Publications by authors named "David S Demos"

7 Publications

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Multidisciplinary Management of Oligometastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma.

Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book 2018 May;38:939-948

From the Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, UNC Lineberger Cancer Center, The University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; Orthopaedic Oncology at Aurora Cancer Care, Orthopaedic Surgery, Aurora St. Luke's Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI; Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Aurora Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI; Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC; Department of Radiation Oncology, Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) encompass a group of rare but heterogeneous diseases. Nevertheless, many patients, particularly those with oligometastatic disease can benefit from thoughtful multimodality evaluation and treatment regardless of the STS subtype. Here, we review surgical, interventional radiology, radiation, and chemotherapy approaches to maximize disease palliation and improve survival, including occasionally long-term disease-free survival. Surgical resection can include lung or other visceral, soft tissue and bone metastases with a goal of rendering the patient disease free. Staged resections can be appropriate, and serial resection of oligometastatic recurrent disease can be appropriate. Retrospective series suggest survival benefit from this approach, although selection bias may contribute. Interventional radiology techniques such as percutaneous thermal ablation (PTA) and arterial embolization can present nonoperative local approaches in patients who are not medically fit for surgery, surgery is too morbid, or patients who decline surgery. Similarly, radiation therapy can be delivered safely to areas that are inaccessible surgically or would result in excessive morbidity. Currently no randomized trials exist comparing interventional radiologic approaches or radiation therapy to surgery but retrospective reviews show relatively similar magnitude of benefit in terms of disease palliation and survival, although it is felt unlikely that these procedures will render a patient to long-term disease-free status. Chemotherapy has evolved recently with the addition of several new treatment options, briefly reviewed here. Importantly, if a patient sustains a good response to chemotherapy resulting in true oligometastatic disease, consideration of multimodality local therapy approaches can be considered in the appropriate patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/EDBK_200573DOI Listing
May 2018

Ground-glass opacity heralding invasive lung adenocarcinoma with prodromal dermatomyositis: a case report.

J Cardiothorac Surg 2018 Feb 7;13(1):20. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Falk Building, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford, 94305, USA.

Background: Dermatomyositis, an inflammatory myopathy with cutaneous involvement, is associated with malignancy and often manifests paraneoplastically. While co-occurrence with small cell carcinoma is well attested, primary lung adenocarcinoma, which may present as focal ground-glass opacification on computed tomography of the thorax, is less frequently coincident.

Case Presentation: We report the case of a 72-year-old female patient with dermatomyositis - treated with a combination of prednisone, methotrexate, and intravenous immunoglobulin - and an indolent, subsolid, non-hypermetabolic pulmonary lesion, which was determined to be invasive primary lung adenocarcinoma. Supporting a paraneoplastic basis, immunosuppressive therapy was discontinued following tumor excision without relapse of signs or symptoms of dermatomyositis.

Conclusions: While dermatomyositis prodromal to lung adenocarcinoma is not without precedent, association with an indolent, subsolid lesion has, to the best of our knowledge, not been reported. The case described herein illustrates the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for malignancy in the setting of dermatomyositis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13019-018-0705-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5804049PMC
February 2018

Fourteen Day In Vivo Testing of a Compliant Thoracic Artificial Lung.

ASAIO J 2017 Sep/Oct;63(5):644-649

From the *Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; †Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; and ‡Department of General Surgery, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan.

The compliant thoracic artificial lung (cTAL) has been studied in acute in vivo and in vitro experiments. The cTAL's long-term function and potential use as a bridge to lung transplantation are assessed presently. The cTAL without anticoagulant coatings was attached to sheep (n = 5) via the pulmonary artery and left atrium for 14 days. Systemic heparin anticoagulation was used. Compliant thoracic artificial lung resistance, cTAL gas exchange, hematologic parameters, and organ function were recorded. Two sheep were euthanized for nondevice-related issues. The cTAL's resistance averaged 1.04 ± 0.05 mmHg/(L/min) with no statistically significant increases. The cTAL transferred 180 ± 8 ml/min of oxygen with 3.18 ± 0.05 L/min of blood flow. Except for transient surgical effects, organ function markers were largely unchanged. Necropsies revealed pulmonary edema and atelectasis but no other derangements. Hemoglobin levels dropped with device attachment but remained steady at 9.0 ± 0.1 g/dl thereafter. In a 14 day experiment, the cTAL without anticoagulant coatings exhibited minimal clot formation. Sheep physiology was largely unchanged except for device attachment-related hemodilution. This suggests that patients treated with the cTAL should not require multiple blood transfusions. Once tested with anticoagulant coatings and plasma resistant gas exchange fiber, the cTAL could serve as a bridge to transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0000000000000627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5788287PMC
April 2018

Video-assisted thoracoscopic diaphragm plication using a running suture technique is durable and effective.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2017 05 21;153(5):1182-1188. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

Division of Thoracic Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, Calif; Veterans Affair Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, Calif.

Objective: Surgeons have hesitated to adopt minimally invasive diaphragm plication techniques because of technical limitations rendering the procedure cumbersome or leading to early failure or reduced efficacy. We sought to demonstrate efficacy and durability of our thoracoscopic plication technique using a single running suture.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed patients who underwent our technique for diaphragm plication since 2008. We used a single, buttressed, double-layered, to-and-fro running suture with additional plicating horizontal mattress sutures as needed.

Results: Eighteen patients underwent thoracoscopic plication from 2008 to 2015. There were no operative mortalities and 2 unrelated late deaths. Median hospital stay was 3 days (range, 1-12). Atrial fibrillation occurred in 1 patient (5.5%), pneumonia occurred in 2 patients (11%), reintubation occurred in 1 patient (5.5%), and ileus occurred in 1 patient (5.5%). Of 14 patients with complete follow-up, median follow-up was 29.4 months (range, 3.4-84.7). Significant increases between preoperative and postoperative pulmonary function tests (% predicted values) were found for mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (73.5% ± 3.5% to 88.8% ± 4.5%, P = .002) and mean forced vital capacity (70.6% ± 3.5% to 82.3% ± 3.5%, P = .002). Preoperative mean Baseline Dyspnea Index was 8.1 ± 0.7. Mean Transitional Dyspnea Index 6 months postoperatively was 7.1 ± 0.6 (moderate to major improvement). Transitional Dyspnea Index at last contact (median 29.4 months postoperatively) was 7.2 ± 0.6 (P = .38). Compared with previously published results, this is at least equivalent.

Conclusions: Thoracoscopic diaphragm plication with a running suture is safe and achieves excellent early and long-term improvements. This addresses technical challenges of tying multiple interrupted sutures by video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery without any apparent compromise to efficacy or durability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2016.11.062DOI Listing
May 2017

Successful Porcine Renal Transplantation After 60 Minutes of Donor Warm Ischemia: Extracorporeal Perfusion and Thrombolytics.

ASAIO J 2015 Jul-Aug;61(4):474-9

From the *Department of General Surgery, Henry Ford Health Systems, Detroit, Michigan; †Department of Surgery, Extracorporeal Life Support Laboratory, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; ‡Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan; §Michigan Critical Care Consultants, Corp. Ann Arbor, Michigan; and ¶Department of Surgery, Section of Transplantation, University of Michigan, Michigan.

Donation from uncontrolled circulatory determination of death donors (uDCD) is impractical in United States because of the time needed to organize procurement before irreversible organ damage. Salvaging organs after prolonged warm ischemic time (WIT) may address this limitation. We evaluated the combination of extracorporeal support (ECS) and thrombolytics in a porcine uDCD renal transplant model. Nonanticoagulated uDCD sustained 60 min of WIT, and two groups were studied. Rapid recovery (RR)-uDCD renal grafts procured using the standard quick topical cooling and renal flush, and ECS-assisted donation (E-uDCD), 4 hr ECS plus thrombolytics for in situ perfusion before procurement. All kidneys were flushed and cold stored, followed by transplantation into healthy nephrectomized recipients without immunosuppression. Delayed graft function (DGF) was defined as creatinine more than 5.0 mg/dl on any postoperative day. Twelve kidneys in E-uDCD and 6 in RR-uDCD group were transplanted. All 12 E-uDCD recipients had urine production and adequate function in the first 48 hr, but two grafts (16.7%) had DGF at 96 hr. All six recipients from RR-uDCD group had DGF at 48 hr and were killed. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels were significantly lower in E-uDCD compared with RR-uDCD group at 24 hr (2.9 ± 0.7 mg/dl vs. 5.2 ± 0.9 mg/dl) and 48 hr (3.2 ± 0.9 mg/dl vs. 7.2 ± 1.0 mg/dl); BUN levels at 24 and 48 hr were 28.3 ± 6.7 mg/dl vs. 39.5 ± 7.5 mg/dl and 23.9 ± 5.0 mg/dl vs. 46 ± 12.9 mg/dl, respectively. Thrombolytics plus ECS precondition organs in situ yielding functional kidneys in a porcine model of uDCD with 60 min of WIT. This procurement method addresses logistical limitations for uDCD use in the United States and could have a major impact on the organ donor pool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MAT.0000000000000228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4486602PMC
April 2016

In vivo testing of a novel blood pump for short-term extracorporeal life support.

Ann Thorac Surg 2014 Jul 22;98(1):97-102. Epub 2014 May 22.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address:

Background: Centrifugal pumps are used increasingly for temporary mechanical support for the treatment of cardiogenic shock. However, centrifugal pumps can generate excessive negative pressure and are afterload sensitive. A previously developed modified roller pump mitigates these limitations both in vitro and in preliminary animal experiments. We report the results of intermediate-term testing of our evolving pump technology, known as the BioVAD.

Methods: The BioVAD was implanted in 6 adult male sheep (62.5±3.9 kg), with drainage from the left atrium and reinfusion into the descending aorta. The sheep were monitored for 5 days. Heparin was given during the initial implantation, but no additional anticoagulants were given. Data collected included hemodynamic status, pump flow and pressures, laboratory values to monitor end-organ function and hemolysis, pathologic specimens to evaluate for thromboembolic events and organ ischemia, and explanted pump evaluation results.

Results: All animals survived the planned experimental duration and there were no pump malfunctions. Mean BioVAD flow was 3.57±0.30 L/min (57.1 mL/kg/min) and mean inlet pressure was -30.51±4.25 mm Hg. Laboratory values, including plasma free hemoglobin, creatinine, lactate, and bilirubin levels, remained normal. Three animals had small renal cortical infarcts, but there were no additional thromboembolic events or other abnormalities seen on pathologic examination. No thrombus was identified in the BioVAD blood flow path.

Conclusions: The BioVAD performed well for 5 days in this animal model of temporary left ventricular assistance. Its potential advantages over centrifugal pumps may make it applicable for short-term mechanical circulatory support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.04.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4097385PMC
July 2014

Outcomes after transfer to a tertiary center for postcardiotomy cardiopulmonary failure.

Ann Thorac Surg 2014 Jul 10;98(1):84-9; discussion 89-90. Epub 2014 May 10.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Electronic address:

Background: Postcardiotomy shock affects 0.5% to 6% of cardiac operations and is associated with a high mortality. Many of these patients had their procedures performed at lower-volume cardiac surgery centers with limited resources. The objective of this study was to determine the outcomes in patients in postcardiotomy shock who were transferred to a tertiary care center for escalated care.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 104 postcardiotomy shock patients transferred to our institution between 2004 and 2012. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to determine predictors of in-hospital and overall survival.

Results: Seventy-eight percent of patients were receiving temporary mechanical support. The in-hospital mortality in our series was 46%. Multivariable predictors of in-hospital mortality included higher initial creatinine level on arrival and a history of known heart failure. Multivariable predictors of overall mortality included higher initial creatinine and lactate levels, lower initial ejection fraction, and a history of heart failure and hypertension. The Kaplan-Meier estimation of 5-year survival was 39% in all patients and 72% in patients who survived to hospital discharge.

Conclusions: Patients with postcardiotomy cardiac failure transported to a tertiary care center for advanced cardiac support had a nearly 50% survival, with excellent long-term survival of those discharged alive. Preservation of end-organ function, often with mechanical support, can improve survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.12.091DOI Listing
July 2014