceramides exhibit multiple biological activities that may influence the pathophysiological characteristics of atrial fibrillation (AF). Whether the length of the saturated fatty acid carried by the ceramide or their sphingomyelin precursors are associated with AF risk is not known. Methods and Results Among 4206 CHS (Cardiovascular Health Study) participants (mean age, 76 years; 40% men) who were free of prevalent AF at baseline, we identified 1198 incident AF cases over a median 8.7 years of follow-up. We examined 8 sphingolipid species: ceramide and sphingomyelin species with palmitic acid and species with very-long-chain saturated fatty acids: arachidic; behenic; and lignoceric. In adjusted Cox regression analyses, ceramides and sphingomyelins with very-long-chain saturated fatty acids were associated with reduced AF risk (ie, per 2-fold higher ceramide with behenic acid hazard ratio, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59-0.86; sphingomyelin with behenic acid hazard ratio, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.46-0.77). In contrast, ceramides and sphingomyelins with palmitic acid were associated with increased AF risk (ceramide with palmitic acid hazard ratio, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.03-1.66; sphingomyelin with palmitic acid hazard ratio, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.18-2.55). Associations were attenuated with adjustment for NT-proBNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide), but did not differ significantly by age, sex, race, body mass index, or history of coronary heart disease. Conclusions Our findings suggest that several ceramide and sphingomyelin species are associated with incident AF, and that these associations differ on the basis of the fatty acid. Ceramides and sphingomyelins with palmitic acid were associated with increased AF risk, whereas ceramides and sphingomyelins with very-long-chain saturated fatty acids were associated with reduced AF risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.012853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070192PMC
February 2020

Searching for parent-of-origin effects on cardiometabolic traits in imprinted genomic regions.

Eur J Hum Genet 2020 05 2;28(5):646-655. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Braun School of Public Health, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 99112102, Jerusalem, Israel.

Cardiometabolic traits pose a major global public health burden. Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple loci accounting for up to 30% of the genetic variance in complex traits such as cardiometabolic traits. However, the contribution of parent-of-origin effects (POEs) to complex traits has been largely ignored in GWAS. Family-based studies enable the assessment of POEs in genetic association analyses. We investigated POEs on a range of complex traits in 3 family-based studies. The discovery phase was carried out in large pedigrees from the Kibbutzim Family Study (n = 901 individuals) and in 872 parent-offspring trios from the Jerusalem Perinatal Study. Focusing on imprinted genomic regions, we examined parent-specific associations with 12 complex traits (i.e., body-size, blood pressure, lipids), mostly cardiometabolic risk traits. Forty five of the 11,967 SNPs initially found to have POE were evaluated for replication (p value < 1 × 10) in Framingham Heart Study families (max n = 8000 individuals). Three common variants yielded evidence of POE in the meta-analysis. Two variants, located on chr6 in the HLA region, showed a paternal effect on height (rs1042136: β = -0.023, p value = 1.5 × 10 and rs1431403: β = -0.011, p value = 5.4 × 10). The corresponding maternally-derived effects were statistically nonsignificant. The variant rs9332053, located on chr13 in RCBTB2 gene, demonstrated a maternal effect on hip circumference (β = -4.24, p value = 9.6 × 10; β = 1.29, p value = 0.23). These findings provide evidence for the utility of incorporating POEs into association studies of cardiometabolic traits, especially anthropometric traits. The study highlights the benefits of using family-based data for deciphering the genetic architecture of complex traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-019-0568-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170899PMC
May 2020

Serial Plasma Phospholipid Fatty Acids in the De Novo Lipogenesis Pathway and Total Mortality, Cause-Specific Mortality, and Cardiovascular Diseases in the Cardiovascular Health Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 11 12;8(22):e012881. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Policy Tufts University Boston MA.

Background Synthesized fatty acids (FAs) from de novo lipogenesis may affect cardiometabolic health, but longitudinal associations between serially measured de novo lipogenesis-related fatty acid biomarkers and mortality or cardiovascular disease (CVD) are not well established. Methods and Results We investigated longitudinal associations between de novo lipogenesis-related fatty acids with all-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and incident CVD among 3869 older US adults, mean (SD) age 75 (5) years and free of prevalent CVD at baseline. Levels of plasma phospholipid palmitic (16:0), palmitoleic (16:1n-7), stearic (18:0), oleic acid (18:1n-9), and other risk factors were serially measured at baseline, 6 years, and 13 years. All-cause mortality, cause-specific mortality, and incident fatal and nonfatal CVD were centrally adjudicated. Risk was assessed in multivariable-adjusted Cox models with time-varying FAs and covariates. During 13 years, median follow-up (maximum 22.4 years), participants experienced 3227 deaths (1131 CVD, 2096 non-CVD) and 1753 incident CVD events. After multivariable adjustment, higher cumulative levels of 16:0, 16:1n-7, and 18:1n-9 were associated with higher all-cause mortality, with extreme-quintile hazard ratios (95% CIs) of 1.35 (1.17-1.56), 1.40 (1.21-1.62), and 1.56 (1.35-1.80), respectively, whereas higher levels of 18:0 were associated with lower mortality (hazard ratio=0.76; 95% CI=0.66-0.88). Associations were generally similar for CVD mortality versus non-CVD mortality, as well as total incident CVD. Changes in levels of 16:0 were positively, and 18:0 inversely, associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio=1.23, 95% CI=1.08-1.41; and hazard ratio=0.78, 95% CI=0.68-0.90). Conclusions Higher long-term levels of 16:0, 16:1n-7, and 18:1n-9 and changes in 16:0 were positively, whereas long-term levels and changes in 18:0 were inversely, associated with all-cause mortality in older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.012881DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6915264PMC
November 2019

Plasma Ceramide Species Are Associated with Diabetes Risk in Participants of the Strong Heart Study.

J Nutr 2020 05;150(5):1214-1222

Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Few studies have assessed the associations of ceramides and sphingomyelins (SMs) with diabetes in humans.

Objective: We assessed associations of 15 circulating ceramides and SM species with incident diabetes in 2 studies.

Methods: The analysis included 435 American-Indian participants from the Strong Heart Study (nested case-control design for analyses; mean age: 57 y; 34% male; median time until diabetes 4.3 y for cases) and 1902 participants from the Strong Heart Family Study (prospective design for analyses; mean age: 37 y; 39% male; median 12.5 y of follow-up). Sphingolipid species were measured using stored plasma samples by sequential LC and MS. Using logistic regression and parametric survival models within studies, and an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis across studies, we examined associations of 15 ceramides and SM species with incident diabetes.

Results: There were 446 cases of incident diabetes across the studies. Higher circulating concentrations of ceramides containing stearic acid (Cer-18), arachidic acid (Cer-20), and behenic acid (Cer-22) were each associated with a higher risk of diabetes. The RRs for incident diabetes per 1 SD of each log ceramide species (μM) were 1.22 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.37) for Cer-18, 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.31) for Cer-20, and 1.20 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.32) for Cer-22. Although the magnitude of the risk estimates for the association of ceramides containing lignoceric acid (Cer-24) with diabetes was similar to those for Cer-18, Cer-20, and Cer-22 (RR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.26), the association was not statistically significant after correction for multiple testing (P = 0.007). Ceramides carrying palmitic acid (Cer-16), SMs, glucosyl-ceramides, or a lactosyl-ceramide were not associated with diabetes risk.

Conclusions: Higher concentrations of circulating Cer-18, Cer-20, and Cer-22 were associated with a higher risk of developing diabetes in 2 studies of American-Indian adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00005134.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz259DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198314PMC
May 2020

Maternal Education in Early Life and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adult American Females and Males: Disentangling Life Course Processes Through Causal Models.

Epidemiology 2019 11;30 Suppl 2:S28-S36

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

Background: Maternal education in a child's early life may directly affect the child's adult cardiometabolic health, but this is difficult to disentangle from biological, social, and behavioral life course processes that are associated with maternal education. These processes may also differ between males and females.

Methods: Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (1995-2009) (N = 4,026 females and 3,192 males), we estimated sex-stratified associations between maternal attainment of less than high school (
Results: Each higher level of maternal education was associated with a 36% (Relative Risk = 0.64 [95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.50-0.82]) reduced risk of MetS among females, but only 19% (RR = 0.81 [95% CI: 0.64-1.01]) reduction among males (P-value interaction < 0.05). Stronger inverse associations were also observed for waist circumference and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among females compared with males (-5 cm vs. -2.4 cm and -1.5% vs. -1.0%, respectively).

Conclusion: High maternal education in early life was associated with a lower risk of MetS in young adulthood even after accounting for life course risk factors, particularly among females. Results were robust to altered model specifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EDE.0000000000001068DOI Listing
November 2019

Plasma Ceramides and Sphingomyelins in Relation to Heart Failure Risk.

Circ Heart Fail 2019 07 12;12(7):e005708. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine (R.N.L., P.N.J., B.M.P., S.R.H., N.S.), University of Washington, Seattle.

Background: Ceramides exhibit multiple biological activities that may influence the pathophysiology of heart failure. These activities may be influenced by the saturated fatty acid carried by the ceramide (Cer). However, the associations of different circulating Cer species, and their sphingomyelin (SM) precursors, with heart failure have received limited attention.

Methods And Results: We studied the associations of plasma Cer and SM species with incident heart failure in the Cardiovascular Health Study. We examined 8 species: Cer and SM with palmitic acid (Cer-16 and SM-16), species with arachidic acid (Cer-20 and SM-20), species with behenic acid (Cer-22 and SM-22), and species with lignoceric acid (Cer-24 and SM-24). During a median follow-up of 9.4 years, we identified 1179 cases of incident heart failure among 4249 study participants. In Cox regression analyses adjusted for risk factors, higher levels of Cer-16 and SM-16 were associated with higher risk of incident heart failure (hazard ratio for one SD increase:1.25 [95% CI, 1.16-1.36] and 1.28 [1.18-1.40], respectively). In contrast, higher levels of Cer-22 were associated with lower risk of heart failure in multivariable analyses further adjusted for Cer-16 (hazard ratio, 0.85 [0.78-0.92]); and higher levels of SM-20, SM-22 and SM-24 were associated with lower risk of heart failure in analyses further adjusted for SM-16 (hazard ratios, 0.83 [0.77-0.90], 0.81 [0.75-0.88], and 0.83 [0.77-0.90], respectively). No statistically significant interactions with age, sex, black race, body mass index, or baseline coronary heart disease were detected. Similar associations were observed for heart failure with preserved (n=529) or reduced (n=348) ejection fraction.

Conclusions: This study shows associations of higher plasma levels of Cer-16 and SM-16 with increased risk of heart failure and higher levels of Cer-22, SM-20, SM-22, and SM-24 with decreased risk of heart failure.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00005133.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.118.005708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6629465PMC
July 2019

Advanced glycation end product carboxymethyl-lysine and risk of incident peripheral artery disease in older adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

Diab Vasc Dis Res 2019 09 8;16(5):483-485. Epub 2019 May 8.

12 Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Carboxymethyl-lysine is an advanced glycation end product that is detectable in the serum. Higher carboxymethyl-lysine levels have been associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and cardiovascular mortality. We determined whether high carboxymethyl-lysine levels are also associated with the risk of peripheral artery disease in Cardiovascular Health Study participants who were all aged 65 years and older at baseline. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association of baseline carboxymethyl-lysine levels with incident peripheral artery disease in 3267 individuals followed for a median length of 10.0 years. A total of 157 cases of incident peripheral artery disease occurred during follow-up. No significant relationship between carboxymethyl-lysine and risk of peripheral artery disease was found (hazard ratio per standard deviation increment = 1.03; 95% confidence interval = 0.87, 1.23).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1479164119847481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6697602PMC
September 2019

Biomarkers of mineral metabolism and progression of aortic valve and mitral annular calcification: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Atherosclerosis 2019 06 13;285:79-86. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Cardiology Section, San Francisco Veterans Affairs Health Care System and Departments of Medicine, Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Previous research has implicated dysregulation of phosphate metabolism and calcium-phosphate solubilization in cardiovascular calcification, but epidemiologic studies evaluating longitudinal associations with valvular or annular calcification by computed tomography (CT), a highly sensitive imaging modality, are lacking. Our primary aim was to investigate the associations of mineral biomarkers with incidence and progression of aortic valve calcification (AVC) and mitral annular calcification (MAC).

Methods: We evaluated the associations of serum FGF-23 (n = 6547 participants), phosphate (n = 6547), and fetuin-A (n = 2550) measured at baseline in the community-based Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with AVC and MAC on CT performed at baseline and at a median of 2.4 (1.6, 3.1) years later. We used linear mixed-effects models to account simultaneously for prevalence, incidence and progression of AVC and MAC.

Results: After adjustment for demographic and clinical characteristics, a significant association was documented for FGF-23 with accelerated annual progression of MAC (2.83 Agatston units (AU), 95% CI = 0.49, 5.17 AU, per standard deviation (18.46 pg/mL) of FGF-23), but this was not seen for phosphate or fetuin-A. None of these biomarkers was associated with accelerated annual progression of AVC.

Conclusions: This study provides evidence relating serum FGF-23 to accelerated annual MAC progression. Whether this mineral regulator is a risk marker or is involved in pathogenesis merits further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2019.04.215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6536341PMC
June 2019

Circulating Very Long-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids and Heart Failure: The Cardiovascular Health Study.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 11;7(21):e010019

10 Friedman School of Nutrition Science & Policy Tufts University Boston MA.

Background Circulating very-long-chain saturated fatty acids ( VLSFAs ) are integrated biomarkers of diet and metabolism that may point to new risk pathways and potential targets for heart failure ( HF ) prevention. The associations of VLSFA to HF in humans are not known. Methods and Results Using a cohort study design, we studied the associations of serially measured plasma phospholipid VLSFA with incident HF in the Cardiovascular Health Study. We investigated the associations of time-varying levels of the 3 major circulating VLSFAs , lignoceric acid (24:0), behenic acid (22:0), and arachidic acid (20:0), with the risk of incident HF using Cox regression. During 45030 person-years among 4249 participants, we identified 1304 cases of incident HF , including 489 with preserved and 310 with reduced ejection fraction. Adjusting for major HF risk factors and other circulating fatty acids, higher levels of each VLSFAs were associated with lower risk of incident HF ( P trend≤0.0007 each). The hazard ratio comparing the highest quintile to the lowest quintile was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.55-0.81) for 24:0, 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.87) for 22:0 and 0.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.59-0.88) for 20:0. The associations were similar in subgroups defined by sex, age, body mass index, coronary heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. Among those with ejection fraction data, the associations appeared similar for those with preserved and with reduced ejection fraction. Conclusions Higher levels of circulating VLSFAs are associated with lower risk of incident HF in older adults. These novel associations should prompt further research on the role of VLSFA in HF , including relevant new risk pathways. Clinical Trial Registration URL : https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 00005133.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.118.010019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6404213PMC
November 2018

Circulating sphingolipids, fasting glucose, and impaired fasting glucose: The Strong Heart Family Study.

EBioMedicine 2019 Mar 26;41:44-49. Epub 2018 Dec 26.

Cardiovascular Health Research Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Background: Animal studies suggest sphingolipids as an early marker of impaired glucose metabolism; however, research in humans is limited. We evaluated whether individual sphingolipid species were associated with fasting plasma glucose and incident impaired fasting glucose in a longitudinal cohort study.

Methods: We measured 15 sphingolipid species from blood samples collected in 2001-2003 from 2145 participants without prevalent diabetes in the Strong Heart Family Study. Fasting plasma glucose was measured in blood samples collected at baseline and follow-up (mean 5.5 years after baseline).

Findings: The average age of study participants was 38 years; 41% were men. Ceramide, sphingomyelin, and glucosylceramide species levels were higher in older participants; lactosyl-ceramide levels were higher in participants with lower BMIs. In adjusted analyses, greater concentrations of most ceramide species and lower lactosyl-ceramide with palmitic acid (LC-16) were associated with higher glucose levels at baseline. We did not observe associations of sphingomyelin species or glucosyl-ceramide species with glucose levels. Associations of sphingolipid levels with fasting glucose levels at follow-up were similar but had greater uncertainty than associations with baseline glucose. Although no statistically significant associations of sphingolipids with incident impaired fasting glucose were present, results were similar to glucose analyses.

Interpretation: We identified several ceramide species associated with higher fasting glucose levels and one sphingolipid, LC-16, that was associated with lower fasting glucose levels. These findings compliment previous research, which linked these sphingolipids with fasting insulin levels, and suggest that higher levels of these ceramides and lower LC-16 may be an early marker of impaired glucose metabolism. FUND: US National Institutes Health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2018.12.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6444022PMC
March 2019
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