Publications by authors named "David R Spigel"

172 Publications

Adavosertib with Chemotherapy in Patients with Primary Platinum-Resistant Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, or Peritoneal Cancer: an Open-Label, Four-Arm, Phase II Study.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

This study assessed the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of adavosertib in combination with four chemotherapy agents commonly used in patients with primary platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Women with histologically or cytologically confirmed epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube, or peritoneal cancer with measurable disease were enrolled between January 2015 and January 2018 in this open-label, four-arm, multicenter, Phase II study. Patients received adavosertib (oral capsules, 2 days on/5 days off or 3 days on/4 days off) in six cohorts from 175 mg once daily to 225 mg twice daily combined with gemcitabine, paclitaxel, carboplatin, or pegylated liposomal doxorubicin. The primary outcome measurement was overall response rate. Three percent of patients (3/94) had confirmed complete response and 29% (27/94) had confirmed partial response. The response rate was highest with carboplatin plus weekly adavosertib, at 66.7%, with 100% disease control rate, and median progression-free survival of 12.0 months. The longest median duration of response was in the paclitaxel cohort (12.0 months). The most common grade {greater than or equal to}3 adverse events across all cohorts were neutropenia (45/94 [47.9%] patients), anemia (31/94 [33.0%]), thrombocytopenia (30/94 [31.9%]), and diarrhea and vomiting (10/94 [10.6%] each). Adavosertib showed preliminary efficacy when combined with chemotherapy. The most promising treatment combination was adavosertib 225 mg twice daily on days 1-3, 8-10, and 15-17 plus carboplatin every 21 days. However, hematologic toxicity was more frequent than would be expected for carboplatin monotherapy, and the combination requires further study to optimize the dose, schedule, and supportive medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-0158DOI Listing
October 2021

JASPER: Phase 2 trial of first-line niraparib plus pembrolizumab in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

Cancer 2021 Sep 3. Epub 2021 Sep 3.

Hematology Oncology Associates of the Treasure Coast, Port St. Lucie, Florida.

Background: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors may synergize with programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) inhibitors to enhance adaptive and innate antitumor immune responses. In the phase 2 JASPER study (NCT04475939), the PARP inhibitor niraparib was evaluated in combination with the PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab in patients with metastatic and/or locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Patients whose tumors had programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) tumor proportion scores (TPS) ≥50% (cohort 1) or 1%-49% (cohort 2) received first-line niraparib (200 mg once daily) plus pembrolizumab (200 mg every 3 weeks). The primary end point was investigator-assessed objective response rate (ORR). Secondary end points included duration of response (DoR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), safety, and pharmacokinetics.

Results: Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in cohorts 1 and 2. In cohort 1, ORR (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 56.3% (9 of 16 patients; 29.9%-80.2%); 2 of 16 patients had complete responses and 7 of 16 had partial responses (PRs). In cohort 2, ORR was 20.0% (5.7%-43.7%) with 4 of 20 PRs. In cohorts 1 and 2, the median DoR was 19.7 months (95% CI, 4.2 months to not estimable [NE]) and 9.4 months (95% CI, 4.2 months to NE), the median PFS was 8.4 months (95% CI, 3.9-22.1 months) and 4.2 months (95% CI, 2.0-6.2 months), and the median OS was NE (95% CI, 6.0 months to NE) and 7.7 months (95% CI, 4.0-12.5 months), respectively. Grade ≥3 treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 88.2% and 85.7% of patients in cohorts 1 and 2, respectively. Safety was consistent with known profiles of single-agent niraparib and pembrolizumab.

Conclusions: Niraparib plus pembrolizumab showed clinical activity in patients with advanced and/or metastatic NSCLC.

Lay Summary: The JASPER clinical trial studied a new combination treatment for advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Pembrolizumab, a drug approved for NSCLC, was given with niraparib. Previous research showed that these 2 drugs together might work better than either drug alone. This study found that more than half of patients with high levels of a tumor marker responded to the combination, and one-fifth of patients with lower levels of the marker responded. The types of side effects from the combination were similar to side effects from both drugs alone. These results support more research on this combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33885DOI Listing
September 2021

Anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 monoclonal antibody quavonlimab in combination with pembrolizumab: Safety and efficacy from a phase I study in previously treated extensive-stage small cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2021 09 18;159:162-170. Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Chaim Sheba Medical Center at Tel HaShomer, Derech Sheba 2, Ramat Gan, Israel; Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel. Electronic address:

Objectives: This first-in-human phase I study (NCT03179436) investigated anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 monoclonal antibody quavonlimab and anti-programmed death 1 monoclonal antibody pembrolizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors. The study was conducted in two parts: dose-escalation (part 1) and dose-confirmation (part 2). First-line treatment with quavonlimab + pembrolizumab conferred encouraging antitumor activity (objective response rate [ORR], 28%-40%) and was generally well tolerated (grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events [TRAEs] were lowest with quavonlimab 25 mg every 6 weeks [Q6W] at 30% and highest with quavonlimab 75 mg Q3W at 57%) in non-small cell lung cancer. We present data from patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) receiving second-line or later therapy.

Materials And Methods: Patients with stage III/IV SCLC received quavonlimab 75 mg Q6W plus pembrolizumab 200 mg Q3W for ≤ 2 years. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability; ORRs as assessed by blinded independent central review per Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumorsv1.1 was a secondary endpoint. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and the correlation of response with PD-L1 expression were exploratory endpoints.

Results: Forty patients with extensive-stage SCLC received treatment; median follow-up was 13 months. Dose-limiting toxicity occurred in 4 patients (10%). TRAEs occurred in 80% of patients; grade 3 events occurred in 33% of patients and no grade 4/5 events were reported. Confirmed ORRs (95% CI) were 18% (7-33) among all patients, 7% (<1-34) for PD-L1-positive tumors (n = 14), and 19% (5-42) for PD-L1-negative tumors (n = 21). Response duration ranged from 2.9 to 19.1+ months. Median PFS was 2.0 months; 6-month PFS rate was 26%. Median OS was 11.0 months; 6-month OS rate was 66%.

Conclusions: Encouraging antitumor activity was observed with quavonlimab + pembrolizumab in patients with extensive-stage SCLC; responses were observed in PD-L1-positive and PD-L1-negative tumors. The combination was tolerable with manageable toxicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2021.07.009DOI Listing
September 2021

Pertuzumab and trastuzumab for HER2-positive, metastatic biliary tract cancer (MyPathway): a multicentre, open-label, phase 2a, multiple basket study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 09 30;22(9):1290-1300. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN, USA; Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Systemic therapies for metastatic biliary tract cancers are few, and patients have a median overall survival of less than 1 year. MyPathway evaluates the activity of US Food and Drug Administration-approved therapies in non-indicated tumours with potentially actionable molecular alterations. In this study, we present an analysis of patients with metastatic biliary tract cancers with HER2 amplification, overexpression, or both treated with a dual anti-HER2 regimen, pertuzumab plus trastuzumab, from MyPathway.

Methods: MyPathway is a non-randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 2a, multiple basket study. Patients aged 18 years and older with previously treated metastatic biliary tract cancers with HER2 amplification, HER2 overexpression, or both and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 were enrolled from 23 study sites in the USA and received intravenous pertuzumab (840 mg loading dose, then 420 mg every 3 weeks) plus trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose, then 6 mg/kg every 3 weeks). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed objective response rate according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) version 1.1. The primary outcome and adverse events were analysed in all patients who received at least one dose of pertuzumab and trastuzumab. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02091141, and is ongoing.

Findings: 39 patients enrolled in the MyPathway HER2 biliary tract cancer cohort between Oct 28, 2014, and May 29, 2019, were evaluable for anti-tumour activity by the March 10, 2020, data cutoff date. Median follow-up was 8·1 months (IQR 2·7-15·7). Nine of 39 patients achieved a partial response (objective response rate 23% [95% CI 11-39]). Grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 18 (46%) of 39 patients, most commonly increased alanine aminotransferase and increased aspartate aminotransferase (each five [13%] of 39). Treatment-related grade 3 adverse events were reported in three (8%) of 39 patients, including increased alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood alkaline phosphatase, and blood bilirubin. Serious treatment-emergent adverse events were observed in ten (26%) of 39 patients, of which only abdominal pain occurred in more than one patient (two [5%] of 39). There were no treatment-related serious adverse events, treatment-related grade 4 events, or deaths.

Interpretation: Treatment was well tolerated in patients with previously treated HER2-positive metastatic biliary tract cancer. The response rate is promising for the initiation of randomised, controlled trials of pertuzumab plus trastuzumab in this patient population.

Funding: F Hoffmann-La Roche-Genentech.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00336-3DOI Listing
September 2021

Updated Overall Survival Analysis From IMpower110: Atezolizumab Versus Platinum-Based Chemotherapy in Treatment-Naive Programmed Death-Ligand 1-Selected NSCLC.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 Jul 12. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Medical Oncology, Yale Cancer Center, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:

Introduction: IMpower110 previously revealed significant overall survival (OS) benefit with atezolizumab versus chemotherapy in patients with treatment-naive EGFR- and ALK-negative (wild type [WT]) metastatic NSCLC with high programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression (≥50% on tumor cells [TCs] or ≥10% on tumor-infiltrating immune cells [ICs], per SP142 immunohistochemistry assay; p = 0.0106). We present primary OS analyses in lower PD-L1 expression groups and an updated, exploratory analysis in the high PD-L1 expression group.

Methods: This open-label, phase 3 trial randomized patients with PD-L1 expression on greater than or equal to 1% of TC or IC to receive atezolizumab or platinum-based chemotherapy. The primary end point was OS, hierarchically tested in PD-L1 expression WT subgroups: first the high PD-L1 expression subgroup, then the high-or-intermediate PD-L1 expression subgroup (≥5% on TC or IC), and then the any PD-L1 expression subgroup (≥1% on TC or IC).

Results: The any PD-L1 expression WT population included 554 patients (excluded 18 EGFR- or ALK-positive patients). With 17 months' additional follow-up, OS improvement in the atezolizumab versus chemotherapy arm was not statistically significant in high-or-intermediate PD-L1 expression WT patients (n = 328; hazard ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.66-1.14, p = 0.3091; median = 19.9 versus 16.1 mo), precluding formal OS testing in any PD-L1 expression WT patients. Exploratory analysis in high PD-L1 expression WT patients (n = 205) revealed maintained OS benefit in the atezolizumab arm (hazard ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.54-1.09; median = 20.2 versus 14.7 mo). Updated safety data continued to favor atezolizumab.

Conclusions: Statistical significance for OS was not revealed in the high-or-intermediate expression WT group, and, as a result, OS in the any PD-L1 expression WT group was not formally tested. No new safety signals were found. This updated analysis of IMpower110 supports using atezolizumab in treatment-naive, metastatic WT NSCLC with high PD-L1 expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2021.06.019DOI Listing
July 2021

Improving Care for Patients With Stage III or IV NSCLC: Learnings for Multidisciplinary Teams From the ACCC National Quality Survey.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 Aug 9;17(8):e1120-e1130. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Lung Cancer Research Program, Sarah Cannon Research Institute; Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, TN.

Purpose: Insufficient characterization of the optimal multidisciplinary team and lack of understanding of barriers to quality care are unmet needs in the management of stage III or IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A national survey was conducted to inform the design and execution of process improvement plans and address identified barriers.

Methods: A steering committee of multidisciplinary specialists and representation from patient advocacy collaborated for a comprehensive, double-blind, web-based survey (January-April 2019) to obtain insights on care delivery for patients with advanced NSCLC in a diverse set of US community cancer programs.

Results: Overall, 639 responses (160 unique cancer programs across 44 US states) were included; 41% (n = 261) of respondents indicated an absence of a thoracic multidisciplinary clinic in their cancer program. Engagement in shared decision making was significantly associated with the presence of navigation and radiation oncology disciplines ( ≤ .04); 19.2% and 33.3% of respondents belonged to cancer programs with no lung cancer screening and no protocol for biomarker testing, respectively. The frequency of tumor board meetings negatively correlated with time to complete disease staging ( = .03); the average time to first therapeutic intervention in newly diagnosed patients was 4 weeks. The most challenging barriers to quality care included insufficient quantity of biopsy material for biomarker testing, lack of primary care provider referrals, and diagnostic costs.

Conclusion: Improving the quality of advanced NSCLC care, including optimization of a multidisciplinary team framework, may surmount barriers to care coordination, diagnosis and staging, and treatment planning, consequently improving adherence to evolving standards of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/OP.20.00899DOI Listing
August 2021

Therapy for Stage IV Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer With Driver Alterations: ASCO and OH (CCO) Joint Guideline Update.

J Clin Oncol 2021 03 16;39(9):1040-1091. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Helen F. Graham Cancer Center and Research Institute, Newark, DE.

Purpose: To provide evidence-based recommendations updating the 2017 ASCO guideline on systemic therapy for patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with driver alterations. A guideline update for systemic therapy for patients with stage IV NSCLC without driver alterations was published separately.

Methods: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and Ontario Health (Cancer Care Ontario) NSCLC Expert Panel updated recommendations based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from December 2015 to January 2020 and meeting abstracts from ASCO 2020.

Results: This guideline update reflects changes in evidence since the previous update. Twenty-seven RCTs, 26 observational studies, and one meta-analysis provide the evidence base (total 54). Outcomes of interest included efficacy and safety. Additional literature suggested by the Expert Panel is discussed.

Recommendations: All patients with nonsquamous NSCLC should have the results of testing for potentially targetable mutations (alterations) before implementing therapy for advanced lung cancer, regardless of smoking status recommendations, when possible, following other existing high-quality testing guidelines. Most patients should receive targeted therapy for these alterations: Targeted therapies against -1 fusions, V600e mutations, fusions, exon 14 skipping mutations, and fusions should be offered to patients, either as initial or second-line therapy when not given in the first-line setting. New or revised recommendations include the following: Osimertinib is the optimal first-line treatment for patients with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations (exon 19 deletion, exon 21 L858R, and exon 20 T790M); alectinib or brigatinib is the optimal first-line treatment for patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusions. For the first time, to our knowledge, the guideline includes recommendations regarding alterations. Chemotherapy is still an option at most stages.Additional information is available at www.asco.org/thoracic-cancer-guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03570DOI Listing
March 2021

Atezolizumab for PD-L1-Selected Patients with NSCLC. Reply.

N Engl J Med 2021 02;384(6):584-585

Sarah Cannon Research Institute at Tennessee Oncology, Nashville, TN.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2032432DOI Listing
February 2021

Four-Year Survival With Durvalumab After Chemoradiotherapy in Stage III NSCLC-an Update From the PACIFIC Trial.

J Thorac Oncol 2021 05 19;16(5):860-867. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Thoracic Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida.

Introduction: In the Phase 3, placebo-controlled PACIFIC trial of patients with unresectable, stage III NSCLC without disease progression after concurrent chemoradiotherapy, consolidative durvalumab was associated with significant improvements in the primary end points of overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.53-0.87; p = 0.00251; data cutoff, March 22, 2018) and progression-free survival (PFS) (blinded independent central review; Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1) (HR = 0.52; 95% CI: 0.42-65; p < 0.0001; February 13, 2017) with manageable safety. Here, we report updated analyses of OS and PFS, approximately 4 years after the last patient was randomized.

Methods: Patients with WHO performance status of 0 or 1 (and any tumor programmed death-ligand 1 status) were randomized (2:1) to intravenous durvalumab (10 mg/kg) or placebo, administered every 2 weeks (≤12 months), stratified by age, sex, and smoking history. OS and PFS were analyzed using a stratified log-rank test in the intent-to-treat population. Medians and 4-year OS and PFS rates were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Overall, 709 of 713 randomized patients received durvalumab (n/N=473/476) or placebo (n/N=236/237). As of March 20, 2020 (median follow-up = 34.2 months; range: 0.2-64.9), updated OS (HR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.57-0.88) and PFS (HR = 0.55; 95% CI: 0.44-0.67) remained consistent with the primary analyses. The median OS for durvalumab was reached (47.5 mo; placebo, 29.1 months). Estimated 4-year OS rates were 49.6% versus 36.3% for durvalumab versus placebo, and 4-year PFS rates were 35.3% versus 19.5% respectively.

Conclusion: These updated exploratory analyses demonstrate durable PFS and sustained OS benefit with durvalumab after chemoradiotherapy. An estimated 49.6% of patients randomized to durvalumab remain alive at 4 years (placebo, 36.3%), and 35.3% remain alive and progression-free (placebo, 19.5%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2020.12.015DOI Listing
May 2021

Five-Year Outcomes From the Randomized, Phase III Trials CheckMate 017 and 057: Nivolumab Versus Docetaxel in Previously Treated Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2021 03 15;39(7):723-733. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, Baltimore, MD.

Purpose: Immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In two phase III trials (CheckMate 017 and CheckMate 057), nivolumab showed an improvement in overall survival (OS) and favorable safety versus docetaxel in patients with previously treated, advanced squamous and nonsquamous NSCLC, respectively. We report 5-year pooled efficacy and safety from these trials.

Methods: Patients (N = 854; CheckMate 017/057 pooled) with advanced NSCLC, ECOG PS ≤ 1, and progression during or after first-line platinum-based chemotherapy were randomly assigned 1:1 to nivolumab (3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks) or docetaxel (75 mg/m once every 3 weeks) until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point for both trials was OS; secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS) and safety. Exploratory landmark analyses were investigated.

Results: After the minimum follow-up of 64.2 and 64.5 months for CheckMate 017 and 057, respectively, 50 nivolumab-treated patients and nine docetaxel-treated patients were alive. Five-year pooled OS rates were 13.4% versus 2.6%, respectively; 5-year PFS rates were 8.0% versus 0%, respectively. Nivolumab-treated patients without disease progression at 2 and 3 years had an 82.0% and 93.0% chance of survival, respectively, and a 59.6% and 78.3% chance of remaining progression-free at 5 years, respectively. Treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) were reported in 8 of 31 (25.8%) nivolumab-treated patients between 3-5 years of follow-up, seven of whom experienced new events; one (3.2%) TRAE was grade 3, and there were no grade 4 TRAEs.

Conclusion: At 5 years, nivolumab continued to demonstrate a survival benefit versus docetaxel, exhibiting a five-fold increase in OS rate, with no new safety signals. These data represent the first report of 5-year outcomes from randomized phase III trials of a programmed death-1 inhibitor in previously treated, advanced NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.01605DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078445PMC
March 2021

Impact of prior chemoradiotherapy-related variables on outcomes with durvalumab in unresectable Stage III NSCLC (PACIFIC).

Lung Cancer 2021 01 26;151:30-38. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, FL, USA.

Introduction: The PACIFIC trial demonstrated that durvalumab significantly improved progression-free and overall survival (PFS/OS), versus placebo, in patients with Stage III NSCLC and stable or responding disease following concurrent, platinum-based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A range of CT and RT regimens were permitted, and used, in the trial. We report post-hoc, exploratory analyses of clinical outcomes from PACIFIC according to CRT-related variables.

Methods: Patients were randomized 2:1 (1-42 days post-CRT) to up to 12 months durvalumab (10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks) or placebo. Efficacy and safety were analyzed in patient subgroups defined by the following baseline variables: platinum-based CT (cisplatin/carboplatin); vinorelbine, etoposide, or taxane-based CT (all yes/no); total RT dose (<60 Gy/60-66 Gy/>66 Gy); time from last RT dose to randomization (<14 days/≥14 days); and use of pre-CRT induction CT (yes/no). Treatment effects for time-to-event endpoints were estimated by hazard ratios (HRs) from unstratified Cox-proportional-hazards models.

Results: Overall, 713 patients were randomized, of whom 709 received treatment in either the durvalumab (n/N = 473/476) or placebo arms (n/N = 236/237). Durvalumab improved PFS, versus placebo, across all subgroups (median follow up, 14.5 months; HR range, 0.34-0.63). Durvalumab improved OS across most subgroups (median follow up, 25.2 months; HR range, 0.35-0.86); however, the 95 % confidence interval (CI) of the estimated treatment effect crossed one for the subgroups of patients who received induction CT (HR, 0.78 [95 % CI, 0.51-1.20]); carboplatin (0.86 [0.60-1.23]); vinorelbine (0.79 [0.49-1.27]); and taxane-based CT (0.73 [0.51-1.04]); and patients who were randomized ≥14 days post-RT (0.81 [0.62-1.06]). Safety was broadly similar across the CRT subgroups.

Conclusion: Durvalumab prolonged PFS and OS irrespective of treatment variables related to prior CRT to which patients with Stage III NSCLC had previously stabilized or responded. Limited patient numbers and imbalances in baseline factors in each subgroup preclude robust conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2020.11.024DOI Listing
January 2021

Safety and efficacy of combination nivolumab plus ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma: results from a North American expanded access program (CheckMate 218).

Melanoma Res 2021 02;31(1):67-75

Division of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

CheckMate 218, a North American expanded access program (EAP), investigated nivolumab plus ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. Safety and efficacy, including 2-year survival in clinically relevant patient subgroups, are reported. Eligible patients were aged ≥18 years with unresectable stage III/IV melanoma, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0/1, and no prior checkpoint inhibitors. Patients received nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 4 cycles (induction) followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks (maintenance) until progression or unacceptable toxicity or a maximum of 48 weeks. Safety and overall survival (OS) data were collected. This EAP included 754 treated patients from the USA (n = 580) and Canada (n = 174). Median follow-up time was 17.8 months. All-grade and grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events were reported in 96% and 53% of patients and led to treatment discontinuation in 36% and 26% of patients, respectively. OS rates at 12 and 24 months were 82% [95% confidence interval (CI) 79-84] and 70% (95% CI 66-74), respectively. Twenty-four-month OS rates were 63% in patients aged ≥75 years, 56% in patients with elevated lactate dehydrogenase levels, 73% in patients with BRAF wild-type tumors, 70% in patients with BRAF mutant tumors, and 56% in patients with mucosal melanoma. In this EAP, nivolumab plus ipilimumab demonstrated high survival rates and safety outcomes consistent with those from randomized clinical trials, further supporting the use of this combination for advanced melanoma across multiple subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CMR.0000000000000708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757740PMC
February 2021

Nanoparticle Albumin-bound Paclitaxel Plus Carboplatin Induction Followed by Nanoparticle Albumin-bound Paclitaxel Maintenance in Squamous Non-Small-cell Lung Cancer (ABOUND.sqm): A Phase III Randomized Clinical Trial.

Clin Lung Cancer 2021 01 18;22(1):6-15.e4. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Internistische Onkologie der Thoraxtumoren, Thoraxklinik im Universitätsklinikum Heidelberg, Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: We evaluated maintenance nanoparticle albumin-bound (nab) paclitaxel in the treatment of advanced squamous non-small-cell lung cancer.

Patients And Methods: Patients with treatment-naive squamous non-small-cell lung cancer received four 21-day cycles of nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m on days 1, 8, 15 plus carboplatin area under the curve 6 on day 1 as induction therapy. Patients without disease progression after induction were randomized 2:1 to maintenance nab-paclitaxel 100 mg/m (days 1 and 8 every 21 days) plus best supportive care (BSC) or BSC alone. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints included safety and overall survival (OS).

Results: Overall, 420 patients had received induction therapy; 202 (nab-paclitaxel plus BSC, 136; BSC, 66) had received maintenance therapy. Enrollment was discontinued after a preplanned interim futility analysis (patients could remain in the study at the investigator's discretion). The median PFS was 3.12 months for nab-paclitaxel plus BSC and 2.60 months for BSC; the difference was not statistically significant (hazard ratio [HR], 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61-1.19; P = .36). The median OS (median follow-up, 24.2 months) was 17.18 months for nab-paclitaxel plus BSC and 12.16 months for BSC (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.48-1.02; nominal P = .07). An updated analysis (median follow-up, 28.4 months) revealed a median OS of 17.61 months for nab-paclitaxel plus BSC and 12.16 months for BSC (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.47-0.98; nominal P = .037). The most frequent grade 3 and 4 treatment-emergent adverse events for the entire study were neutropenia (53.1% [nab-paclitaxel plus BSC] vs. 50.0% [BSC]) and anemia (33.1% [nab-paclitaxel plus BSC] vs. 32.3% [BSC]). Only peripheral neuropathy had occurred in ≥ 5% of patients during maintenance therapy (13.1%; nab-paclitaxel plus BSC).

Conclusions: The results of the ABOUND.sqm did not meet the primary endpoint of PFS. An updated OS analysis revealed a trend favoring nab-paclitaxel plus BSC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2020.09.007DOI Listing
January 2021

Atezolizumab for First-Line Treatment of PD-L1-Selected Patients with NSCLC.

N Engl J Med 2020 10;383(14):1328-1339

From the Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (R.S.H.); Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York (G.G.); the European Institute of Oncology, IRCCS, Milan (F.M.); Asklepios Lung Clinic, Munich-Gauting, Germany (N.R.); University Hospital Limoges, Limoges, France (A.V.); Centro de Pesquisa Clínica, Hospital São Lucas, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil (C.H.B.); Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan (M. Morise); Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona (E.F.); Clinical Hospital Center Bezanijska Kosa, Belgrade, Serbia (Z.A.); Prince of Songkla University-Hat Yai, Songkhla, Thailand (S.G.); Istanbul University-Cerrahpaşa, Cerrahpaşa Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey (M.O.); Genentech, South San Francisco, CA (W.Z., A.S., I.E., K.K., Y.D., H.K., X.W., M. McCleland, S.M.); the Medical University of Gdańsk, Gdansk, Poland (J.J.); and the Sarah Cannon Research Institute at Tennessee Oncology, Nashville (D.R.S.).

Background: The efficacy and safety of the anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody atezolizumab, as compared with those of platinum-based chemotherapy, as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with PD-L1 expression are not known.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial involving patients with metastatic nonsquamous or squamous NSCLC who had not previously received chemotherapy and who had PD-L1 expression on at least 1% of tumor cells or at least 1% of tumor-infiltrating immune cells as assessed by the SP142 immunohistochemical assay. Patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive atezolizumab or chemotherapy. Overall survival (primary end point) was tested hierarchically according to PD-L1 expression status among patients in the intention-to-treat population whose tumors were wild-type with respect to mutations or translocations. Within the population with and wild-type tumors, overall survival and progression-free survival were also prospectively assessed in subgroups defined according to findings on two PD-L1 assays as well as by blood-based tumor mutational burden.

Results: Overall, 572 patients were enrolled. In the subgroup of patients with and wild-type tumors who had the highest expression of PD-L1 (205 patients), the median overall survival was longer by 7.1 months in the atezolizumab group than in the chemotherapy group (20.2 months vs. 13.1 months; hazard ratio for death, 0.59; P = 0.01). Among all the patients who could be evaluated for safety, adverse events occurred in 90.2% of the patients in the atezolizumab group and in 94.7% of those in the chemotherapy group; grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 30.1% and 52.5% of the patients in the respective groups. Overall and progression-free survival favored atezolizumab in the subgroups with a high blood-based tumor mutational burden.

Conclusions: Atezolizumab treatment resulted in significantly longer overall survival than platinum-based chemotherapy among patients with NSCLC with high PD-L1 expression, regardless of histologic type. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; IMpower110 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02409342.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1917346DOI Listing
October 2020

Continuous Versus 1-Year Fixed-Duration Nivolumab in Previously Treated Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: CheckMate 153.

J Clin Oncol 2020 11 10;38(33):3863-3873. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Tennessee Oncology, PLLC, Nashville, TN.

Purpose: Limited data exist on the optimal duration of immunotherapy, including for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We present an exploratory analysis of CheckMate 153, a largely community-based phase IIIb/IV study, to evaluate the impact of 1-year fixed-duration versus continuous therapy on the efficacy and safety of nivolumab.

Methods: Patients with previously treated advanced NSCLC received nivolumab monotherapy (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks). Those still receiving treatment at 1 year, including patients perceived to be deriving benefit despite radiographic progression, were randomly assigned to continue nivolumab until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity or to stop nivolumab with the option of on-study retreatment after disease progression (1-year fixed duration).

Results: Of 1,428 patients treated, 252 were randomly assigned to continuous (n = 127) or 1-year fixed-duration (n = 125) treatment (intent-to-treat [ITT] population). Of these, 89 and 85 patients in the continuous and 1-year fixed-duration arms, respectively, had not progressed (progression-free survival [PFS] population). With minimum post-random assignment follow-up of 13.5 months, median PFS was longer with continuous versus 1-year fixed-duration treatment (PFS population: 24.7 months 9.4 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.56 [95% CI, 0.37 to 0.84]). Median overall survival from random assignment was longer with continuous versus 1-year fixed-duration treatment in the PFS (not reached 32.5 months; HR, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.37 to 0.99]) and ITT (not reached 28.8 months; HR, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.42 to 0.92]) populations. Few new-onset treatment-related adverse events occurred. No new safety signals were identified.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, these findings from an exploratory analysis represent the first randomized data on continuous versus fixed-duration immunotherapy in previously treated advanced NSCLC and suggest that continuing nivolumab beyond 1 year improves outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.00131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7676888PMC
November 2020

Therapy for Stage IV Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Without Driver Alterations: ASCO and OH (CCO) Joint Guideline Update.

J Clin Oncol 2020 05 28;38(14):1608-1632. Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Helen F. Graham Cancer Center and Research Institute, Newark, DE.

Purpose: The aim of this work is to provide evidence-based recommendations updating the 2017 ASCO guideline on systemic therapy for patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) without driver alterations. A guideline update for patients with stage IV NSCLC with driver alterations will be published separately.

Methods: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and Ontario Health (Cancer Care Ontario) NSCLC Expert Panel made updated recommendations based on a systematic review of randomized controlled trials from December 2015 to 2019.

Results: This guideline update reflects changes in evidence since the previous guideline update. Five randomized controlled trials provide the evidence base. Additional literature suggested by the Expert Panel is discussed.

Recommendations: Recommendations apply to patients without driver alterations in epidermal growth factor receptor or ALK. For patients with high programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression (tumor proportion score [TPS] ≥ 50%) and non-squamous cell carcinoma (non-SCC), the Expert Panel recommends single-agent pembrolizumab. Additional treatment options include pembrolizumab/carboplatin/pemetrexed, atezolizumab/carboplatin/paclitaxel/bevacizumab, or atezolizumab/carboplatin/nab-paclitaxel. For most patients with non-SCC and either negative (0%) or low positive (1% to 49%) PD-L1, the Expert Panel recommends pembrolizumab/carboplatin/pemetrexed. Additional options are atezolizumab/carboplatin/nab-paclitaxel, atezolizumab/carboplatin/paclitaxel/bevacizumab, platinum-based two-drug combination chemotherapy, or non-platinum-based two-drug therapy. Single-agent pembrolizumab is an option for low positive PD-L1. For patients with high PD-L1 expression (TPS ≥ 50%) and SCC, the Expert Panel recommends single-agent pembrolizumab. An additional treatment option is pembrolizumab/carboplatin/(paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel). For most patients with SCC and either negative (0%) or low positive PD-L1 (TPS 1% to 49%), the Expert Panel recommends pembrolizumab/carboplatin/(paclitaxel or nab-paclitaxel) or chemotherapy. Single-agent pembrolizumab is an option in select cases of low positive PD-L1. Recommendations are conditional on the basis of histology, PD-L1 status, and/or the presence or absence of contraindications. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/lung-cancer-guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.03022DOI Listing
May 2020

Final Overall Survival and Other Efficacy and Safety Results From ASCEND-3: Phase II Study of Ceritinib in ALKi-Naive Patients With ALK-Rearranged NSCLC.

J Thorac Oncol 2020 04 25;15(4):609-617. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of Medicine and Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Introduction: The phase II, single-arm ASCEND-3 study assessed the efficacy and safety of ceritinib in anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor (ALKi)-naive patients with ALK-rearranged NSCLC who had received at least three previous lines of chemotherapy. Here, we report the final efficacy and safety results.

Methods: Eligible patients (including those with asymptomatic or neurologically stable brain metastases) received oral ceritinib (750 mg/day, fasted). The primary end point was investigator-assessed overall response rate (ORR). Secondary end points were Blinded Independent Review Committee-assessed ORR; investigator- and Blinded Independent Review Committee-assessed overall intracranial response rate, duration of response, time to response, disease control rate, and progression-free survival (PFS); overall survival (OS); and safety. Exploratory end points included patient-reported outcomes.

Results: Of the 124 patients enrolled, 122 (98.4%) had received previous antineoplastic medications (31 patients [25.0%] received at least three regimens), and 49 (39.5%) had baseline brain metastases. The median follow-up time (data cutoff: January 22, 2018) was 52.1 (range, 48.4-60.1) months. The investigator-assessed ORR was 67.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 58.8-75.9), and the median PFS was 16.6 months (95% CI: 11.0-23.2). The median OS was 51.3 months (95% CI: 42.7-55.3). Most common adverse events (all grades, ≥60% of patients, all-causality) were diarrhea (85.5%), nausea (78.2%), and vomiting (71.8%). Overall, 18 patients (14.5%) had an adverse event leading to treatment discontinuation. Health-related quality of life was maintained during ceritinib treatment.

Conclusions: Ceritinib exhibited prolonged and clinically meaningful OS, PFS, and duration of response in chemotherapy-pretreated (at least three lines), ALKi-naive patients with ALK+ NSCLC. The safety profile was consistent with that reported in previous studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.11.006DOI Listing
April 2020

Phase 2 study of the focal adhesion kinase inhibitor defactinib (VS-6063) in previously treated advanced KRAS mutant non-small cell lung cancer.

Lung Cancer 2020 01 4;139:60-67. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

University of Pittsburgh Medical Center Hillman Cancer Center, University of Pittsburgh, 5117 Centre Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: KRAS mutations, which occur in approximately 25% of lung adenocarcinoma cases, represent a major unmet clinical need in thoracic oncology. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that KRAS mutant NSCLC cell lines and xenografts with additional alterations in either TP53 or CDKN2A (INK4A/ARF) loci are sensitive to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibition. Defactinib (VS-6063) is a selective oral inhibitor of FAK.

Materials And Methods: Patients with previously treated advanced KRAS mutant NSCLC were prospectively assigned to one of four molecularly defined cohorts based on the presence or absence of TP53 or CDKN2A alterations and received treatment with defactinib 400 mg orally BID until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) at 12 weeks.

Results: Fifty-five patients were enrolled. Mean age was 62 years; 51% were female. The median number of prior lines of therapy was 4 (range 1-8). Fifteen (28%) patients met the 12-week PFS endpoint, with one patient achieving a partial response. Median PFS was 45 days. Clinical efficacy did not correlate with TP53 or CDKN2A status. The most common adverse events were fatigue, gastrointestinal, and increased bilirubin, and were generally grade 1 or 2 in severity.

Conclusion: In heavily pretreated patients with KRAS mutant NSCLC, defactinib monotherapy demonstrated modest clinical activity. Efficacy was not associated with TP53 and CDKN2A status. Defactinib was generally well tolerated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lungcan.2019.10.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942685PMC
January 2020

Randomized Phase II Study of Paclitaxel plus Alisertib versus Paclitaxel plus Placebo as Second-Line Therapy for SCLC: Primary and Correlative Biomarker Analyses.

J Thorac Oncol 2020 02 23;15(2):274-287. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Millennium Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Introduction: We assessed the Aurora A kinase inhibitor, alisertib, plus paclitaxel (henceforth referred to as alisertib/paclitaxel) as second-line treatment for SCLC.

Methods: In this double-blind study, patients with relapsed or refractory SCLC were stratified by relapse type (sensitive versus resistant or refractory) and brain metastases and randomized 1:1 to alisertib/paclitaxel or placebo plus paclitaxel (henceforth referred to as placebo/paclitaxel) in 28-day cycles. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). Associations of c-Myc expression in tumor tissue (prespecified) and genetic alterations in circulating tumor DNA (retrospective) with clinical outcome were evaluated.

Results: A total of 178 patients were enrolled (89 in each arm). The median PFS was 3.32 months with alisertib/paclitaxel versus 2.17 months with placebo/paclitaxel (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.77, 95% confidence limit [CI]: 0.557-1.067, p = 0.113 in the intent-to-treat population versus HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.509-0.985, p = 0.038 with corrected analysis applied). Among 140 patients with genetic alternations, patients with cell cycle regulator mutations (cyclin-dependent kinase 6 gene [CDK6], retinoblastoma-like 1 gene [RBL1], retinoblastoma-like 2 gene [RBL2], and retinoblastoma 1 gene [RB1]) had significantly improved PFS with alisertib/paclitaxel versus with placebo/paclitaxel (3.68 versus 1.80 months, respectively [HR = 0.395, 95% CI: 0.239-0.654, p = 0.0003]), and overall survival (7.20 versus 4.47 months, respectively [HR = 0.427, 95% CI: 0.259-0.704, p = 0.00085]). A subset of patients with c-Myc expression showed significantly improved PFS with alisertib/paclitaxel. The incidence of grade 3 or higher drug-related adverse events was 67% (58 patients) with alisertib/paclitaxel versus 22% (25 patients) with placebo/paclitaxel. Twelve patients (14%) versus 11 (12%) died on study, including four versus zero treatment-related deaths.

Conclusions: Efficacy signals were seen with alisertib/paclitaxel in relapsed or refractory SCLC. c-Myc expression and mutations in cell cycle regulators may be potential predictive biomarkers of alisertib efficacy; further prospective validations are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.10.013DOI Listing
February 2020

Nivolumab Monotherapy and Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in Recurrent Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results From the CheckMate 032 Randomized Cohort.

J Thorac Oncol 2020 03 17;15(3):426-435. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Tennessee Oncology Nashville, Nashville, Tennessee.

Introduction: Nivolumab monotherapy is approved in the United States for third-line or later metastatic small cell lung cancer based on pooled data from nonrandomized and randomized cohorts of the multicenter, open-label, phase 1/2 trial of nivolumab ± ipilimumab (CheckMate 032; NCT01928394). We report updated results, including long-term overall survival (OS), from the randomized cohort.

Methods: Patients with small cell lung cancer and disease progression after one to two prior chemotherapy regimens were randomized 3:2 to nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks or nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks for four cycles followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks. Patients were stratified by number of prior chemotherapy regimens and treated until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) by blinded independent central review.

Results: Overall, 147 patients received nivolumab and 96 nivolumab plus ipilimumab. Minimum follow-up for ORR/progression-free survival/safety was 11.9 months (nivolumab) and 11.2 months (nivolumab plus ipilimumab). ORR increased with nivolumab plus ipilimumab (21.9% versus 11.6% with nivolumab; odds ratio: 2.12; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-4.26; p = 0.03). For long-term OS, minimum follow-up was 29.0 months (nivolumab) versus 28.4 months (nivolumab plus ipilimumab); median (95% confidence interval) OS was 5.7 (3.8-7.6) versus 4.7 months (3.1-8.3). Twenty-four-month OS rates were 17.9% (nivolumab) and 16.9% (nivolumab plus ipilimumab). Grade 3 to 4 treatment-related adverse event rates were 12.9% (nivolumab) versus 37.5% (nivolumab plus ipilimumab), and treatment-related deaths were n =1 versus n = 3, respectively.

Conclusions: Whereas ORR (primary endpoint) was higher with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus nivolumab, OS was similar between groups. In each group, OS remained encouraging with long-term follow-up. Toxicities were more common with combination therapy versus nivolumab monotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.10.004DOI Listing
March 2020

Three-Year Overall Survival with Durvalumab after Chemoradiotherapy in Stage III NSCLC-Update from PACIFIC.

J Thorac Oncol 2020 02 14;15(2):288-293. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida.

Introduction: In the phase 3 PACIFIC study of patients with unresectable stage III NSCLC without progression after chemoradiotherapy, durvalumab demonstrated significant improvements versus placebo in the primary end points of progression-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-65, p < 0.0001) and overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.53-0.87, p = 0.00251), with manageable safety and no detrimental effect on patient-reported outcomes. Here, we report 3-year OS rates for all patients randomized in the PACIFIC study.

Methods: Patients, stratified by age, sex, and smoking history, were randomized (2:1) to receive durvalumab, 10 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks, or placebo for up to 12 months. OS was analyzed by using a stratified log-rank test in the intention-to-treat population. Medians and rates at 12, 24, and 36 months were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: As of January 31, 2019, 48.2% of patients had died (44.1% and 56.5% in the durvalumab and placebo groups, respectively). The median duration of follow-up was 33.3 months. The updated OS remained consistent with that previously reported (stratified HR = 0.69 [95% CI: 0.55-0.86]); the median OS was not reached with durvalumab but was 29.1 months with placebo. The 12-, 24- and 36-month OS rates with durvalumab and placebo were 83.1% versus 74.6%, 66.3% versus 55.3%, and 57.0% versus 43.5%, respectively. All secondary outcomes examined showed improvements consistent with previous analyses.

Conclusions: Updated OS data from PACIFIC, including 3-year survival rates, demonstrate the long-term clinical benefit with durvalumab after chemoradiotherapy and further establish the PACIFIC regimen as the standard of care in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7244187PMC
February 2020

Phase Ia Study of Anti-NaPi2b Antibody-Drug Conjugate Lifastuzumab Vedotin DNIB0600A in Patients with Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer and Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 01 20;26(2):364-372. Epub 2019 Sep 20.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, Tennessee.

Purpose: This phase I trial assessed the safety, tolerability, and preliminary antitumor activity of lifastuzumab vedotin (LIFA), an antibody-drug conjugate of anti-NaPi2b mAb (MNIB2126A) and a potent antimitotic agent (monomethyl auristatin E).

Patients And Methods: LIFA was administered to patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (PROC), once every 3 weeks, by intravenous infusion. The starting dose was 0.2 mg/kg in this 3+3 dose-escalation design, followed by cohort expansion at the recommended phase II dose (RP2D).

Results: Overall, 87 patients were treated at doses between 0.2 and 2.8 mg/kg. The MTD was not reached; 2.4 mg/kg once every 3 weeks was selected as the RP2D based on overall tolerability profile. The most common adverse events of any grade and regardless of relationship to study drug were fatigue (59%), nausea (49%), decreased appetite (37%), vomiting (32%), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (29%). Most common treatment-related grade ≥3 toxicities among patients treated at the RP2D ( = 63) were neutropenia (10%), anemia (3%), and pneumonia (3%). The pharmacokinetic profile was dose proportional. At active doses ≥1.8 mg/kg, partial responses were observed in four of 51 (8%) patients with NSCLC and 11 of 24 (46%) patients with PROC per RECIST. All RECIST responses occurred in patients with NaPi2b-high by IHC. The CA-125 biomarker assessed for patients with PROC dosed at ≥1.8 mg/kg showed 13 of 24 (54%) had responses (≥50% decline from baseline).

Conclusions: LIFA exhibited dose-proportional pharmacokinetics and an acceptable safety profile, with encouraging activity in patients with PROC at the single-agent RP2D of 2.4 mg/kg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-3965DOI Listing
January 2020

A Randomized, Double-Blinded, Phase II Trial of Carboplatin and Pemetrexed with or without Apatorsen (OGX-427) in Patients with Previously Untreated Stage IV Non-Squamous-Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: The SPRUCE Trial.

Oncologist 2019 12 16;24(12):e1409-e1416. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: This randomized, double-blinded, phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of carboplatin and pemetrexed plus either apatorsen, an antisense oligonucleotide targeting heat shock protein (Hsp) 27 mRNA, or placebo in patients with previously untreated metastatic nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Patients were randomized 1:1 to Arm A (carboplatin/pemetrexed plus apatorsen) or Arm B (carboplatin/pemetrexed plus placebo). Treatment was administered in 21-day cycles, with restaging every two cycles, until progression or intolerable toxicity. Serum Hsp27 levels were analyzed at baseline and during treatment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS); secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS), objective response rate, and toxicity.

Results: The trial enrolled 155 patients (median age 66 years; 44% Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0). Toxicities were similar in the 2 treatment arms; cytopenias, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue were the most frequent treatment-related adverse events. Median PFS and OS were 6.0 and 10.8 months, respectively, for Arm A, and 4.9 and 11.8 months for Arm B (differences not statistically significant). Overall response rates were 27% for Arm A and 32% for Arm B. Sixteen patients (12%) had high serum levels of Hsp27 at baseline. In this small group, patients who received apatorsen had median PFS of 10.8 months, and those who received placebo had median PFS 4.8 months.

Conclusion: The addition of apatorsen to carboplatin and pemetrexed was well tolerated but did not improve outcomes in patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC cancer in the first-line setting.

Implications For Practice: This randomized, double-blinded, phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of carboplatin and pemetrexed plus either apatorsen, an antisense oligonucleotide targeting heat shock protein 27 mRNA, or placebo in patients with previously untreated metastatic nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The addition of apatorsen to carboplatin and pemetrexed was well tolerated but did not improve outcomes in patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC cancer in the first-line setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1634/theoncologist.2018-0518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6975937PMC
December 2019

Five-Year Survival and Correlates Among Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Renal Cell Carcinoma, or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treated With Nivolumab.

JAMA Oncol 2019 Oct;5(10):1411-1420

Department of Internal Medicine (Section of Medical Oncology), Yale Cancer Center, New Haven, Connecticut.

Importance: Nivolumab, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits programmed cell death 1, is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treating advanced melanoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and other malignancies. Data on long-term survival among patients receiving nivolumab are limited.

Objectives: To analyze long-term overall survival (OS) among patients receiving nivolumab and identify clinical and laboratory measures associated with tumor regression and OS.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a secondary analysis of the phase 1 CA209-003 trial (with expansion cohorts), which was conducted at 13 US medical centers and included 270 patients with advanced melanoma, RCC, or NSCLC who received nivolumab and were enrolled between October 30, 2008, and December 28, 2011. The analyses were either specified in the original protocol or included in subsequent protocol amendments that were implemented between 2008 and 2012. Statistical analysis was performed from October 30, 2008, to November 11, 2016.

Intervention: In the CA209-003 trial, patients received nivolumab (0.1-10.0 mg/kg) every 2 weeks in 8-week cycles for up to 96 weeks, unless they developed progressive disease, achieved a complete response, experienced unacceptable toxic effects, or withdrew consent.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Safety and activity of nivolumab; OS was a post hoc end point with a minimum follow-up of 58.3 months.

Results: Of 270 patients included in this analysis, 107 (39.6%) had melanoma (72 [67.3%] male; median age, 61 [range, 29-85] years), 34 (12.6%) had RCC (26 [76.5%] male; median age, 58 [range, 35-74] years), and 129 (47.8%) had NSCLC (79 [61.2%] male; median age, 65 [range, 38-85] years). Overall survival curves showed estimated 5-year rates of 34.2% among patients with melanoma, 27.7% among patients with RCC, and 15.6% among patients with NSCLC. In a multivariable analysis, the presence of liver (odds ratio [OR], 0.31; 95% CI, 0.12-0.83; P = .02) or bone metastases (OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.93; P = .04) was independently associated with reduced likelihood of survival at 5 years, whereas an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 (OR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.43-5.27; P = .003) was independently associated with an increased likelihood of 5-year survival. Overall survival was significantly longer among patients with treatment-related AEs of any grade (median, 19.8 months; 95% CI, 13.8-26.9 months) or grade 3 or more (median, 20.3 months; 95% CI, 12.5-44.9 months) compared with those without treatment-related AEs (median, 5.8 months; 95% CI, 4.6-7.8 months) (P < .001 for both comparisons based on hazard ratios).

Conclusions And Relevance: Nivolumab treatment was associated with long-term survival in a subset of heavily pretreated patients with advanced melanoma, RCC, or NSCLC. Characterizing factors associated with long-term survival may inform treatment approaches and strategies for future clinical trial development.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00730639.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2187DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6659167PMC
October 2019

Safety, Efficacy, and Patient-Reported Health-Related Quality of Life and Symptom Burden with Nivolumab in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Including Patients Aged 70 Years or Older or with Poor Performance Status (CheckMate 153).

J Thorac Oncol 2019 09 20;14(9):1628-1639. Epub 2019 May 20.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute/Florida Cancer Specialists, Leesburg, Florida.

Introduction: CheckMate 153 (NCT02066636) is a phase 3B/4 study assessing nivolumab in previously treated patients with advanced NSCLC. Eligibility criteria allowed enrollment of patients with poor prognostic features of advanced age or diminished Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS), which are typically underrepresented in or excluded from randomized controlled trials.

Methods: Patients with stage IIIB or IV NSCLC and an ECOG PS of 0 to 2 with disease progression after at least one systemic therapy received nivolumab (3 mg/kg every 2 weeks) until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or consent withdrawal. The primary end point was the incidence of grade 3 to 5 select treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs).

Results: Among 1426 treated patients, 556 (39%) were aged 70 years or older and 128 (9%) had an ECOG PS of 2. The median treatment duration was 3.2 months. Across subgroups and the overall population, the incidences of select grade 3 to 5 TRAEs (6%-9%) and grade 3 or 4 TRAEs (12%-14%) were similar. One grade 5 TRAE was documented. The median overall survival time was comparable in the overall population (9.1 months) and patients aged 70 years or older (10.3 months) but shorter in patients with an ECOG PS of 2 (4.0 months). Patient-reported outcomes generally improved.

Conclusions: Data from this large predominantly community-based study, which included patients aged 70 years or older and with an ECOG PS of 2, are consistent with registrational studies. As expected, the median overall survival for patients with an ECOG PS of 2 was lower than for the overall population but comparable with historical data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.05.010DOI Listing
September 2019

Pertuzumab plus trastuzumab for HER2-amplified metastatic colorectal cancer (MyPathway): an updated report from a multicentre, open-label, phase 2a, multiple basket study.

Lancet Oncol 2019 04 8;20(4):518-530. Epub 2019 Mar 8.

Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville, TN, USA; Tennessee Oncology, PLLC, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Therapies targeting HER2 have improved clinical outcomes in HER2-positive breast and gastric cancers, and are emerging as potential treatments for HER2-positive metastatic colorectal cancer. MyPathway evaluates the activity of targeted therapies in non-indicated tumour types with potentially predictive molecular alterations. We aimed to assess the activity of pertuzumab and trastuzumab in patients with HER2-amplified metastatic colorectal cancer.

Methods: MyPathway is an ongoing, phase 2a, multiple basket study. Patients in this subset analysis were aged 18 years or older and had treatment-refractory, histologically confirmed HER2-amplified metastatic colorectal cancer with measurable or evaluable disease and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 2 or less, enrolled from 25 hospitals or clinics in 16 states of the USA. Patients received pertuzumab (840 mg loading dose, then 420 mg every 3 weeks, intravenously) and trastuzumab (8 mg/kg loading dose, then 6 mg/kg every 3 weeks, intravenously). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved an objective response based on investigator-reported tumour responses. Analyses were done per protocol. This ongoing trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02091141.

Findings: Between Oct 20, 2014, and June 22, 2017, 57 patients with HER2-amplified metastatic colorectal cancer were enrolled in the MyPathway study and deemed eligible for inclusionin this cohort analysis. Among these 57 evaluable patients, as of Aug 1, 2017, one (2%) patient had a complete response and 17 (30%) had partial responses; thus overall 18 of 57 patients achieved an objective response (32%, 95% CI 20-45). The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were diarrhoea (19 [33%] of 57 patients), fatigue (18 [32%] patients), and nausea (17 [30%] patients). Grade 3-4 treatment-emergent adverse events were recorded in 21 (37%) of 57 patients, most commonly hypokalaemia and abdominal pain (each three [5%] patients). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in ten (18%) patients and two (4%) of these adverse events (ie, chills and infusion-related reaction) were considered treatment related. There were no treatment-related deaths.

Interpretation: Dual HER2-targeted therapy with pertuzumab plus trastuzumab is well tolerated and could represent a therapeutic opportunity for patients with heavily pretreated, HER2-amplified metastatic colorectal cancer.

Funding: F Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30904-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6781620PMC
April 2019

First-Line Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab in Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer (CheckMate 568): Outcomes by Programmed Death Ligand 1 and Tumor Mutational Burden as Biomarkers.

J Clin Oncol 2019 04 20;37(12):992-1000. Epub 2019 Feb 20.

21 Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Purpose: CheckMate 568 is an open-label phase II trial that evaluated the efficacy and safety of nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab as first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We assessed the association of efficacy with programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression and tumor mutational burden (TMB).

Patients And Methods: Two hundred eighty-eight patients with previously untreated, recurrent stage IIIB/IV NSCLC received nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg every 6 weeks. The primary end point was objective response rate (ORR) in patients with 1% or more and less than 1% tumor PD-L1 expression. Efficacy on the basis of TMB (FoundationOne CDx assay) was a secondary end point.

Results: Of treated patients with tumor available for testing, 252 patients (88%) of 288 were evaluable for PD-L1 expression and 98 patients (82%) of 120 for TMB. ORR was 30% overall and 41% and 15% in patients with 1% or greater and less than 1% tumor PD-L1 expression, respectively. ORR increased with higher TMB, plateauing at 10 or more mutations/megabase (mut/Mb). Regardless of PD-L1 expression, ORRs were higher in patients with TMB of 10 or more mut/Mb (n = 48: PD-L1, ≥ 1%, 48%; PD-L1, < 1%, 47%) versus TMB of fewer than 10 mut/Mb (n = 50: PD-L1, ≥ 1%, 18%; PD-L1, < 1%, 5%), and progression-free survival was longer in patients with TMB of 10 or more mut/Mb versus TMB of fewer than 10 mut/Mb (median, 7.1 2.6 months). Grade 3 to 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 29% of patients.

Conclusion: Nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab was effective and tolerable as a first-line treatment of advanced/metastatic NSCLC. TMB of 10 or more mut/Mb was associated with improved response and prolonged progression-free survival in both tumor PD-L1 expression 1% or greater and less than 1% subgroups and was thus identified as a potentially relevant cutoff in the assessment of TMB as a biomarker for first-line nivolumab plus ipilimumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.18.01042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6494267PMC
April 2019

Third-Line Nivolumab Monotherapy in Recurrent SCLC: CheckMate 032.

J Thorac Oncol 2019 02 10;14(2):237-244. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Florida.

Introduction: For patients with recurrent SCLC, topotecan remains the only approved second-line treatment, and the outcomes are poor. CheckMate 032 is a phase 1/2, multicenter, open-label study of nivolumab or nivolumab plus ipilimumab in SCLC or other advanced/metastatic solid tumors previously treated with one or more platinum-based chemotherapies. We report results of third- or later-line nivolumab monotherapy treatment in SCLC.

Methods: In this analysis, patients with limited-stage or extensive-stage SCLC and disease progression after two or more chemotherapy regimens received nivolumab monotherapy, 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks, until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was objective response rate. Secondary end points included duration of response, progression-free survival, overall survival, and safety.

Results: Between December 4, 2013, and November 30, 2016, 109 patients began receiving third- or later-line nivolumab monotherapy. At a median follow-up of 28.3 months (from first dose to database lock), the objective response rate was 11.9% (95% confidence interval: 6.5-19.5) with a median duration of response of 17.9 months (range 3.0-42.1). At 6 months, 17.2% of patients were progression-free. The 12-month and 18-month overall survival rates were 28.3% and 20.0%, respectively. Grade 3 to 4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 11.9% of patients. Three patients (2.8%) discontinued because of treatment-related adverse events.

Conclusions: Nivolumab monotherapy provided durable responses and was well tolerated as a third- or later-line treatment for recurrent SCLC. These results suggest that nivolumab monotherapy is an effective third- or later-line treatment for this patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2018.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8050700PMC
February 2019

Differential regulation of PD-L1 expression by immune and tumor cells in NSCLC and the response to treatment with atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1).

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2018 10 8;115(43):E10119-E10126. Epub 2018 Oct 8.

Oncology Biomarker Development, Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA 94080.

Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression on tumor cells (TCs) by immunohistochemistry is rapidly gaining importance as a diagnostic for the selection or stratification of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) most likely to respond to single-agent checkpoint inhibitors. However, at least two distinct patterns of PD-L1 expression have been observed with potential biological and clinical relevance in NSCLC: expression on TC or on tumor-infiltrating immune cells (ICs). We investigated the molecular and cellular characteristics associated with PD-L1 expression in these distinct cell compartments in 4,549 cases of NSCLC. PD-L1 expression on IC was more prevalent and likely reflected IFN-γ-induced adaptive regulation accompanied by increased tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and effector T cells. High PD-L1 expression on TC, however, reflected an epigenetic dysregulation of the PD-L1 gene and was associated with a distinct histology described by poor immune infiltration, sclerotic/desmoplastic stroma, and mesenchymal molecular features. Importantly, durable clinical responses to atezolizumab (anti-PD-L1) were observed in patients with tumors expressing high PD-L1 levels on either TC alone [40% objective response rate (ORR)] or IC alone (22% ORR). Thus, PD-L1 expression on TC or IC can independently attenuate anticancer immunity and emphasizes the functional importance of IC in regulating the antitumor T cell response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1802166115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6205493PMC
October 2018

Overall Survival with Durvalumab after Chemoradiotherapy in Stage III NSCLC.

N Engl J Med 2018 12 25;379(24):2342-2350. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

From the H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa (S.J.A., A.C., J.E.G.), Cancer Specialists of North Florida, Jacksonville (A.V.), Florida Cancer Specialists, Fleming Island (A.V.), and Florida Hospital Cancer Institute, Orlando (T.M.) - all in Florida; Tennessee Oncology, Chattanooga (D.D.), and Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Nashville (D.D., D.R.S.) - both in Tennessee; Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena, Seville (D.V.), and Hospital Universitario 12 de Octubre, CiberOnc, Universidad Complutense and Spanish National Cancer Research Center (L.P.-A.), and Hospital Universitario La Paz (J.C.C.), Madrid - all in Spain; Kanagawa Cancer Center, Yokohama (S.M.), Kansai Medical University Hospital, Hirakata (T.K.), Kurume University Hospital, Kurume (T.T.), and Nippon Medical School Hospital, Tokyo (K.K.) - all in Japan; Westmead Hospital and the University of Sydney, Sydney (R.H.), and Flinders University and Flinders Medical Centre, Adelaide, SA (C.S.K.) - all in Australia; Chungbuk National University Hospital, Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (K.H.L.), Yonsei Cancer Center, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (B.C.C.), and Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Y.-C.K.) - all in South Korea; Vivantes Klinikum Neukoelln, Berlin (M.W.), and the Lung Clinic, Airway Research Center North, German Center for Lung Research, Grosshansdorf (M.R.) - both in Germany; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Liège, Liège (M.B.), and University Hospitals KU Leuven, Leuven (J.V.) - both in Belgium; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Montpellier and Institut du Cancer de Montpellier Val d'Aurelle, Montpellier (X.Q.), Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (D.P.), and Institut de Cancérologie de l'Ouest-site René Gauducheau, Saint Herblain (S.H.) - all in France; National Koranyi Institute of Pulmonology, Budapest, Hungary (G.O.); the University of Manchester and the Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester (C.F.-F.), AstraZeneca, Alderley Park (C.W.), and AstraZeneca, Cambridge (M.T.) - all in the United Kingdom; AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD (G.M., P.A.D.); and Istanbul University-Cerrahpasa, Cerrahpasa School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey (M.Ö.).

Background: An earlier analysis in this phase 3 trial showed that durvalumab significantly prolonged progression-free survival, as compared with placebo, among patients with stage III, unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who did not have disease progression after concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Here we report the results for the second primary end point of overall survival.

Methods: We randomly assigned patients, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive durvalumab intravenously, at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight, or matching placebo every 2 weeks for up to 12 months. Randomization occurred 1 to 42 days after the patients had received chemoradiotherapy and was stratified according to age, sex, and smoking history. The primary end points were progression-free survival (as assessed by blinded independent central review) and overall survival. Secondary end points included the time to death or distant metastasis, the time to second progression, and safety.

Results: Of the 713 patients who underwent randomization, 709 received the assigned intervention (473 patients received durvalumab and 236 received placebo). As of March 22, 2018, the median follow-up was 25.2 months. The 24-month overall survival rate was 66.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 61.7 to 70.4) in the durvalumab group, as compared with 55.6% (95% CI, 48.9 to 61.8) in the placebo group (two-sided P=0.005). Durvalumab significantly prolonged overall survival, as compared with placebo (stratified hazard ratio for death, 0.68; 99.73% CI, 0.47 to 0.997; P=0.0025). Updated analyses regarding progression-free survival were similar to those previously reported, with a median duration of 17.2 months in the durvalumab group and 5.6 months in the placebo group (stratified hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.63). The median time to death or distant metastasis was 28.3 months in the durvalumab group and 16.2 months in the placebo group (stratified hazard ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.68). A total of 30.5% of the patients in the durvalumab group and 26.1% of those in the placebo group had grade 3 or 4 adverse events of any cause; 15.4% and 9.8% of the patients, respectively, discontinued the trial regimen because of adverse events.

Conclusions: Durvalumab therapy resulted in significantly longer overall survival than placebo. No new safety signals were identified. (Funded by AstraZeneca; PACIFIC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02125461 .).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1809697DOI Listing
December 2018
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