Publications by authors named "David S Shames"

59 Publications

Cell-autonomous immune gene expression is repressed in pulmonary neuroendocrine cells and small cell lung cancer.

Commun Biol 2021 Mar 9;4(1):314. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Simmons Comprehensive Cancer Center, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX, USA.

Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is classified as a high-grade neuroendocrine (NE) tumor, but a subset of SCLC has been termed "variant" due to the loss of NE characteristics. In this study, we computed NE scores for patient-derived SCLC cell lines and xenografts, as well as human tumors. We aligned NE properties with transcription factor-defined molecular subtypes. Then we investigated the different immune phenotypes associated with high and low NE scores. We found repression of immune response genes as a shared feature between classic SCLC and pulmonary neuroendocrine cells of the healthy lung. With loss of NE fate, variant SCLC tumors regain cell-autonomous immune gene expression and exhibit higher tumor-immune interactions. Pan-cancer analysis revealed this NE lineage-specific immune phenotype in other cancers. Additionally, we observed MHC I re-expression in SCLC upon development of chemoresistance. These findings may help guide the design of treatment regimens in SCLC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-01842-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7943563PMC
March 2021

Patterns of transcription factor programs and immune pathway activation define four major subtypes of SCLC with distinct therapeutic vulnerabilities.

Cancer Cell 2021 Mar 21;39(3):346-360.e7. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Department of Thoracic/Head & Neck Medical Oncology, the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Despite molecular and clinical heterogeneity, small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is treated as a single entity with predictably poor results. Using tumor expression data and non-negative matrix factorization, we identify four SCLC subtypes defined largely by differential expression of transcription factors ASCL1, NEUROD1, and POU2F3 or low expression of all three transcription factor signatures accompanied by an Inflamed gene signature (SCLC-A, N, P, and I, respectively). SCLC-I experiences the greatest benefit from the addition of immunotherapy to chemotherapy, while the other subtypes each have distinct vulnerabilities, including to inhibitors of PARP, Aurora kinases, or BCL-2. Cisplatin treatment of SCLC-A patient-derived xenografts induces intratumoral shifts toward SCLC-I, supporting subtype switching as a mechanism of acquired platinum resistance. We propose that matching baseline tumor subtype to therapy, as well as manipulating subtype switching on therapy, may enhance depth and duration of response for SCLC patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2020.12.014DOI Listing
March 2021

Pan-cancer population pharmacokinetics and exposure-safety and -efficacy analyses of atezolizumab in patients with high tumor mutational burden.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2020 12;8(6):e00685

Clinical Pharmacology, Genentech-Roche, Marseille, France.

We retrospectively investigated the pharmacokinetics and exposure-efficacy/safety relationships of single-agent atezolizumab based on tissue tumor mutational burden (tTMB) status (high vs low [≥16 vs <16 mutations/megabase]) in a pan-tumor population from seven clinical trials. Data sources included the OAK, POPLAR, BIRCH, FIR, IMvigor210, IMvigor211, and PCD4989g studies; 986 of 2894 treated patients (34%) had TMB data. Exposure metrics were obtained using a prior two-compartment intravenous-infusion population-pharmacokinetics model, merged with prognostic, biomarker, efficacy, and safety variables. Baseline demographic/clinical characteristics and prognostic factors were well balanced between patients with high (n = 175) and low (n = 811) tTMB. Exposure was similar in the high- and low-tTMB subgroups, with no difference seen in the evaluable vs total treated populations. The objective response rate (ORR) was 29.7% vs 13.4%, complete response rate was 6.9% vs 3.2%, and median duration of response (95% CI) was 29.0 (18.6-NE) months vs 15.9 (12.5-20.5) months for patients with high-tTMB vs low-tTMB tumors, respectively. A flat exposure-efficacy relationship was seen for ORR in patients with high-tTMB based on the cycle 1 minimum atezolizumab concentration and area under the serum concentration time curve (AUC). A nonsignificant exposure-safety profile was seen for grade 3/4 adverse events and adverse events of special interest based on the AUC of atezolizumab in the high-tTMB population. tTMB is an additional predictive biological factor affecting response to atezolizumab, and quantitative investigations of atezolizumab exposure and relationships of exposure with safety and efficacy support the use of a 1200-mg, every 3-week regimen in a tumor-agnostic high-tTMB population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.685DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7689240PMC
December 2020

Metabolic Diversity in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

Mol Cell 2019 12 26;76(5):838-851.e5. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Children's Medical Center Research Institute at UT Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390, USA; Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd., Dallas, TX 75390, USA. Electronic address:

Intermediary metabolism in cancer cells is regulated by diverse cell-autonomous processes, including signal transduction and gene expression patterns, arising from specific oncogenotypes and cell lineages. Although it is well established that metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer, we lack a full view of the diversity of metabolic programs in cancer cells and an unbiased assessment of the associations between metabolic pathway preferences and other cell-autonomous processes. Here, we quantified metabolic features, mostly from the C enrichment of molecules from central carbon metabolism, in over 80 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines cultured under identical conditions. Because these cell lines were extensively annotated for oncogenotype, gene expression, protein expression, and therapeutic sensitivity, the resulting database enables the user to uncover new relationships between metabolism and these orthogonal processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2019.08.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6898782PMC
December 2019

Phase Ia Study of Anti-NaPi2b Antibody-Drug Conjugate Lifastuzumab Vedotin DNIB0600A in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 01 20;26(2):364-372. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, Tennessee.

Purpose: This phase I trial assessed the safety, tolerability, and preliminary antitumor activity of lifastuzumab vedotin (LIFA), an antibody-drug conjugate of anti-NaPi2b mAb (MNIB2126A) and a potent antimitotic agent (monomethyl auristatin E).

Patients And Methods: LIFA was administered to patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC), once every 3 weeks, by intravenous infusion. The starting dose was 0.2 mg/kg in this 3+3 dose-escalation design, followed by cohort expansion at the recommended phase II dose (RP2D).

Results: Overall, 87 patients were treated at doses between 0.2 and 2.8 mg/kg. The MTD was not reached; 2.4 mg/kg once every 3 weeks was selected as the RP2D based on overall tolerability profile. The most common adverse events of any grade and regardless of relationship to study drug were fatigue (59%), nausea (49%), decreased appetite (37%), vomiting (32%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (29%). Most common treatment-related grade ≥3 toxicities among patients treated at the RP2D ( = 63) were neutropenia (10%), anemia (3%), and pneumonia (3%). The pharmacokinetic profile was dose proportional. At active doses ≥1.8 mg/kg, partial responses were observed in four of 51 (8%) patients with NSCLC and 11 of 24 (46%) patients with PROC per RECIST. All RECIST responses occurred in patients with NaPi2b-high by IHC. The CA-125 biomarker assessed for patients with PROC dosed at ≥1.8 mg/kg showed 13 of 24 (54%) had responses (≥50% decline from baseline).

Conclusions: LIFA exhibited dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and an acceptable safety profile, with encouraging activity in patients with PROC at the single-agent RP2D of 2.4 mg/kg.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3965DOI Listing
January 2020

Clinical utility of a blood-based EGFR mutation test in patients receiving first-line erlotinib therapy in the ENSURE, FASTACT-2, and ASPIRATION studies.

Lung Cancer 2018 12 9;126:1-8. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

State Key Laboratory of South China, Department of Clinical Oncology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. Electronic address:

Objective: Patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with an adenocarcinoma component are recommended to undergo epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing when being considered for EGFR targeted therapy. We conducted an exploratory analysis to inform the clinical utility of EGFR mutation testing in blood cell-free DNA using the cobasEGFR Mutation Test v2.

Materials And Methods: Two EGFR mutation tests, a tissue-based assay (cobas v1) and a tissue- and blood-based assay (cobas v2) were used to analyze matched biopsy and blood samples (897 paired samples) from three Asian studies of first-line erlotinib with similar intent-to-treat populations. ENSURE was a phase III comparison of erlotinib and gemcitabine/platinum, FASTACT-2 was a phase III study of gemcitabine/platinum plus erlotinib or placebo, and ASPIRATION was a single-arm phase II study of erlotinib. Agreement statistics were evaluated, based on sensitivity and specificity between the two assays in subgroups of patients with increasing tumor burden.

Results: Patients with discordant EGFR (tissue+/plasma-) mutation status achieved longer progression-free and overall survival than those with concordant (tissue+/plasma+) mutation status. Tumor burden was significantly greater in patients with concordant versus discordant mutations. Pooled analyses of data from the three studies showed a sensitivity of 72.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 67.8-76.1) and a specificity of 97.9% (95% CI 96.0-99.0) for blood-based testing; sensitivity was greatest in patients with larger baseline tumors.

Conclusions: Blood-based EGFR mutation testing demonstrated high specificity and good sensitivity, and offers a convenient and easily accessible diagnostic method to complement tissue-based tests. Patients with a discordant mutation status in plasma and tissue, had improved survival outcomes compared with those with a concordant mutation status, which may be due to their lower tumor burden. These data help to inform the clinical utility of this blood-based assay for the detection of EGFR mutations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2018.10.004DOI Listing
December 2018

Differential regulation of PD-L1 expression by immune and tumor cells in NSCLC and the response to treatment with atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1).

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 10 8;115(43):E10119-E10126. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Oncology Biomarker Development, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080.

Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on tumor cells (TCs) by immunohistochemistry is rapidly gaining importance as a diagnostic for the selection or stratification of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) most likely to respond to single-agent checkpoint inhibitors. However, at least two distinct patterns of PD-L1 expression have been observed with potential biological and clinical relevance in NSCLC: expression on TC or on tumor-infiltrating immune cells (ICs). We investigated the molecular and cellular characteristics associated with PD-L1 expression in these distinct cell compartments in 4,549 cases of NSCLC. PD-L1 expression on IC was more prevalent and likely reflected IFN-γ-induced adaptive regulation accompanied by increased tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and effector T cells. High PD-L1 expression on TC, however, reflected an epigenetic dysregulation of the PD-L1 gene and was associated with a distinct histology described by poor immune infiltration, sclerotic/desmoplastic stroma, and mesenchymal molecular features. Importantly, durable clinical responses to atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1) were observed in patients with tumors expressing high PD-L1 levels on either TC alone [40% objective response rate (ORR)] or IC alone (22% ORR). Thus, PD-L1 expression on TC or IC can independently attenuate anticancer immunity and emphasizes the functional importance of IC in regulating the antitumor T cell response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1802166115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205493PMC
October 2018

First-Line Atezolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Extensive-Stage Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2018 12 25;379(23):2220-2229. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

From Vanderbilt University Medical Center (L. Horn) and Sarah Cannon Research Institute-Tennessee Oncology (M.L.J.), Nashville; Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (A.S.M.); Mazowieckie Centrum Leczenia Chorób Płuc i Gruźlicy, Otwock (A. Szczęsna), and Centrum Onkologii-Instytut im. Marii Skłodowskiej-Curie w Warszawie, Warsaw (M.K.) - both in Poland; Thomayerova Nemocnice, Pneumologická Klinika 1.LF UK, Prague, Czech Republic (L. Havel); the Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (M.J.H.) and the 2nd Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine (F.H.), Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for COPD and Respiratory Epidemiology-Sozialmedizinisches Zentrum Baumgartner Höhe, Otto-Wagner-Spital, Vienna; Semmelweis Egyetem ÁOK, Pulmonológiai Klinika, Budapest, Hungary (G.L.); the Cancer Institute Hospital, Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (M.N.); LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf, Germany (M.R.); State Key Laboratory of South China, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (T.M.), and F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Shanghai (J.L.) - both in China; Genentech, South San Francisco, CA (S.L., D.S.S., B.D., A.L.-C., F.K., W.L., A. Sandler); and Georgetown University, Washington DC (S.V.L.).

Background: Enhancing tumor-specific T-cell immunity by inhibiting programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1)-programmed death 1 (PD-1) signaling has shown promise in the treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer. Combining checkpoint inhibition with cytotoxic chemotherapy may have a synergistic effect and improve efficacy.

Methods: We conducted this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to evaluate atezolizumab plus carboplatin and etoposide in patients with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer who had not previously received treatment. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive carboplatin and etoposide with either atezolizumab or placebo for four 21-day cycles (induction phase), followed by a maintenance phase during which they received either atezolizumab or placebo (according to the previous random assignment) until they had unacceptable toxic effects, disease progression according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1, or no additional clinical benefit. The two primary end points were investigator-assessed progression-free survival and overall survival in the intention-to-treat population.

Results: A total of 201 patients were randomly assigned to the atezolizumab group, and 202 patients to the placebo group. At a median follow-up of 13.9 months, the median overall survival was 12.3 months in the atezolizumab group and 10.3 months in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.91; P=0.007). The median progression-free survival was 5.2 months and 4.3 months, respectively (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.96; P=0.02). The safety profile of atezolizumab plus carboplatin and etoposide was consistent with the previously reported safety profile of the individual agents, with no new findings observed.

Conclusions: The addition of atezolizumab to chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer resulted in significantly longer overall survival and progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; IMpower133 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02763579 .).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1809064DOI Listing
December 2018

Blood-based tumor mutational burden as a predictor of clinical benefit in non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with atezolizumab.

Nat Med 2018 09 6;24(9):1441-1448. Epub 2018 Aug 6.

Genentech, Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA.

Although programmed death-ligand 1-programmed death 1 (PD-L1-PD-1) inhibitors are broadly efficacious, improved outcomes have been observed in patients with high PD-L1 expression or high tumor mutational burden (TMB). PD-L1 testing is required for checkpoint inhibitor monotherapy in front-line non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, obtaining adequate tumor tissue for molecular testing in patients with advanced disease can be challenging. Thus, an unmet medical need exists for diagnostic approaches that do not require tissue to identify patients who may benefit from immunotherapy. Here, we describe a novel, technically robust, blood-based assay to measure TMB in plasma (bTMB) that is distinct from tissue-based approaches. Using a retrospective analysis of two large randomized trials as test and validation studies, we show that bTMB reproducibly identifies patients who derive clinically significant improvements in progression-free survival from atezolizumab (an anti-PD-L1) in second-line and higher NSCLC. Collectively, our data show that high bTMB is a clinically actionable biomarker for atezolizumab in NSCLC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41591-018-0134-3DOI Listing
September 2018

CHK1 Inhibition in Small-Cell Lung Cancer Produces Single-Agent Activity in Biomarker-Defined Disease Subsets and Combination Activity with Cisplatin or Olaparib.

Cancer Res 2017 07 10;77(14):3870-3884. Epub 2017 May 10.

Department of Thoracic/Head and Neck Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Effective targeted therapies for small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), the most aggressive form of lung cancer, remain urgently needed. Here we report evidence of preclinical efficacy evoked by targeting the overexpressed cell-cycle checkpoint kinase CHK1 in SCLC. Our studies employed RNAi-mediated attenuation or pharmacologic blockade with the novel second-generation CHK1 inhibitor prexasertib (LY2606368), currently in clinical trials. In SCLC models and , LY2606368 exhibited strong single-agent efficacy, augmented the effects of cisplatin or the PARP inhibitor olaparib, and improved the response of platinum-resistant models. Proteomic analysis identified CHK1 and MYC as top predictive biomarkers of LY2606368 sensitivity, suggesting that CHK1 inhibition may be especially effective in SCLC with amplification or MYC protein overexpression. Our findings provide a preclinical proof of concept supporting the initiation of a clinical efficacy trial in patients with platinum-sensitive or platinum-resistant relapsed SCLC. .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-3409DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5563854PMC
July 2017

Erlotinib and bevacizumab in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer and activating EGFR mutations (BELIEF): an international, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial.

Lancet Respir Med 2017 05 10;5(5):435-444. Epub 2017 Apr 10.

University Hospital Zurich, Clinic of Oncology, Zurich, Switzerland; Swiss Group of Clinical Cancer Research, Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Background: The tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib improves the outcomes of patients with advanced non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. The coexistence of the T790M resistance mutation with another EGFR mutation in treatment-naive patients has been associated with a shorter progression-free survival to EGFR inhibition than in the absence of the T790M mutation. To test this hypothesis clinically, we developed a proof-of-concept study, in which patients with EGFR-mutant NSCLC were treated with the combination of erlotinib and bevacizumab, stratified by the presence of the pretreatment T790M mutation.

Methods: BELIEF was an international, multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 trial done at 29 centres in eight European countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and had treatment-naive, pathologically confirmed stage IIIB or stage IV lung adenocarcinoma with a confirmed, activating EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion or L858R mutation). Patients received oral erlotinib 150 mg per day and intravenous bevacizumab 15 mg/kg every 21 days and were tested centrally for the pretreatment T790M resistance mutation with a peptide nucleic acid probe-based real-time PCR. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival. The primary efficacy analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population and was stratified into two parallel substudies according to the centrally confirmed pretreatment T790M mutation status of enrolled patients (T790M positive or negative). The safety analysis was done in all patients that have received at least one dose of trial treatment. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01562028.

Findings: Between June 11, 2012, and Oct 28, 2014, 109 patients were enrolled and included in the efficacy analysis. 37 patients were T790M mutation positive and 72 negative. The overall median progression-free survival was 13·2 months (95% CI 10·3-15·5), with a 12 month progression-free survival of 55% (95% CI 45-64). The primary endpoint was met only in substudy one (T790M-positive patients). In the T790M-positive group, median progression-free survival was 16·0 months (12·7 to not estimable), with a 12 month progression-free survival of 68% (50-81), whereas in the T790M-negative group, median progression-free survival was 10·5 months (9·4-14·2), with a 12 month progression-free survival of 48% (36-59). Of 106 patients included in the safety analysis, five had grade 4 adverse events (one acute coronary syndrome, one biliary tract infection, one other neoplasms, and two colonic perforations) and one died due to sepsis.

Interpretation: The BELIEF trial provides further evidence of benefit for the combined use of erlotinib and bevacizumab in patients with NSCLC harbouring activating EGFR mutations.

Funding: European Thoracic Oncology Platform, Roche.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(17)30129-7DOI Listing
May 2017

Expression of MET in circulating tumor cells correlates with expression in tumor tissue from advanced-stage lung cancer patients.

Oncotarget 2017 Apr;8(16):26112-26121

Laboratory of Clinical and Experimental Pathology and Liquid Biopsy Laboratory, Pasteur Hospital, University Hospital Federation OncoAge, Université Côte d'Azur, Nice, France.

Given the difficulty in obtaining adequate tissue in NSCLC, we investigated the utility of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) for MET status assessment in NSCLC patients. We used two platforms for CTC capture, and assessed MET expression in CTCs and matched-bronchial biopsies in patients with advanced-stage III/IV lung adenocarcinoma. Baseline peripheral blood was collected from 256 advanced-stage III/IV NSCLC patients from Genentech clinical trials, and from 106 patients with advanced-stage III/IV lung adenocarcinoma treated at the Department of Pneumology, Pasteur Hospital, Nice. CTCs were enriched using CellSearch (Genentech), or ISET technologies (Pasteur Hospital). MET expression was evaluated by immunofluorescence on CellSearch, and by immunocytochemistry on ISET-enriched CTCs and on matched FFPE tissue sections (Pasteur Hospital). CTCs were detected in 83 of 256 (32%) patients evaluated on CellSearch, with 30 samples (12%) exhibiting ≥ 5 CTCs/7.5 ml blood. On ISET, CTC were observed in 80 of 106 patients (75%), and 79 patients (75%) exhibited ≥ 5 CTCs/4 ml blood. MET expression on ISET CTCs was positive in 72% of cases, and the MET expression on matched-patient tissue was positive in 65% patients using the Onartuzumab IHC scoring algorithm (93% concordance). Quantification of MET expression using H-scores showed strong correlation between MET expression in tissue and CTCs (Spearman correlation, 0.93). MET status in CTCs isolated on ISET filters from blood samples of advanced-stage NSCLC patients correlated strongly with MET status in tumor tissue, illustrating the potential for using CTCs as a non-invasive, real-time biopsy to determine MET status of patients entering clinical trials.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.15345DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5432243PMC
April 2017

A Phase II Randomized Trial (GO27827) of First-Line FOLFOX Plus Bevacizumab with or Without the MET Inhibitor Onartuzumab in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

Oncologist 2017 03 16;22(3):264-271. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Rocky Mountain Cancer Center, Denver, Colorado, USA.

Background: Dysregulated hepatocyte growth factor/mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) signaling is associated with poor prognosis and resistance to vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We report outcomes from a double-blind, multicenter phase II trial of the MET inhibitor onartuzumab in combination with mFOLFOX-6 and bevacizumab for mCRC (GO27827; NCT01418222).

Materials And Methods: Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive onartuzumab (10 mg/kg intravenously [IV]) or placebo plus mFOLFOX-6 and bevacizumab (5 mg/kg IV). Oxaliplatin was given for 8-12 cycles; other agents were continued until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or death. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) in the intent-to-treat (ITT) and MET immunohistochemistry (IHC) expression-positive populations.

Results: Between September 2011 and November 2012, 194 patients were enrolled. In September 2013, an interim analysis recommended stopping onartuzumab treatment due to lack of efficacy. At the time of the final analysis in February 2014, no significant improvement in PFS was seen with onartuzumab versus placebo in either the ITT or MET IHC-positive populations. An improvement in PFS was noted in the MET IHC-negative population. Neither overall survival nor response rate was improved with onartuzumab. The incidence of fatigue, peripheral edema, and deep vein thrombosis was increased with onartuzumab relative to placebo.

Conclusion: Onartuzumab combined with mFOLFOX-6 and bevacizumab did not significantly improve efficacy outcomes in either the ITT or MET IHC-positive populations. MET expression by IHC was not a predictive biomarker in this setting. 2017;22:264-271 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: The addition of onartuzumab to mFOLFOX-6 plus bevacizumab did not improve outcomes in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer in this randomized, phase II study. Although initial results with onartuzumab were promising, a number of phase II/III clinical trials have reported a lack of improvement in efficacy with onartuzumab combined with standard-of-care therapies in several tumor types. Furthermore, negative study data have been published for rilotumumab and ficlatuzumab, both of which block hepatocyte growth factor binding to the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) receptor. MET immunohistochemistry was not a predictive biomarker. It remains to be seen if other biomarkers or small molecule inhibitors may be more appropriate for inhibiting this oncogenic pathway.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2016-0223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5344636PMC
March 2017

Results From the Phase III Randomized Trial of Onartuzumab Plus Erlotinib Versus Erlotinib in Previously Treated Stage IIIB or IV Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: METLung.

J Clin Oncol 2017 Feb 12;35(4):412-420. Epub 2016 Dec 12.

David R. Spigel, Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN; Martin J. Edelman, University of Maryland Greenebaum Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD; Kenneth O'Byrne, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Luis Paz-Ares, Hospital Universitario Doce de Octubre and Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas, Madrid, Spain; Simonetta Mocci, See Phan, David S. Shames, Dustin Smith, Wei Yu, and Virginia E. Paton, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA; and Tony Mok, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Special Administrative Region, People's Republic of China.

Purpose The phase III OAM4971g study (METLung) examined the efficacy and safety of onartuzumab plus erlotinib in patients with locally advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer selected by MET immunohistochemistry whose disease had progressed after treatment with a platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. Patients and Methods Patients were randomly assigned at a one-to-one ratio to receive onartuzumab (15 mg/kg intravenously on day 1 of each 21-day cycle) plus daily oral erlotinib 150 mg or intravenous placebo plus daily oral erlotinib 150 mg. The primary end point was overall survival (OS) in the intent-to-treat population. Secondary end points included median progression-free survival, overall response rate, biomarker analysis, and safety. Results A total of 499 patients were enrolled (onartuzumab, n = 250; placebo, n = 249). Median OS was 6.8 versus 9.1 months for onartuzumab versus placebo (stratified hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.65; P = .067), with a greater number of deaths in the onartuzumab arm (130 [52%] v 114 [46%]). Median progression-free survival was 2.7 versus 2.6 months (stratified HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.20; P = .92), and overall response rate was 8.4% and 9.6% for onartuzumab versus placebo, respectively. Exploratory analyses using MET fluorescence in situ hybridization status and gene expression showed no benefit for onartuzumab; patients with EGFR mutations showed a trend toward shorter OS with onartuzumab treatment (HR, 4.68; 95% CI, 0.97 to 22.63). Grade 3 to 5 adverse events were reported by 56.0% and 51.2% of patients, with serious AEs in 33.9% and 30.7%, for experimental versus control arms, respectively. Conclusion Onartuzumab plus erlotinib did not improve clinical outcomes, with shorter OS in the onartuzumab arm, compared with erlotinib in patients with MET-positive non-small-cell lung cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.69.2160DOI Listing
February 2017

Effect of Fluorouracil, Leucovorin, and Oxaliplatin With or Without Onartuzumab in HER2-Negative, MET-Positive Gastroesophageal Adenocarcinoma: The METGastric Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2017 May;3(5):620-627

Royal Marsden Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Dysregulation of the mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) signaling pathway is associated with poor prognosis in gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (GEC). We report results of METGastric, a phase 3 trial of the MET inhibitor onartuzumab plus standard first-line chemotherapy for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative, MET-positive, advanced GEC.

Objective: To determine whether the addition of onartuzumab to first-line fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) improves efficacy compared with mFOLFOX6 plus placebo in HER2-negative, MET-positive GEC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial conducted from November 2012 to March 2014. Patients were 18 years or older with an adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction with metastatic disease not amenable for curative therapy. Tumor samples were centrally tested for MET expression using Ventana anti-Total c-MET (SP44) rabbit monoclonal antibody, HER2 status, and Lauren histologic subtype. MET-positive tumors were defined as at least 50% of tumor cells showing weak, moderate, and/or strong staining intensity (MET 1+/2+/3+, respectively) by immunohistochemistry.

Interventions: Patients with HER2-negative, MET-positive GEC were enrolled and randomized 1:1 to receive mFOLFOX6 with or without onartuzumab (10 mg/kg).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Co-primary end points: overall survival in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population and in patients with MET 2+/3+ GEC. Secondary end points: progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), and safety.

Results: Enrollment was stopped early due to sponsor decision, which was agreed with an independent data monitoring committee. At the data cutoff (April 25, 2014) there were 562 patients in the ITT population (n = 283 placebo plus mFOLFOX6 [median age, 58 y; 65% male]; n = 279 onartuzumab plus mFOLFOX6 [median age, 60 y; 67% male]); 109 (38.5%) and 105 (37.6%) of the ITT population were MET 2+/3+, respectively. Addition of onartuzumab to mFOLFOX6 did not significantly improve OS, PFS, or ORR vs placebo plus mFOLFOX6 in the ITT (OS hazard ratio [HR], 0.82; 95% CI, 0.59-1.15; P = .24; PFS HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.71-1.16; P = .43; ORR, 46.1% vs 40.6%) or MET 2+/3+ populations (OS HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.40-1.03; P = .06; PFS HR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.54-1.15; P = .22; ORR, 53.8% vs 44.6%). Safety was as expected for onartuzumab.

Conclusions And Relevance: Addition of onartuzumab to first-line mFOLFOX6 did not significantly improve clinical benefits in the ITT or MET 2+/3+ populations.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01662869.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2016.5580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5824210PMC
May 2017

Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Multicenter Phase II Study of Onartuzumab Plus Bevacizumab Versus Placebo Plus Bevacizumab in Patients With Recurrent Glioblastoma: Efficacy, Safety, and Hepatocyte Growth Factor and O-Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase Biomarker Analyses.

J Clin Oncol 2017 Jan 5;35(3):343-351. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

Timothy Cloughesy, University of California, Los Angeles; Lawrence Recht, Stanford Cancer Center, Stanford; Carlos Bais, Thomas Sandmann, Jean-Marie Bruey, Hartmut Koeppen, Bo Liu, Wendy Verret, See-Chun Phan, and David S. Shames, Genentech, South San Francisco, CA; Tom Mikkelsen, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI; Gaetano Finocchiaro, Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta, Milan; Alba A. Brandes, Azienda Unità Sanitaria Locale-Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Institute of Neurologic Sciences, Bologna, Italy; Cristóbal Belda-Iniesta, Centro Integral Oncológico Clara Campal, University Hospital HM Sanchinarro, Madrid; Estela Pineda, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona; Carmen Balana, Institut Català d'Oncologia Badalona Hospital Germans Trias I Pujol, Barcelona, Spain; Olivier L. Chinot, Aix-Marseille Université Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille, France; David R. Macdonald, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada; Manfred Westphal, University Clinic Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany; Kirsten Hopkins, Bristol Haematology and Oncology Centre, Bristol, United Kingdom; and Michael Weller, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Purpose Bevacizumab regimens are approved for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma in many countries. Aberrant mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) expression has been reported in glioblastoma and may contribute to bevacizumab resistance. The phase II study GO27819 investigated the monovalent MET inhibitor onartuzumab plus bevacizumab (Ona + Bev) versus placebo plus bevacizumab (Pla + Bev) in recurrent glioblastoma. Methods At first recurrence after chemoradiation, bevacizumab-naïve patients with glioblastoma were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive Ona (15 mg/kg, once every 3 weeks) + Bev (15 mg/kg, once every 3 weeks) or Pla + Bev until disease progression. The primary end point was progression-free survival by response assessment in neuro-oncology criteria. Secondary end points were overall survival, objective response rate, duration of response, and safety. Exploratory biomarker analyses correlated efficacy with expression levels of MET ligand hepatocyte growth factor, O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase promoter methylation, and glioblastoma subtype. Results Among 129 patients enrolled (Ona + Bev, n = 64; Pla + Bev, n = 65), baseline characteristics were balanced. The median progression-free survival was 3.9 months for Ona + Bev versus 2.9 months for Pla + Bev (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.56; P = .7444). The median overall survival was 8.8 months for Ona + Bev and 12.6 months for Pla + Bev (hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.88 to 2.37; P = .1389). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events were reported in 38.5% of patients who received Ona + Bev and 35.9% of patients who received Pla + Bev. Exploratory biomarker analyses suggested that patients with high expression of hepatocyte growth factor or unmethylated O-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase may benefit from Ona + Bev. Conclusion There was no evidence of further clinical benefit with the addition of onartuzumab to bevacizumab compared with bevacizumab plus placebo in unselected patients with recurrent glioblastoma in this phase II study; however, further investigation into biomarker subgroups is warranted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2015.64.7685DOI Listing
January 2017

Recurrent Loss of NFE2L2 Exon 2 Is a Mechanism for Nrf2 Pathway Activation in Human Cancers.

Cell Rep 2016 09 25;16(10):2605-2617. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

Department of Discovery Oncology, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA. Electronic address:

The Nrf2 pathway is frequently activated in human cancers through mutations in Nrf2 or its negative regulator KEAP1. Using a cell-line-derived gene signature for Nrf2 pathway activation, we found that some tumors show high Nrf2 activity in the absence of known mutations in the pathway. An analysis of splice variants in oncogenes revealed that such tumors express abnormal transcript variants from the NFE2L2 gene (encoding Nrf2) that lack exon 2, or exons 2 and 3, and encode Nrf2 protein isoforms missing the KEAP1 interaction domain. The Nrf2 alterations result in the loss of interaction with KEAP1, Nrf2 stabilization, induction of a Nrf2 transcriptional response, and Nrf2 pathway dependence. In all analyzed cases, transcript variants were the result of heterozygous genomic microdeletions. Thus, we identify an alternative mechanism for Nrf2 pathway activation in human tumors and elucidate its functional consequences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2016.08.010DOI Listing
September 2016

A Randomized Phase II Study of FOLFOX With or Without the MET Inhibitor Onartuzumab in Advanced Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach and Gastroesophageal Junction.

Oncologist 2016 09 8;21(9):1085-90. Epub 2016 Jul 8.

Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Background: The phase II YO28252 study (NCT01590719) examined first-line onartuzumab plus mFOLFOX6 in patients with metastatic, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative adenocarcinoma of the stomach or gastroesophageal junction. MET immunohistochemistry expression as a biomarker of onartuzumab activity was also examined.

Patients And Methods: Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive standard mFOLFOX6 plus onartuzumab (10 mg/kg) or placebo in 2-week cycles for 12 cycles, followed by onartuzumab or placebo until disease progression. Coprimary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) in intent-to-treat (ITT) and MET-positive populations. The target hazard ratio (HR) was 0.70 for patients in the ITT group and 0.60 in the MET-positive population. Secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), and safety.

Results: Overall, 123 patients were enrolled (n = 62 onartuzumab, n = 61 placebo). Median PFS was 6.77 versus 6.97 months for onartuzumab versus placebo, respectively (HR, 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-1.63; p = .71). In the MET-positive population, median PFS was 5.95 versus 6.80 months, onartuzumab versus placebo (HR, 1.38; 95% CI, 0.60-3.20; p = .45). Median OS was 10.61 months for onartuzumab versus 11.27 months for placebo) (HR, 1.06, 0.64-1.75; p = .83). In the MET-positive population, median OS was 8.51 versus 8.48 months for onartuzumab versus placebo, respectively (HR, 1.12, 95% CI, 0.45-2.78; p = .80). ORR was 60.5% for the onartuzumab group and 57.1% for placebo. Grade 3-5 adverse events (AEs) were seen in 88.3% of patients receiving onartuzumab and in 78.3% of patients receiving placebo, with serious AEs in 55% and 40%, respectively.

Conclusion: The addition of onartuzumab to mFOLFOX6 in gastric cancer did not improve efficacy in an unselected population or in a MET immunohistochemistry-positive population.

Implications For Practice: The YO28252 study demonstrated that the addition of the anti-MET agent onartuzumab to mFOLFOX6 for treatment of gastric cancer did not improve efficacy in an overall study population or those selected for positive MET status by immunohistochemistry. This highlights the importance of correctly selecting biomarkers for targeted therapies. A multivariate analysis suggested that MET positivity may still be prognostic for worse median overall survival in gastric cancer; therefore, it is important to continue investigation into the optimal approach to inhibit MET signaling in gastric cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2016-0038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5016069PMC
September 2016

Tumor marker analyses from the phase III, placebo-controlled, FASTACT-2 study of intercalated erlotinib with gemcitabine/platinum in the first-line treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2016 08 3;98:1-8. Epub 2016 May 3.

Guangdong Lung Cancer Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China. Electronic address:

Objectives: The FASTACT-2 study of intercalated erlotinib with chemotherapy in Asian patients found that EGFR mutations were the main driver behind the significant progression-free survival (PFS) benefit noted in the overall population. Further exploratory biomarker analyses were conducted to provide additional insight.

Materials And Methods: This multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase III study investigated intercalated first-line erlotinib or placebo with gemcitabine/platinum, followed by maintenance erlotinib or placebo, for patients with stage IIIB/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Provision of samples for biomarker analysis was encouraged but not mandatory. The following biomarkers were analyzed (in order of priority): EGFR mutation by cobas(®) test, KRAS mutation by cobas(®)KRAS test, HER2 by immunohistochemistry (IHC), HER3 by IHC, ERCC1 by IHC, EGFR gene copy number by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and EGFR by IHC. All subgroups were assessed for PFS (primary endpoint), overall survival (OS), non-progression rate and objective response rate.

Results: Overall, 256 patients provided samples for analysis. Considerable overlap was noted among biomarkers, except for EGFR and KRAS mutations, which are mutually exclusive. Other than EGFR mutations (p<0.0001), no other biomarkers were significantly predictive of outcomes in a treatment-by-biomarker interaction test, although ERCC1 IHC-positive status was predictive of improved OS for the erlotinib arm versus placebo in EGFR wild-type patients (median 18.4 vs 9.5 months; hazard ratio [HR] HR=0.32, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.14-0.69, p=0.0024).

Conclusion: Activating EGFR mutations were predictive for improved treatment outcomes with a first-line intercalated regimen of chemotherapy and erlotinib in NSCLC. ERCC1 status may have some predictive value in EGFR wild-type disease, but requires further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2016.04.023DOI Listing
August 2016

Examining Treatment Outcomes with Erlotinib in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Whose Tumors Harbor Uncommon EGFR Mutations.

J Thorac Oncol 2016 Apr 8;11(4):545-55. Epub 2016 Jan 8.

Oncology Biomarker Development, Genentech Inc., San Francisco, California.

Introduction: Exon 19 deletions and the exon 21 L858R mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) predict activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including erlotinib; however, the ability of less common EGFR mutations to predict efficacy of erlotinib is unclear.

Methods: The efficacy of erlotinib in individual patients with rare EGFR mutations from the MERIT, SATURN, TITAN, TRUST, ATLAS, BeTa, and FASTACT-2 trials was analyzed and compared with data from the literature.

Results: In the patients tested for biomarkers, the frequency of rare mutations identified here ranged from 1.7% (eight of 467) in the SATURN study to 7.4% (27 of 364) in ATLAS. Some rare mutations were associated with greater clinical benefit from EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy or improved prognosis independent of treatment, whereas others appeared to have a poorer prognosis. In particular, exon 18 G719 mutations, exon 19 K757R and E746G mutations, the exon 20 S768I mutation, and the exon 21 G836S mutation appeared to confer a good outcome with erlotinib treatment, whereas exon 18 S720I showed a particularly poor outcome. Owing to the small number of patients with each mutation, however, it is difficult to confirm whether these rare mutations do indeed confer sensitivity or resistance to erlotinib.

Conclusions: Erlotinib can have different efficacy depending on the specific EGFR mutation. More research is needed to create a central database such as the My Cancer Genome database of rare mutations to definitively confirm whether these mutations are activating, resistant, or neutral.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2015.12.107DOI Listing
April 2016

PTPRF Expression as a Potential Prognostic/Predictive Marker for Treatment with Erlotinib in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Thorac Oncol 2015 Sep;10(9):1364-1369

Department of Oncology Biomarkers, Genentech Inc., SanFrancisco, California. Electronic address:

Introduction: EGFR mutations and anaplastic lymphoma kinase rearrangements are, to date, the only approved biomarkers to select treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, there is considerable interest in identifying other predictive markers. The PTPRF gene has been suggested as a marker of interest in NSCLC and other tumor types.

Methods: This hypothesis-generating retrospective analysis examined data from two studies of erlotinib in NSCLC, Marker Identification Trial (MERIT; n = 102) and Sequential Tarceva in Unresectable NSCLC (SATURN; n = 262), to determine whether PTPRF expression was prognostic and/or predictive of patient outcomes. Exploratory analyses were conducted using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction on existing formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples, to assess gene expression levels, including PTPRF. High versus low levels of expression were dichotomized using the median with B2M as a control comparator. Progression-free survival and overall survival were then compared for patients with high versus low levels of PTPRF in the two studies.

Results: PTPRF expression was found to be prognostic for shorter overall survival but was also significantly predictive of improved survival with erlotinib versus placebo in SATURN (hazard ratio, 0.45 [95% confidence interval, CI, 0.30-0.69] in PTPRF high versus 0.96 [95% CI, 0.62-1.48] in PTPRF low; interaction p = 0.02), even in the EGFR wild-type subpopulation (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.44 [95% CI, 0.29-0.68] versus 0.96 [95% CI, 0.62-1.48]; interaction p = 0.01).

Conclusions: PTPRF may have value as a predictive marker to identify which patients can obtain the greatest benefit from erlotinib in the post-first-line setting. Further research is warranted to determine the potential value of this marker in clinical decision-making.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JTO.0000000000000624DOI Listing
September 2015

Safety and Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics of the First-in-Class Dual Action HER3/EGFR Antibody MEHD7945A in Locally Advanced or Metastatic Epithelial Tumors.

Clin Cancer Res 2015 Jun;21(11):2462-70

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Purpose: The novel dual-action humanized IgG1 antibody MEHD7945A targeting HER3 and EGFR inhibits ligand-dependent HER dimer signaling. This phase I study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity of MEHD7945A.

Experimental Design: Patients with locally advanced or metastatic epithelial tumors received escalating doses of MEHD7945A (1-30 mg/kg) every 2 weeks (q2w) until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. An expansion cohort was enrolled at the recommended phase II dose (14 mg/kg, q2w). Plasma samples, tumor biopsies, FDG-PET were obtained for assessment of pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic modulation downstream of EGFR and HER3.

Results: No dose-limiting toxicities or MEHD7945A-related grade ≥ 4 adverse events (AE) were reported in dose-escalation (n = 30) or expansion (n = 36) cohorts. Related grade 3 AEs were limited to diarrhea and nausea in the same patient (30 mg/kg). Related AEs in ≥20% of patients ≤24 hours after the first infusion included grade 1/2 headache, fever, and chills, which were managed with premedication and/or symptomatic treatment. Pharmacodynamic data indicated target inhibition in 25% of evaluable patients. Best response by RECIST included 2 confirmed partial responses in squamous cell carcinomas of head and neck (SCCHN) patients with high tumor tissue levels of the HER3 ligand heregulin; 14 patients had stable disease ≥8 weeks, including SCCHN (n = 3), colorectal cancer (n = 6), and non-small cell lung cancer (n = 3).

Conclusions: MEHD7945A was well-tolerated as single agent with evidence of tumor pharmacodynamic modulation and antitumor activity in SCCHN. Phase II studies were initiated with flat (nonweight-based) dosing at 1,100 mg q2w in SCCHN and colorectal cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2412DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5705193PMC
June 2015

Detection and Dynamic Changes of EGFR Mutations from Circulating Tumor DNA as a Predictor of Survival Outcomes in NSCLC Patients Treated with First-line Intercalated Erlotinib and Chemotherapy.

Clin Cancer Res 2015 Jul 31;21(14):3196-203. Epub 2015 Mar 31.

Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Pleasanton, California.

Purpose: Blood-based circulating-free (cf) tumor DNA may be an alternative to tissue-based EGFR mutation testing in NSCLC. This exploratory analysis compares matched tumor and blood samples from the FASTACT-2 study.

Experimental Design: Patients were randomized to receive six cycles of gemcitabine/platinum plus sequential erlotinib or placebo. EGFR mutation testing was performed using the cobas tissue test and the cobas blood test (in development). Blood samples at baseline, cycle 3, and progression were assessed for blood test detection rate, sensitivity, and specificity; concordance with matched tumor analysis (n = 238), and correlation with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: Concordance between tissue and blood tests was 88%, with blood test sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 96%. Median PFS was 13.1 versus 6.0 months for erlotinib and placebo, respectively, for those with baseline EGFR mut(+) cfDNA [HR, 0.22; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 0.14-0.33, P < 0.0001] and 6.2 versus 6.1 months, respectively, for the EGFR mut(-) cfDNA subgroup (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.65-1.04, P = 0.1076). For patients with EGFR mut(+) cfDNA at baseline, median PFS was 7.2 versus 12.0 months for cycle 3 EGFR mut(+) cfDNA versus cycle 3 EGFR mut(-) patients, respectively (HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.21-0.48, P < 0.0001); median OS by cycle 3 status was 18.2 and 31.9 months, respectively (HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.31-0.84, P = 0.0066).

Conclusions: Blood-based EGFR mutation analysis is relatively sensitive and highly specific. Dynamic changes in cfDNA EGFR mutation status relative to baseline may predict clinical outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2594DOI Listing
July 2015

Biomarker analyses from a placebo-controlled phase II study evaluating erlotinib±onartuzumab in advanced non-small cell lung cancer: MET expression levels are predictive of patient benefit.

Clin Cancer Res 2014 Sep 31;20(17):4488-98. Epub 2014 Mar 31.

Genentech Inc., South San Francisco;

Purpose: In a recent phase II study of onartuzumab (MetMAb), patients whose non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue scored as positive for MET protein by immunohistochemistry (IHC) experienced a significant benefit with onartuzumab plus erlotinib (O+E) versus erlotinib. We describe development and validation of a standardized MET IHC assay and, retrospectively, evaluate multiple biomarkers as predictors of patient benefit.

Experimental Design: Biomarkers related to MET and/or EGF receptor (EGFR) signaling were measured by IHC, FISH, quantitative reverse transcription PCR, mutation detection techniques, and ELISA.

Results: A positive correlation between IHC, Western blotting, and MET mRNA expression was observed in NSCLC cell lines/tissues. An IHC scoring system of MET expression taking proportional and intensity-based thresholds into consideration was applied in an analysis of the phase II study and resulted in the best differentiation of outcomes. Further analyses revealed a nonsignificant overall survival (OS) improvement with O+E in patients with high MET copy number (mean≥5 copies/cell by FISH); however, benefit was maintained in "MET IHC-positive"/MET FISH-negative patients (HR, 0.37; P=0.01). MET, EGFR, amphiregulin, epiregulin, or HGF mRNA expression did not predict a significant benefit with onartuzumab; a nonsignificant OS improvement was observed in patients with high tumor MET mRNA levels (HR, 0.59; P=0.23). Patients with low baseline plasma hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) exhibited an HR for OS of 0.519 (P=0.09) in favor of onartuzumab treatment.

Conclusions: MET IHC remains the most robust predictor of OS and progression-free survival benefit from O+E relative to all examined exploratory markers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-1836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4504679PMC
September 2014

Discovery and development of DNA methylation-based biomarkers for lung cancer.

Epigenomics 2014 Feb;6(1):59-72

Department of Oncology Biomarker Development, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

Lung cancer remains the primary cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Improved tools for early detection and therapeutic stratification would be expected to increase the survival rate for this disease. Alterations in the molecular pathways that drive lung cancer, which include epigenetic modifications, may provide biomarkers to help address this major unmet clinical need. Epigenetic changes, which are defined as heritable changes in gene expression that do not alter the primary DNA sequence, are one of the hallmarks of cancer, and prevalent in all types of cancer. These modifications represent a rich source of biomarkers that have the potential to be implemented in clinical practice. This perspective describes recent advances in the discovery of epigenetic biomarkers in lung cancer, specifically those that result in the methylation of DNA at CpG sites. We discuss one approach for methylation-based biomarker assay development that describes the discovery at a genome-scale level, which addresses some of the practical considerations for design of assays that can be implemented in the clinic. We emphasize that an integrated technological approach will enable the development of clinically useful DNA methylation-based biomarker assays. While this article focuses on current literature and primary research findings in lung cancer, the principles we describe here apply to the discovery and development of epigenetic biomarkers for other types of cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/epi.13.81DOI Listing
February 2014

Integrative analysis of two cell lines derived from a non-small-lung cancer patient--a panomics approach.

Pac Symp Biocomput 2014 :75-86

Departments of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080, USA.

Cancer cells derived from different stages of tumor progression may exhibit distinct biological properties, as exemplified by the paired lung cancer cell lines H1993 and H2073. While H1993 was derived from chemo-naive metastasized tumor, H2073 originated from the chemo-resistant primary tumor from the same patient and exhibits strikingly different drug response profile. To understand the underlying genetic and epigenetic bases for their biological properties, we investigated these cells using a wide range of large-scale methods including whole genome sequencing, RNA sequencing, SNP array, DNA methylation array, and de novo genome assembly. We conducted an integrative analysis of both cell lines to distinguish between potential driver and passenger alterations. Although many genes are mutated in these cell lines, the combination of DNA- and RNA-based variant information strongly implicates a small number of genes including TP53 and STK11 as likely drivers. Likewise, we found a diverse set of genes differentially expressed between these cell lines, but only a fraction can be attributed to changes in DNA copy number or methylation. This set included the ABC transporter ABCC4, implicated in drug resistance, and the metastasis associated MET oncogene. While the rich data content allowed us to reduce the space of hypotheses that could explain most of the observed biological properties, we also caution there is a lack of statistical power and inherent limitations in such single patient case studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3940063PMC
August 2014

The evolving genomic classification of lung cancer.

J Pathol 2014 Jan;232(2):121-33

Genentech Inc, South San Francisco, California, USA.

EGFR gene mutations and ALK gene fusions are well-characterized molecular targets in NSCLC. Activating alterations in a variety of potential oncogenic driver genes have also been identified in NSCLC, including ROS1, RET, MET, HER2, and BRAF. Together with EGFR and ALK, these mutations account for ∼20% of NSCLCs. The identification of these oncogenic drivers has led to the design of rationally targeted therapies that have produced superior clinical outcomes in tumours harbouring these mutations. Many patients, however, have de novo or acquired resistance to these therapies. In addition, most NSCLCs are genetically complex tumours harbouring multiple potential activating events. For these patients, disease subsets are likely to be defined by combination strategies involving a number of targeted agents. These targets include FGFR1, PTEN, MET, MEK, PD-1/PD-L1, and NaPi2b. In light of the myriad new biomarkers and targeted agents, multiplex testing strategies will be invaluable in identifying the appropriate patients for each therapy and enabling targeted agents to be channelled to the patients most likely to gain benefit. The challenge now is how best to interpret the results of these genomic tests, in the context of other clinical data, to optimize treatment choices in NSCLC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.4275DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4285848PMC
January 2014

Loss of NAPRT1 expression by tumor-specific promoter methylation provides a novel predictive biomarker for NAMPT inhibitors.

Clin Cancer Res 2013 Dec 4;19(24):6912-23. Epub 2013 Oct 4.

Authors' Affiliation: Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, California.

Purpose: We sought to identify predictive biomarkers for a novel nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) inhibitor.

Experimental Design: We use a NAMPT inhibitor, GNE-617, to evaluate nicotinic acid rescue status in a panel of more than 400 cancer cell lines. Using correlative analysis and RNA interference (RNAi), we identify a specific biomarker for nicotinic acid rescue status. We next determine the mechanism of regulation of expression of the biomarker. Finally, we develop immunohistochemical (IHC) and DNA methylation assays and evaluate cancer tissue for prevalence of the biomarker across indications.

Results: Nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT1) is necessary for nicotinic acid rescue and its expression is the major determinant of rescue status. We demonstrate that NAPRT1 promoter methylation accounts for NAPRT1 deficiency in cancer cells, and NAPRT1 methylation is predictive of rescue status in cancer cell lines. Bisulfite next-generation sequencing mapping of the NAPRT1 promoter identified tumor-specific sites of NAPRT1 DNA methylation and enabled the development of a quantitative methylation-specific PCR (QMSP) assay suitable for use on archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue.

Conclusions: Tumor-specific promoter hypermethylation of NAPRT1 inactivates one of two NAD salvage pathways, resulting in synthetic lethality with the coadministration of a NAMPT inhibitor. NAPRT1 expression is lost due to promoter hypermethylation in most cancer types evaluated at frequencies ranging from 5% to 65%. NAPRT1-specific immunohistochemical or DNA methylation assays can be used on archival formalin paraffin-embedded cancer tissue to identify patients likely to benefit from coadministration of a Nampt inhibitor and nicotinic acid.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-1186DOI Listing
December 2013

NeuroD1 regulates survival and migration of neuroendocrine lung carcinomas via signaling molecules TrkB and NCAM.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2013 Apr 3;110(16):6524-9. Epub 2013 Apr 3.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75390-9041, USA.

Small-cell lung cancer and other aggressive neuroendocrine cancers are often associated with early dissemination and frequent metastases. We demonstrate that neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1) is a regulatory hub securing cross talk among survival and migratory-inducing signaling pathways in neuroendocrine lung carcinomas. We find that NeuroD1 promotes tumor cell survival and metastasis in aggressive neuroendocrine lung tumors through regulation of the receptor tyrosine kinase tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB). Like TrkB, the prometastatic signaling molecule neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) is a downstream target of NeuroD1, whose impaired expression mirrors loss of NeuroD1. TrkB and NCAM may be therapeutic targets for aggressive neuroendocrine cancers that express NeuroD1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1303932110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3631659PMC
April 2013

High heregulin expression is associated with activated HER3 and may define an actionable biomarker in patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck.

PLoS One 2013 28;8(2):e56765. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Oncology Biomarker Development, Genentech Inc., South San Francisco, California, USA.

Purpose: Tumors with oncogenic dependencies on the HER family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) often respond well to targeted inhibition. Our previous work suggested that many cell lines derived from squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck (SCCHNs) depend on autocrine signaling driven by HER2/3 dimerization and high-level co-expression of HRG. Additionally, results from a Phase I trial of MEHD7495A, a dual-action antibody that blocks ligand binding to EGFR and HER3, suggest that high-level HRG expression was associated with clinical response in SCCHN patients. Here we explore the hypothesis that high-level HRG expression defines a subpopulation of SCCHNs with activated HER3.

Experimental Design: qRT-PCR expression profiling was performed on >750 tumors of diverse origin, including >150 therapy-naïve, primary, and recurrent SCCHNs. Activated HER3, defined by immunoprecipitation of phospho-HER3, was compared to HRG expression in SCCHN samples. Paracrine versus autocrine expression was evaluated using RNA-in situ hybridization.

Results: SCCHN tumors express the highest levels of HRG compared to a diverse collection of other tumor types. We show that high HRG expression is associated with activated HER3, whereas low HRG expression is associated with low HER3 activation in SCCHN tumors. Furthermore, HRG expression is higher in recurrent SCCHN compared to patient-matched therapy naïve specimens.

Conclusions: HRG expression levels define a biologically distinct subset of SCCHN patients. We propose that high-level expression of HRG is associated with constitutive activation of HER3 in SCCHN and thus defines an actionable biomarker for interventions targeting HER3.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0056765PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3586092PMC
August 2013