Publications by authors named "David S Liebeskind"

530 Publications

Stent Retriever Thrombectomy for Anterior vs. Posterior Circulation Ischemic Stroke: Analysis of the STRATIS Registry.

Front Neurol 2021 23;12:706130. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, United States.

The benefits of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in vertebrobasilar artery occlusions have not been well-studied. We compared clinical, procedural, and safety outcomes of MT for posterior circulation (PC) vs. anterior circulation (AC) occlusions among patients in the STRATIS registry. Data from STRATIS including patient demographics, procedural characteristics, and outcomes including symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) at 24 h, serious adverse events (SAE), substantial reperfusion [modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction (mTICI) 2b/3], 90-day functional independence [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2], and 90-day mortality were analyzed. Univariate logistic regression was used to calculate predictors of good clinical outcome. Of 984 STRATIS patients, 43 (4.4%) patients with PC occlusions [mean age 63.0 ± 13.6, 25.6% (11/43) female] and 932 (94.7%) with AC occlusions [mean age 68.5 ± 14.8, 46.9% (437/932) female] were included for analysis. Median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores at baseline were 17.0 (13.0, 12.0) for the AC group and 12.0 (11.0, 24.0) for the PC group. Time from onset to procedure end was longer for the PC group [median (IQR): 322.0 min (255.0-421.0) vs. 271.0 min (207.0-360.0); = 0.007]. PC and AC groups had similar rates of substantial reperfusion [89.2% (33/37) vs. 87.7% (684/780)], procedure-related SAE [0.0% (0/43) vs. 1.7% (16/932)], sICH [0.0% (0/38) vs. 1.5% (12/795)], 90-day functional independence [66.7% (26/39) vs. 55.9% (480/858)] and mortality [12.8% (5/39) vs. 15.8% (136/861)]. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score and patient sex were significant univariate predictors of good clinical outcome ( < 0.05). Despite longer reperfusion times, MT in PC stroke has similar rates of 90-day functional independence with no significant difference in procedure-related SAE, sICH, or mortality, supporting the use of MT in PC acute ischemic stroke (AIS). https://www.clinicaltrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02239640.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.706130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421856PMC
August 2021

Outcomes Among Patients With Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome: A Nationwide United States Analysis.

Stroke 2021 Sep 2:STROKEAHA121034424. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Neurology Department, Montpellier University Hospital, France (A.D.).

Background And Purpose: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a well-established cause of stroke, but its demographics and outcomes have not been well delineated.

Methods: Analysis of the United States Nationwide Inpatient Sample database (2016-2017) to characterize the frequency of hospitalizations for RCVS, demographic features, inpatient mortality, and discharge outcomes.

Results: During the 2-year study period, 2020 patients with RCVS were admitted to Nationwide Inpatient Sample hospitals, representing 0.02 cases per 100 000 national hospitalizations. The mean age at admission was 47.6 years, with 85% under 65 years of age, and 75.5% women. Concomitant neurological diagnoses during hospitalization included ischemic stroke (17.1%), intracerebral hemorrhage (11.0%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (32.7%), seizure disorders (6.7%), and reversible brain edema (13.6%). Overall, 70% of patients were discharged home, 29.7% discharged to a rehabilitation facility or nursing home and 0.3% died before discharge. Patient features independently associated with the poor outcome of discharge to another facility or death were advanced age (odds ratio [OR], 1.04 [95% CI, 1.03-1.04]), being a woman (OR, 2.45 [1.82-3.34]), intracerebral hemorrhage (OR, 2.91 [1.96-4.31]), ischemic stroke (OR, 5.72 [4.32-7.58]), seizure disorders (OR, 2.61 [1.70-4.00]), reversible brain edema (OR, 6.26 [4.41-8.89]), atrial fibrillation (OR, 2.97 [1.83-4.81]), and chronic kidney disease (OR, 3.43 [2.19-5.36]).

Conclusions: Projected to the entire US population, >1000 patients with RCVS are hospitalized each year, with the majority being middle-aged women, and about 300 required at least some rehabilitation or nursing home care after discharge. RCVS-related inpatient mortality is rare.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.034424DOI Listing
September 2021

Cerebral Edema in Patients With Large Hemispheric Infarct Undergoing Reperfusion Treatment: A HERMES Meta-Analysis.

Stroke 2021 Aug 13:STROKEAHA120033246. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Department of Medicine and Neurology, Melbourne Brain Centre, Royal Melbourne Hospital, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Australia. (F.C.N., N.Y., G.S., S.M.D., B.C.V.C.).

Background And Purpose: Whether reperfusion into infarcted tissue exacerbates cerebral edema has treatment implications in patients presenting with extensive irreversible injury. We investigated the effects of endovascular thrombectomy and reperfusion on cerebral edema in patients presenting with radiological evidence of large hemispheric infarction at baseline.

Methods: In a systematic review and individual patient-level meta-analysis of 7 randomized controlled trials comparing thrombectomy versus medical therapy in anterior circulation ischemic stroke published between January 1, 2010, and May 31, 2017 (Highly Effective Reperfusion Using Multiple Endovascular Devices collaboration), we analyzed the association between thrombectomy and reperfusion with maximal midline shift (MLS) on follow-up imaging as a measure of the space-occupying effect of cerebral edema in patients with large hemispheric infarction on pretreatment imaging, defined as diffusion-magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography (CT)-perfusion ischemic core 80 to 300 mL or noncontrast CT-Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score ≤5. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool.

Results: Among 1764 patients, 177 presented with large hemispheric infarction. Thrombectomy and reperfusion were associated with functional improvement (thrombectomy common odds ratio =2.30 [95% CI, 1.32-4.00]; reperfusion common odds ratio =4.73 [95% CI, 1.66-13.52]) but not MLS (thrombectomy β=-0.27 [95% CI, -1.52 to 0.98]; reperfusion β=-0.78 [95% CI, -3.07 to 1.50]) when adjusting for age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Score, glucose, and time-to-follow-up imaging. In an exploratory analysis of patients presenting with core volume >130 mL or CT-Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score ≤3 (n=76), thrombectomy was associated with greater MLS after adjusting for age and National Institutes of Health Stroke Score (β=2.76 [95% CI, 0.33-5.20]) but not functional improvement (odds ratio, 1.71 [95% CI, 0.24-12.08]).

Conclusions: In patients presenting with large hemispheric infarction, thrombectomy and reperfusion were not associated with MLS, except in the subgroup with very large core volume (>130 mL) in whom thrombectomy was associated with increased MLS due to space-occupying ischemic edema. Mitigating cerebral edema-mediated secondary injury in patients with very large infarcts may further improve outcomes after reperfusion therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033246DOI Listing
August 2021

Delays in thrombolysis during COVID-19 are associated with worse neurological outcomes: the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology Multicenter Collaboration.

J Neurol 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, 3 Cooper Plaza, Suite 320, Camden, NJ, 08103, USA.

Introduction: We have demonstrated in a multicenter cohort that the COVID-19 pandemic has led to a delay in intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) among stroke patients. Whether this delay contributes to meaningful short-term outcome differences in these patients warranted further exploration.

Methods: We conducted a nested observational cohort study of adult acute ischemic stroke patients receiving IVT from 9 comprehensive stroke centers across 7 U.S states. Patients admitted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic (1/1/2019-02/29/2020) were compared to patients admitted during the early pandemic (3/1/2020-7/31/2020). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of IVT delay on discharge to hospice or death, with treatment delay on admission during COVID-19 included as an interaction term.

Results: Of the 676 thrombolysed patients, the median age was 70 (IQR 58-81) years, 313 were female (46.3%), and the median NIHSS was 8 (IQR 4-16). Longer treatment delays were observed during COVID-19 (median 46 vs 38 min, p = 0.01) and were associated with higher in-hospital death/hospice discharge irrespective of admission period (OR per hour 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.17, p = 0.03). This effect was strengthened after multivariable adjustment (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.24, p < 0.001). There was no interaction of treatment delay on admission during COVID-19 (p = 0.65). Every one-hour delay in IVT was also associated with 7% lower odds of being discharged to home or acute inpatient rehabilitation facility (aOR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.97, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Treatment delays observed during the COVID-19 pandemic led to greater early mortality and hospice care, with a lower probability of discharge to home/rehabilitation facility. There was no effect modification of treatment delay on admission during the pandemic, indicating that treatment delay at any time contributes similarly to these short-term outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10734-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8325534PMC
July 2021

Existence and Significance of Internal Border Zone Infarcts with Accessory Lesions Located in the Anteromedial Temporal Lobe.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jul 26;30(10):106004. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Neurology, UCLA Stroke Center, University of California, 635 Charles E. Young Drive South, Suite 225, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: To examine the existence and significance of internal border zone (IBZ) infarcts with accessory lesions in the anteromedial temporal lobe (ATL).

Materials And Methods: IBZ infarcts located at the corona radiata were selected based on diffusion-weighted imaging of 2535 consecutive patients with ischemic stroke and the presence of lesions in the ATL was identified. The Mann-Whitney U test, Student t-test, Pearson χ test, or Fisher exact test was used to analyze differences between the IBZ infarct groups with and without accessory lesions in the ATL.

Results: Thirty-six of 2535 patients (1.4%) had IBZ infarcts. The IBZ group with accessory lesions in the ATL (17 cases, 47.2%) showed a higher portion of occluded middle cerebral arteries than the IBZ group without accessory lesions in the ATL (p = 0.02). The initial National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (odds ratio, 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-3.99;   = 0.039) and progression after admission (odds ratio, 25.43; 95% confidence interval, 2.47-261.99; p = 0.007) were independently associated with poor prognosis in patients with IBZ infarcts. There were no differences in the progression rate and clinical outcomes, regardless of the presence of lesions in the ATL.

Conclusions: Our study suggests the existence of a distinct type of IBZ infarct characterized by accessory lesions in the ATL, which is associated with different arterial features but has a similar clinical course to IBZ infarcts without accessory lesions in the ATL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106004DOI Listing
July 2021

Middle Cerebral Artery M2 Thrombectomy in the STRATIS Registry.

Stroke 2021 Jul 27:STROKEAHA120033951. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

University of Iowa, Iowa City (K.L., M.F., S.O.-G.).

Background And Purpose: The safety and benefit of mechanical thrombectomy in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients with M2 segment middle cerebral artery occlusions remain uncertain. Here, we compare clinical and angiographic outcomes in M2 versus M1 occlusions in the STRATIS (Systematic Evaluation of Patients Treated With Neurothrombectomy Devices for Acute Ischemic Stroke) Registry.

Methods: The STRATIS Registry was a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized, observational study of acute ischemic stroke large vessel occlusion patients treated with the Solitaire stent-retriever as the first-choice therapy within 8 hours from symptoms onset. Primary outcome was defined as functional disability at 3 months measured by dichotomized modified Rankin Scale. Secondary outcomes included reperfusion rates and rates of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage.

Results: A total of 984 patients were included, of which 538 (54.7%) had M1 and 170 (17.3%) had M2 occlusions. Baseline demographics were well balanced within the groups, with the exception of mean baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score which was significantly higher in the M1 population (17.3±5.5 versus 15.7±5.0, ≤0.001). No difference was seen in mean puncture to revascularization times between the cohorts (46.0±27.8 versus 45.1±29.5 minutes, =0.75). Rates of successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction≥2b) were similar between the groups (91% versus 95%, =0.09). M2 patients had significantly increased rates of symptomatic ICH at 24 hours (4% versus 1%, =0.01). Rates of good functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2; 58% versus 59%, =0.83) and mortality (15% versus 14%, =0.75) were similar between the 2 groups. There was no difference in the association of outcome and onset to groin puncture or onset to successful reperfusion in M1 and M2 occlusions.

Conclusions: In the STRATIS Registry, M2 occlusions achieved similar rates of successful reperfusion, good functional outcome, and mortality, although increased rates of symptomatic ICH were demonstrated when compared with M1 occlusions. The time dependence of benefit was also similar between the 2 groups. Further studies are needed to understand the benefit of mechanical thrombectomy for M2 occlusions.

Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02239640.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033951DOI Listing
July 2021

Assessment of Optimal Patient Selection for Endovascular Thrombectomy Beyond 6 Hours After Symptom Onset: A Pooled Analysis of the AURORA Database.

JAMA Neurol 2021 Sep;78(9):1064-1071

Department of Neurology, Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia.

Importance: The optimal imaging approach for identifying patients who may benefit from endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) beyond 6 hours after they were last known well is unclear. Six randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have evaluated the efficacy of EVT vs standard medical care among patients with ischemic stroke.

Objective: To assess the benefits of EVT among patients with 3 baseline imaging profiles using a pooled analysis of RCTs.

Data Sources: The AURORA (Analysis of Pooled Data from Randomized Studies of Thrombectomy More Than 6 Hours After Last Known Well) Collaboration pooled patient-level data from the included clinical trials.

Study Selection: An online database search identified RCTs of endovascular stroke therapy published between January 1, 2010, and March 1, 2021, that recruited patients with ischemic stroke who were randomized between 6 and 24 hours after they were last known well.

Data Extraction/synthesis: Data from the final locked database of each study were provided. Data were pooled, and analyses were performed using mixed-effects modeling with fixed effects for parameters of interest.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The primary outcome was reduction in disability measured by the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. An evaluation was also performed to examine whether the therapeutic response differed based on imaging profile among patients who received treatment based on the time they were last known well. Treatment benefits were assessed among a clinical mismatch subgroup, a target perfusion mismatch subgroup, and an undetermined profile subgroup. The primary end point was assessed among these subgroups and during 3 treatment intervals (tercile 1, 360-574 minutes [6.0-9.5 hours]; tercile 2, 575-762 minutes [9.6-12.7 hours]; and tercile 3, 763-1440 minutes [12.8-24.0 hours]).

Results: Among 505 eligible patients, 266 (mean [SD] age, 68.4 [13.8] years; 146 women [54.9%]) were assigned to the EVT group and 239 (mean [SD] age, 68.7 [13.7] years; 126 men [52.7%]) were assigned to the control group. Among 295 patients in the clinical mismatch subgroup and 359 patients in the target perfusion mismatch subgroup, EVT was associated with reductions in disability at 90 days vs no EVT (clinical mismatch subgroup, odds ratio [OR], 3.57; 95% CI, 2.29-5.57; P < .001; target perfusion mismatch subgroup, OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 2.10-4.66; P = .001). Statistically significant benefits were observed in all 3 terciles for both subgroups, with the highest OR observed for tercile 3 (clinical mismatch subgroup, OR, 4.95; 95% CI, 2.20-11.16; P < .001; target perfusion mismatch subgroup, OR, 5.01; 95% CI, 2.37-10.60; P < .001). A total of 132 patients (26.1%) had an undetermined imaging profile and no significant treatment benefit (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 0.82-3.06; P = .17). The interaction between treatment effects for the clinical and target perfusion mismatch subgroups vs the undetermined profile subgroup was significant (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.11-4.70; P = .03).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, EVT was associated with similar benefit among patients in the clinical mismatch and target perfusion mismatch subgroups during the 6- to 24-hour treatment interval. These findings support EVT as a treatment for patients meeting the criteria for either of the imaging mismatch profiles within the 6- to 24-hour interval.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.2319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8314176PMC
September 2021

Serial ASPECTS in the DAWN Trial: Infarct Evolution and Clinical Impact.

Stroke 2021 Jul 20:STROKEAHA120033477. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, PA (A.P.J., T.G.J.).

Background And Purpose: The impact of baseline ischemia on Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) and evolution over 24 hours may be distinct in late thrombectomy. We analyzed predictors of serial ASPECTS and clinical outcomes in the DAWN trial (Diffusion-Weighted Imaging or CTP Assessment With Clinical Mismatch in the Triage of Wake-Up and Late Presenting Strokes Undergoing Neurointervention With Trevo).

Methods: The DAWN Imaging Core Laboratory independently scored ASPECTS at baseline and 24 hours. Descriptive statistics characterized ASPECTS on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 24 hours, delineating ASPECTS change over 24 hours.

Results: 206 subjects (mean age 70.0±13.7 years; 54.9% (n=113) female; baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale median (interquartile range) 17 (13, 21) were included. Baseline ASPECTS was median (interquartile range) 8.0 (7-8), with 92/205 (44.9%) between 0 and 7 and 113/205 (55.1%) 8 and 10. 24-hour ASPECTS was median 6.0 (4-8), with ASPECTS change or infarct evolution having median -1, ranging from -8 to +2. Multivariable logistic regression showed older age (odds ratio [OR] for 10-year interval, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.02-1.55], =0.030) and dyslipidemia (OR, 1.84 [95% CI, 1.06-3.19], =0.031) were independently associated with higher baseline ASPECTS. Higher 24-hour ASPECTS was predicted by endovascular treatment (OR, 2.76 [95% CI, 1.58-4.81], =0.0004), baseline glucose <150 mg/dL (OR, 2.86 [95% CI, 1.50-5.46], =0.001), lower baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (OR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89-0.98], =0.010), and older age (OR for 10-year interval, 1.25 [95% CI, 1.01-1.55], =0.041). Internal carotid artery lesion location (OR, 0.47 [95% CI, 0.24-0.89], =0.021) was inversely related to 24-hour ASPECTS. Good clinical outcome (day 90 modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) was predicted by 24-hour ASPECTS (OR, 1.46 [95% CI, 1.08-1.96], =0.014). Extensive infarct evolution (ASPECTS decrease ≥6) occurred in 14/201 (7.0%). Elevated baseline serum glucose ≥150 mg/dL was a predictor of ASPECTS decrease of ≥4 points (OR, 2.78 [95% CI, 1.21-6.35] =0.016) as was internal carotid artery occlusion (OR, 2.49 [95% CI, 1.05-5.88]; =0.038). ASPECTS change was influenced by treatment arm (=0.001 by Wilcoxon), including 0 ASPECTS change in 42/105 (40.0%) of the endovascular arm and only 20/96 (20.8%) of the medical arm.

Conclusions: DAWN subjects enrolled with small infarct cores had a broad range of baseline ASPECTS. Twenty-four-hour ASPECTS, strikingly influenced by endovascular therapy, predicted good clinical outcomes. REGISTRATION: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02142283.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033477DOI Listing
July 2021

Risk Factors Control and Early Recurrent Cerebral Infarction in Patients with Symptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Sep 30;30(9):105914. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Neurology, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL. Electronic address:

Background: The risk of early recurrent cerebral infarction (RCI) is high in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (IAD). We sought to determine the relationship between risk factor control and early RCI risk among patients with symptomatic IAD.

Methods: We analyzed participants with symptomatic IAD in the multi-center prospective observational MYRIAD study. Risk factor control was assessed at 6-8-week follow-up. Optimal risk factor control was defined by target systolic blood pressure, being non-smoker, target physical activity, and antiplatelet and antilipidemic therapy compliance. Age-adjusted associations were calculated between risk factor control and RCI determined by MRI-evident new infarcts in the territory of the stenotic vessel at 6-8 weeks from the index event.

Results: Among 82 participants with clinical and brain MRI information available 6-8 weeks after the index event (mean age 63.5 ±12.5 years, 62.2% men), RCI occurred in 21 (25.6%) cases. At 6-8-week follow-up, 37.8% had target systolic blood pressure, 92.7% were non-smokers, 51.2% had target physical activity, and 98.8% and 86.6% were compliant with antiplatelet and antilipidemic therapy, respectively. Optimal risk factor control increased from 4.9% at baseline to 19.5% at 6-8-week follow-up (p=0.01). None of the participants with optimal risk factor control at follow-up had RCI (0% vs. 31.8%, p<0.01).

Conclusions: Only one-fifth of MYRIAD participants had optimal risk factor control during early follow-up. Approximately half and two-thirds had physical inactivity and uncontrolled systolic blood pressure, respectively. These risk factors may represent important therapeutic targets to prevent early RCI in patients with symptomatic IAD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105914DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8384672PMC
September 2021

PRIMED Preclinical Evidence Scoring Tool to Assess Readiness for Translation of Neuroprotection Therapies.

Transl Stroke Res 2021 Jul 1. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Department of Neurology and Comprehensive Stroke Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 710 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Many neuroprotective and other therapies for treatment of acute ischemic stroke have failed in translation to human studies, indicating a need for more rigorous, multidimensional quality assessment of the totality of preclinical evidence supporting a therapy prior to conducting human trials. A consensus panel of stroke preclinical model and human clinical trial experts assessed candidate items for the translational readiness scale, compiled from prior instruments (STAIR, ARRIVE, CAMARADES, RoB 2) based on importance, reliability, and feasibility. Once constructed, the tool was applied by two independent raters to four current candidate acute stroke therapies, including two pharmacologic agents [nerinetide and trans-sodium crocetinate] and two device interventions [cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation and fastigial nucleus stimulation]. The Preclinical evidence of Readiness In stroke Models Evaluating Drugs and Devices (PRIMED) assessment tool rates the totality of evidence available from all reported preclinical animal stroke model studies in 11 domains related to diversity of tested animals, time windows, feasibility of agent route of delivery, and robustness of effect magnitude. Within each content domain, clearly operationalized rules assign strength of evidence ratings of 0-2. When applied to the four assessed candidate agents, inter-rater reliability was high (kappa = 0.88), and each agent showed a unique profile of evidentiary strengths and weaknesses. The PRIMED assessment tool provides a multidimensional assessment of the cumulative preclinical evidence for a candidate acute stroke therapy on factors judged important for successful basic-to-clinical translation. Further evaluation and refinement of this tool is desirable to improve successful translation of therapies for acute stroke.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12975-021-00922-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Launching a New Collaborative Journal: Stroke: Vascular and Interventional Neurology.

Stroke 2021 Jul 28;52(7):2200-2202. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Neurology, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, FL (R.L.S.).

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.121.035500DOI Listing
July 2021

COVID-19 Impact on Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment at 9 Comprehensive Stroke Centers across Los Angeles.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jun 25:1-8. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

PIH Health Whittier Hospital, Whittier, California, USA.

Objective: To describe the impact of COVID-19 on acute cerebrovascular disease care across 9 comprehensive stroke centers throughout Los Angeles County (LAC).

Methods: Volume of emergency stroke code activations, patient characteristics, stroke severity, reperfusion rates, treatment times, and outcomes from February 1 to April 30, 2020, were compared against the same time period in 2019. Demographic data were provided by each participating institution.

Results: There was a 17.3% decrease in stroke code activations across LAC in 2020 compared to 2019 (1,786 vs. 2,159, respectively, χ2 goodness of fit test p < 0.0001) across 9 participating comprehensive stroke centers. Patients who did not receive any reperfusion therapy decreased by 16.6% in 2020 (1,527) compared to 2019 (1,832). Patients who received only intravenous thrombolytic (IVT) therapy decreased by 31.8% (107 vs. 157). Patients who received only mechanical thrombectomy (MT) increased by 3% (102 vs. 99). Patients who received both IVT and MT decreased by 31.8% (45 vs. 66). Recanalization treatment times in 2020 were comparable to 2019. CSCs serving a higher proportion of Latinx populations in the eastern parts of LAC experienced a higher incidence of MT in 2020 compared to 2019. Mild increase in stroke severity was seen in 2020 compared to 2019 (8.95 vs. 8.23, p = 0.046). A higher percentage of patients were discharged home in 2020 compared to 2019 (59.5 vs. 56.1%, p = 0.034), a lower percentage of patients were discharged to skilled nursing facility (16.1 vs. 20.7%, p = 0.0004), and a higher percentage of patients expired (8.6 vs. 6.3%, p = 0.008).

Conclusion: LAC saw a decrease in overall stroke code activations in 2020 compared to 2019. Reperfusion treatment times remained comparable to prepandemic metrics. There has been an increase in severe stroke incidence and higher volume of thrombectomy treatments in Latinx communities within LAC during the pandemic of 2020. More patients were discharged home, less patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities, and more patients expired in 2020, compared to the same time frame in 2019.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516908DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8339042PMC
June 2021

Penumbra Consumption Rates Based on Time-to-Maximum Delay and Reperfusion Status: A Post Hoc Analysis of the DEFUSE 3 Trial.

Stroke 2021 Aug 23;52(8):2690-2693. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Department of Neurology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City (A.d.H.).

Background And Purpose: In patients with acute large vessel occlusion, the natural history of penumbral tissue based on perfusion time-to-maximum (T) delay is not well established in relation to late-window endovascular thrombectomy. In this study, we sought to evaluate penumbra consumption rates for T delays in patients with large vessel occlusion evaluated between 6 and 16 hours from last known normal.

Methods: This is a post hoc analysis of the DEFUSE 3 trial (The Endovascular Therapy Following Imaging Evaluation for Ischemic Stroke), which included patients with an acute ischemic stroke due to anterior circulation occlusion within 6 to 16 hours of last known normal. The primary outcome is percentage penumbra consumption, defined as (24-hour magnetic resonance imaging infarct volume-baseline core infarct volume)/(T 6 or 10 s volume-baseline core volume). We stratified the cohort into 4 categories based on treatment modality and Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI score; untreated, TICI 0-2a, TICI 2b, and TICI3) and calculated penumbral consumption rates in each category.

Results: We included 141 patients, among whom 68 were untreated. In the untreated versus TICI 3 patients, a median (interquartile range) of 53.7% (21.2%-87.7%) versus 5.3% (1.1%-14.6%) of penumbral tissue was consumed based on T >6 s (<0.001). In the same comparison for T>10 s, we saw a difference of 165.4% (interquartile range, 56.1%-479.8%) versus 25.7% (interquartile range, 3.2%-72.1%; <0.001). Significant differences were not demonstrated between untreated and TICI 0-2a patients for penumbral consumption based on T >6 s (=0.52) or T >10 s (=0.92).

Conclusions: Among extended window endovascular thrombectomy patients, T >10-s mismatch volume may comprise large volumes of salvageable tissue, whereas nearly half the T >6-s mismatch volume may remain viable in untreated patients at 24 hours.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.033806DOI Listing
August 2021

Collateral status reperfusion and outcomes after endovascular therapy: insight from the Endovascular Treatment in Ischemic Stroke (ETIS) Registry.

J Neurointerv Surg 2021 Jun 17. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Radiology, CH Bretagne Atlantique, Vannes, France.

Background: Studies have suggested that collateral status modifies the effect of successful reperfusion on functional outcome after endovascular therapy (EVT). We aimed to assess the association between collateral status and EVT outcomes and to investigate whether collateral status modified the effect of successful reperfusion on EVT outcomes.

Methods: We used data from the ongoing, prospective, multicenter Endovascular Treatment in Ischemic Stroke (ETIS) Registry. Collaterals were graded according to the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology (ASITN/SIR) guidelines. Patients were divided into two groups based on angiographic collateral status: poor (grade 0-2) versus good (grade 3-4) collaterals.

Results: Among 2020 patients included in the study, 959 (47%) had good collaterals. Good collaterals were associated with favorable outcome (90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2) (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.88). Probability of good outcome decreased with increased time from onset to reperfusion in both good and poor collateral groups. Successful reperfusion was associated with higher odds of favorable outcome in good collaterals (OR 6.01, 95% CI 3.27 to 11.04) and poor collaterals (OR 5.65, 95% CI 3.32 to 9.63) with no significant interaction. Similarly, successful reperfusion was associated with higher odds of excellent outcome (90-day mRS 0-1) and lower odds of mortality in both groups with no significant interaction. The benefit of successful reperfusion decreased with time from onset in both groups, but the curve was steeper in the poor collateral group.

Conclusions: Collateral status predicted functional outcome after EVT. However, collateral status on the pretreatment angiogram did not decrease the clinical benefit of successful reperfusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2021-017553DOI Listing
June 2021

Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Mechanical Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Analysis of the STRATIS Registry, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis.

Front Neurol 2021 25;12:663058. Epub 2021 May 25.

Division of Neuroradiology, Joint Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto Western Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The indications for mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke continue to broaden, leading neurointerventionalists to treat vessel occlusions at increasingly distal locations farther in time from stroke onset. Accessing these smaller vessels raises the concern of iatrogenic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) owing to increasing complexity in device navigation and retrieval. This study aims to determine the prevalence of SAH following mechanical thrombectomy, associated predictors, and resulting functional outcomes using a multicenter registry and compare this with a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Data from STRATIS (The Systematic Evaluation of Patients Treated with Neurothrombectomy Devices for Acute Ischemic Stroke) registry were analyzed dichotomized by the presence or absence of SAH after thrombectomy. Only patients with 24-h post-procedural neuroimaging were included ( = 841). Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify significant predictors of SAH. A systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis was also conducted in accordance with the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis) protocol. The prevalence of post-thrombectomy SAH was 5.23% in STRATIS with 15.9% (1.84% overall) experiencing neurological decline. Distal location of vessel occlusion (OR 3.41 [95% CI: 1.75-6.63], < 0.001) and more than 3 device passes (OR 1.34 [95% CI: 1.09-1.64], = 0.01) were associated with a higher probability of SAH in contrast to a reduction with administration of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) (OR 0.48 [95% CI: 0.26-0.89], = 0.02). There was a trend toward a higher discharge NIHSS (8.3 ± 8.7 vs. 5.3 ± 6.6, = 0.07) with a significantly reduced proportion achieving functional independence at 90 days (modified Rankin Score 0-2: 32.5% vs. 57.8%, = 0.002) in SAH patients. Pooled analysis of 10,126 patients from 6 randomized controlled trials and 64 observational studies demonstrated a prevalence of 5.85% [95% CI: 4.51-7.34%, : 85.2%]. Only location of vessel occlusion was significant for increased odds of SAH at distal sites (OR 2.89 [95% CI: 1.14, 7.35]). Iatrogenic SAH related to mechanical thrombectomy is more common with treatment of distally-situated occlusions and multiple device passes. While low in overall prevalence, its effect is not benign with fewer patients reaching post-procedural functional independence, particularly if symptomatic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.663058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185211PMC
May 2021

Impact of Age and Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score 0 to 5 on Mechanical Thrombectomy Outcomes: Analysis From the STRATIS Registry.

Stroke 2021 Jul 3;52(7):2220-2228. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Advanced Neuroscience Network/Tenet South Florida, Boynton Beach (N.H.M.-K.).

Background And Purpose: This study investigates clinical outcomes after mechanical thrombectomy in adult patients with baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) of 0 to 5.

Methods: We included data from the STRATIS Registry (Systematic Evaluation of Patients Treated With Neurothrombectomy Devices for Acute Ischemic Stroke) from patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy within 8 hours of symptom onset and had available ASPECTS data adjudicated by an independent core laboratory. Angiographic and clinical outcomes were collected, including successful reperfusion (modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction ≥2b), functional independence (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2), 90-day mortality, and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage at 24 hours. Outcomes were stratified by ASPECTS scores and age.

Results: Of the 984 patients enrolled, 763 had available ASPECTS data. Of these patients, 57 had ASPECTS of 0 to 5 with a median age of 63 years (interquartile range, 28-100), whereas 706 patients had ASPECTS of 6 to 10 with a median age of 70 years of age (interquartile range, 19-100). Ten patients had ASPECTS of 0 to 3 and 47 patients had ASPECTS of 4 to 5 at baseline. Successful reperfusion was achieved in 85.5% (47/55) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 group. Functional independence was achieved in 28.8% (15/52) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 versus 59.7% (388/650) in the 6 to 10 group (<0.001). Mortality rates were 30.8% (16/52) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 and 13.4% (87/650) in the 6 to 10 group (<0.001). sICH rates were 7.0% (4/57) in the ASPECTS of 0 to 5 and 0.9% (6/682) in the 6 to 10 group (<0.001). No patients aged >75 years with ASPECTS of 0 to 5 (0/12) achieved functional independence versus 44.8% (13/29) of those age ≤65 (=0.005).

Conclusions: Patients <65 years of age with large core infarction (ASPECTS 0-5) have better rates of functional independence and lower rates of mortality compared with patients >75 years of age. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02239640.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8240495PMC
July 2021

Benchmarking the Extent and Speed of Reperfusion: First Pass TICI 2c-3 Is a Preferred Endovascular Reperfusion Endpoint.

Front Neurol 2021 11;12:669934. Epub 2021 May 11.

Mercy St. Vincent Medical Center, Toledo, OH, United States.

End-of-procedure substantial reperfusion [modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia (mTICI) 2b-3], the leading endpoint for thrombectomy studies, has several limitations including a ceiling effect, with recent achieved rates of ~90%. We aimed to identify a more optimal definition of angiographic success along two dimensions: (1) the extent of tissue reperfusion, and (2) the speed of revascularization. Core-lab adjudicated TICI scores for the first three passes of EmboTrap and the final all-procedures result were analyzed in the ARISE II multicenter study. The clinical impact of extent of reperfusion and speed of reperfusion (first-pass vs. later-pass) were evaluated. Clinical outcomes included 90-day functional independence [modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2], 90-day freedom-from-disability (mRS 0-1), and dramatic early improvement [24-h National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) improvement ≥ 8 points]. Among 161 ARISE II subjects with ICA or MCA M1 occlusions, reperfusion results at procedure end showed substantial reperfusion in 149 (92.5%), excellent reperfusion in 121 (75.2%), and complete reperfusion in 79 (49.1%). Reperfusion rates on first pass were substantial in 81 (50.3%), excellent reperfusion in 62 (38.5%), and complete reperfusion in 44 (27.3%). First-pass excellent reperfusion (first-pass TICI 2c-3) had the greatest nominal predictive value for 90-day mRS 0-2 (sensitivity 58.5%, specificity 68.6%). There was a progressive worsening of outcomes with each additional pass required to achieve TICI 2c-3. First-pass excellent reperfusion (TICI 2c-3), reflecting rapid achievement of extensive reperfusion, is the technical revascularization endpoint that best predicted functional independence in this international multicenter trial and is an attractive candidate for a lead angiographic endpoint for future trials. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov, identifier NCT02488915.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.669934DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8144635PMC
May 2021

The smoking paradox in ischemic stroke patients treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis in combination with mechanical thrombectomy-VISTA-Endovascular.

PLoS One 2021 20;16(5):e0251888. Epub 2021 May 20.

Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Corporate Member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Background: The smoking-paradox of a better outcome in ischemic stroke patients who smoke may be due to increased efficacy of thrombolysis. We investigated the effect of smoking on outcome following endovascular therapy (EVT) with mechanical thrombectomy alone versus in combination with intra-arterial (IA-) thrombolysis.

Methods: The primary endpoint was defined by three-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS). We performed a generalized linear model and reported relative risks (RR) for smoking (adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, stroke severity, time to EVT) in patient data stemming from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Endovascular database.

Results: Among 1,497 patients, 740(49.4%) were randomized to EVT; among EVT patients, 524(35.0%) received mechanical thrombectomy alone and 216(14.4%) received it in combination with IA-thrombolysis. Smokers (N = 396) had lower mRS scores (mean 2.9 vs. 3.2; p = 0.02) and mortality rates (10% vs. 17.3%; p<0.001) in univariate analysis. In all patients and in patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy alone, smoking had no effect on outcome in regression analyses. In patients who received IA-thrombolysis (N = 216;14%), smoking had an adjusted RR of 1.65 for an mRS≤1 (95%CI 0.77-3.55). Treatment with IA-thrombolysis itself led to reduced RR for favorable outcome (adjusted RR 0.30); interaction analysis of IA-thrombolysis and smoking revealed that non-smokers with IA-thrombolysis had mRS≤2 in 47 cases (30%, adjusted RR 0.53 [0.41-0.69]) while smokers with IA-thrombolysis had mRS≤2 in 23 cases (38%, adjusted RR 0.61 [0.42-0.87]).

Conclusions: Smokers had no clear clinical benefit from EVT that incorporates IA-thrombolysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251888PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8136663PMC
May 2021

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Myelopathy: 2021 Update.

J Am Coll Radiol 2021 May;18(5S):S73-S82

Specialty Chair, Atlanta VA Health Care System and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Myelopathy is a clinical diagnosis with localization of the neurological findings to the spinal cord, rather than the brain or the peripheral nervous system, and then to a particular segment of the spinal cord. Myelopathy can be the result of primary intrinsic disorders of the spinal cord or from secondary conditions, which result in extrinsic compression of the spinal cord. While the causes of myelopathy may be multiple, the acuity of presentation and symptom onset frame a practical approach to the differential diagnosis. Imaging plays a crucial role in the evaluation of myelopathy with MRI the preferred modality. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2021.01.020DOI Listing
May 2021

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Syncope.

J Am Coll Radiol 2021 May;18(5S):S229-S238

Specialty Chair, UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, Chief, Cardiothoracic Imaging, UT Southwestern, Member BOD, SCCT, Editor, Radiology - Cardiothoracic Imaging.

Syncope and presyncope lead to well over one million emergency room visits in the United States each year. Elucidating the cause of syncope or presyncope, which are grouped together given similar etiologies and outcomes, can be exceedingly difficult given the diverse etiologies. This becomes more challenging as some causes, such as vasovagal syncope, are relatively innocuous while others, such as cardiac-related syncope, carry a significant increased risk of death. While the mainstay of syncope and presyncope assessment is a detailed history and physical examination, imaging can play a role in certain situations. In patients where a cardiovascular etiology is suspected based on the appropriate history, physical examination, and ECG findings, resting transthoracic echocardiography is usually considered appropriate for the initial imaging. While no imaging studies are considered usually appropriate when there is a low probability of cardiac or neurologic pathology, chest radiography may be appropriate in certain clinical situations. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2021.02.021DOI Listing
May 2021

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Head Trauma: 2021 Update.

J Am Coll Radiol 2021 May;18(5S):S13-S36

Specialty Chair, Atlanta VA Health Care System and Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Head trauma (ie, head injury) is a significant public health concern and is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children and young adults. Neuroimaging plays an important role in the management of head and brain injury, which can be separated into acute (0-7 days), subacute (<3 months), then chronic (>3 months) phases. Over 75% of acute head trauma is classified as mild, of which over 75% have a normal Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15, therefore clinical practice guidelines universally recommend selective CT scanning in this patient population, which is often based on clinical decision rules. While CT is considered the first-line imaging modality for suspected intracranial injury, MRI is useful when there are persistent neurologic deficits that remain unexplained after CT, especially in the subacute or chronic phase. Regardless of time frame, head trauma with suspected vascular injury or suspected cerebrospinal fluid leak should also be evaluated with CT angiography or thin-section CT imaging of the skull base, respectively. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2021.01.006DOI Listing
May 2021

Intracranial dolichoectasia in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease: Results from the MYRIAD study.

J Neuroimaging 2021 Sep 4;31(5):931-939. Epub 2021 May 4.

Department of Neurology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida, USA.

Background And Purpose: It is unknown whether intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD), in addition to causing stenosis, also associates with abnormal arterial enlargement, a condition known as intracranial dolichoectasia (IDE). Across symptomatic ICAD patients, we aim to determine IDE prevalence and IDE impact on cerebral hemodynamics and recurrent cerebral ischemia.

Methods: We analyzed 98 participants (mean age 63.8 11.9 years, 56.1% men) of the prospective observational study MYRIAD. Participants were enrolled within 21 days of an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack caused by moderate-to-severe ICAD. Semi-automatic vessel segmentation was used to determine diameters, length, and tortuosity-index of proximal intracranial arteries. Either ectasia (increased diameter) or dolichosis (increased length or TI) defined IDE. We assessed IDE association with new infarcts during 12-month follow-up, and IDE correlation with cerebral hemodynamics determined by quantitative MR-angiography (QMRA), MR-perfusion weighted-imaging, and transcranial Doppler breath-holding index.

Results: IDE was present in 35.7% of patients and 10.2% of symptomatic arteries. Basilar stenosis was associated with higher IDE prevalence (27.8% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.04), whereas other symptomatic arteries showed no association with IDE. Symptomatic arteries with IDE had lower hypoperfusion prevalence on MR-PWI (11.1% vs. 28.4%, p = 0.03). Increased diameter (r = 0.33, p<0.01) and tortuosity-index (r = 0.29, p = 0.01) showed positive correlation with QMRA flow rate. IDE was not associated with new infarcts during follow-up.

Conclusions: IDE was common among symptomatic ICAD patients. IDE was not associated with stroke recurrence. Instead, increased diameter and tortuosity correlated with improved blood flow across the stenotic artery, suggesting that IDE may originate as an adaptive mechanism in ICAD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12872DOI Listing
September 2021

Circadian Biology and Stroke.

Stroke 2021 Jun 4;52(6):2180-2190. Epub 2021 May 4.

CIRCA consortium (E.H.L., G.W.A., M.D., G.D., E.E., R.F., D.W.H., Y-G.H., X.J., E.B.K., S.L., W.L., D.S.L., I.L., E.T.M., M.A.M., M.N., D.R., S.S., J.L.S., F.A.J.L.S., M.S., S.T., F.Z., A.M.B.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

Circadian biology modulates almost all aspects of mammalian physiology, disease, and response to therapies. Emerging data suggest that circadian biology may significantly affect the mechanisms of susceptibility, injury, recovery, and the response to therapy in stroke. In this review/perspective, we survey the accumulating literature and attempt to connect molecular, cellular, and physiological pathways in circadian biology to clinical consequences in stroke. Accounting for the complex and multifactorial effects of circadian rhythm may improve translational opportunities for stroke diagnostics and therapeutics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.031742DOI Listing
June 2021

Intracranial atherosclerotic disease mechanistic subtypes drive hypoperfusion patterns.

J Neuroimaging 2021 Jul 30;31(4):686-690. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Background And Purpose: In symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS), borderzone infarct pattern and perfusion mismatch are associated with increased risk of recurrent strokes, which may reflect the shared underlying mechanism of hypoperfusion distal to the intracranial atherosclerosis. Accordingly, we hypothesized a correlation between hypoperfusion volumes and ICAS infarct patterns based on the respective underlying mechanistic subtypes.

Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of consecutive symptomatic ICAS cases, acute strokes due to subocclusive (50%-99%) intracranial stenosis. The following mechanistic subtypes were assigned based on the infarct pattern on the diffusion-weighted imaging: Branch occlusive disease (BOD), internal borderzone (IBZ), and thromboembolic (TE). Perfusion parameters, obtained concurrently with the MRI, were studied in each group.

Results: A total of 42 patients (57% women, mean age 71 ± 13 years old) with symptomatic ICAS received MRI within 24 h of acute presentation. Fourteen IBZ, 11 BOD, and 17 TE patterns were identified. IBZ pattern yielded higher total T > 4 s and T > 6 s perfusion delay volumes, as well as corresponding T  > 4 s and T  > 6 s mismatch volume, compared to BOD. TE pattern exhibited greater median T  > 6 s hypoperfusion delay in volume compared to BOD. In IBZ versus TE, the volume difference between T > 4 s and T > 6 s (Δ T  > 4 s - T  > 6 s) was substantially greater.

Conclusion: ICAS infarct patterns, in keeping with their respective underlying mechanisms, may correlate with distinct perfusion profiles.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12863DOI Listing
July 2021

Acute Ischemic Stroke: MR Imaging-Based Paradigms.

Neuroimaging Clin N Am 2021 May;31(2):177-192

Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California Los Angeles, Neuroscience Research Building, 635 Charles E Young Drive South, Suite 225, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7334, USA.

Multimodal MR imaging provides valuable information in the management of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS), with diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic implications. MR imaging plays a critical role in treatment decision making for (1) thrombolytic treatment of AIS patients with unknown symptom-onset and (2) endovascular treatment of patients with large vessel occlusion presenting beyond 6 hours from the symptom onset. MR imaging provides the most accurate information for detection of ischemic brain and is invaluable for differentiating AIS from stroke mimics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nic.2021.01.002DOI Listing
May 2021

Predictors of Early Infarct Recurrence in Patients With Symptomatic Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease.

Stroke 2021 Jun 19;52(6):1961-1966. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Department of Neurology, University of Miami, FL (I.C.-B., J.G.R.).

Background And Purpose: While prior studies identified risk factors for recurrent stroke in patients with symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease, few have assessed risk factors for early infarct recurrence.

Methods: We performed a post hoc analysis of the MYRIAD study (Mechanisms of Early Recurrence in Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease) of intracranial atherosclerotic disease patients with recent (<21 days) stroke/transient ischemic attack, 50% to 99% stenosis and who underwent 6- to 8-week magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) per protocol. Infarct recurrence was defined as new infarcts in the territory of the symptomatic artery on brain MRI at 6 to 8 weeks compared to index brain MRI. Qualifying events and clinical and imaging outcomes were centrally ascertained by 2 independent reviewers. We assessed the association between baseline clinical and imaging variables and recurrent infarct in bivariate models and multivariable logistic regression to identify independent predictors of infarct recurrence.

Results: Of 105 enrolled patients in MYRIAD, 89 (84.8%) were included in this analysis (mean age, 64±12 years, 54 [60.7%] were male, and 53 [59.6%] were White). The median time from qualifying event to MRI was 51+16 days, on which 22 (24.7%) patients had new or recurrent infarcts. Younger age (57.7 versus 66.0 years; <0.01), diabetes (32.6% versus 14.6%, =0.05), index stroke (31.3% versus 4.6%, =0.01), anterior circulation location of stenosis (29.7% versus 12.0%, =0.08), number of diffusion-weighted imaging lesions (>1: 40.0%, 1: 26.9% versus 0: 4.4%, <0.01), and borderzone infarct pattern (63.6% versus 25.0%, =0.01) on baseline MRI were associated with new or recurrent infarcts. Age (adjusted odds ratio, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89-0.98], <0.01) and number of diffusion-weighted imaging lesions (adjusted odds ratio, 3.24 [95% CI, 1.36-7.71], <0.01) were independently associated with recurrent infarct adjusting for hypertension, diabetes, and stenosis location (anterior versus posterior circulation).

Conclusions: An index multi-infarct pattern is associated with early recurrent infarcts, a finding that might be explained by plaque instability and artery-to-artery embolism. Further investigation of plaque vulnerability in intracranial atherosclerotic disease is needed. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02121028.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.032676DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154697PMC
June 2021

Endovascular Treatment of Infective Endocarditis-Related Acute Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jun 8;30(6):105775. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Neurology, Boston University Medical Center, 72 East Concord Street, Boston, MA 02118, United States; Department of Neurosurgery, Boston University Medical Center, United States. Electronic address:

Objectives: Embolic stroke is a frequent complication of infective endocarditis yet lacks acute treatment as intravenous thrombolysis should be avoided due to high risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Mechanical thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion may be a promising treatment but there is limited data on safety outcomes in infective endocarditis.

Materials And Methods: In this multi-center retrospective case series, we reviewed data from patients with infective endocarditis-related large vessel occlusion who underwent mechanical thrombectomy in 9 US hospitals.

Results: We identified 15 patients at 9 hospitals. A minority presented with signs suggesting infection (2 patients (14%) had fever, 7 (47%) were tachycardic, 2 (13%) were hypotensive, and 8 (53%) had leukocytosis). The median National Institute of Health Stroke Score decreased from 19 (range 9-25) at presentation to 7 post-thrombectomy (range 0-22, median best score post-thrombectomy), and the median modified Rankin Scale on or after discharge for survivors was 3 (range 0-6). Approximately 57% of patients had a modified Rankin Scale between 0 and 3 on or after discharge. Hemorrhagic transformation was observed in 7/15 (47%). The mechanical thrombectomy group had 2/9 petechial hemorrhagic transformation (22%), compared to 4/6 parenchymal hematomas (67%) in the tissue plasminogen activator + mechanical thrombectomy group.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that patients with large vessel occlusion due to infective endocarditis may not present with overt signs of infection. Mechanical thrombectomy may be an effective treatment in this patient population for whom intravenous thrombolysis should be avoided.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.105775DOI Listing
June 2021

Decline in subarachnoid haemorrhage volumes associated with the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Stroke Vasc Neurol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Department of Radiology, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation.

Findings: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile.

Interpretation: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/svn-2020-000695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006491PMC
March 2021

Stroke Care during the COVID-19 Pandemic: International Expert Panel Review.

Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 23;50(3):245-261. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte, Germany.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has placed a tremendous strain on healthcare services. This study, prepared by a large international panel of stroke experts, assesses the rapidly growing research and personal experience with COVID-19 stroke and offers recommendations for stroke management in this challenging new setting: modifications needed for prehospital emergency rescue and hyperacute care; inpatient intensive or stroke units; posthospitalization rehabilitation; follow-up including at-risk family and community; and multispecialty departmental developments in the allied professions.

Summary: The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 uses spike proteins binding to tissue angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2 receptors, most often through the respiratory system by virus inhalation and thence to other susceptible organ systems, leading to COVID-19. Clinicians facing the many etiologies for stroke have been sobered by the unusual incidence of combined etiologies and presentations, prominent among them are vasculitis, cardiomyopathy, hypercoagulable state, and endothelial dysfunction. International standards of acute stroke management remain in force, but COVID-19 adds the burdens of personal protections for the patient, rescue, and hospital staff and for some even into the postdischarge phase. For pending COVID-19 determination and also for those shown to be COVID-19 affected, strict infection control is needed at all times to reduce spread of infection and to protect healthcare staff, using the wealth of well-described methods. For COVID-19 patients with stroke, thrombolysis and thrombectomy should be continued, and the usual early management of hypertension applies, save that recent work suggests continuing ACE inhibitors and ARBs. Prothrombotic states, some acute and severe, encourage prophylactic LMWH unless bleeding risk is high. COVID-19-related cardiomyopathy adds risk of cardioembolic stroke, where heparin or warfarin may be preferable, with experience accumulating with DOACs. As ever, arteritis can prove a difficult diagnosis, especially if not obvious on the acute angiogram done for clot extraction. This field is under rapid development and may generate management recommendations which are as yet unsettled, even undiscovered. Beyond the acute management phase, COVID-19-related stroke also forces rehabilitation services to use protective precautions. As with all stroke patients, health workers should be aware of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, and/or distress developing in their patients and caregivers. Postdischarge outpatient care currently includes continued secondary prevention measures. Although hoping a COVID-19 stroke patient can be considered cured of the virus, those concerned for contact safety can take comfort in the increasing use of telemedicine, which is itself a growing source of patient-physician contacts. Many online resources are available to patients and physicians. Like prior challenges, stroke care teams will also overcome this one. Key Messages: Evidence-based stroke management should continue to be provided throughout the patient care journey, while strict infection control measures are enforced.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000514155DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8089455PMC
June 2021
-->