Publications by authors named "David Ouvrard"

5 Publications

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Occurrence data for the two cryptic species of (Hemiptera: Psylloidea).

Biodivers Data J 2021 1;9:e68860. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

ANSES-Laboratoire de la Santé des Végétaux, Montpellier, France ANSES-Laboratoire de la Santé des Végétaux Montpellier France.

Background: is a psyllid that has been known since 1998 as the vector of the bacterium ' Phytoplasma prunorum', responsible for the European stone fruit yellows (ESFY), a disease that affects species of . This disease is one of the major limiting factors for the production of stone fruits, most notably apricot () and Japanese plum (), in all EU stone fruit-growing areas. The psyllid vector is widespread in the Western Palearctic and evidence for the presence of the phytoplasma that it transmits to species of has been found in 15 of the 27 EU countries.Recent studies showed that is actually composed of two cryptic species that can be differentiated by molecular markers. A literature review on the distribution of was published in 2012, but it only provided presence or absence information at the country level and without distinction between the two cryptic species.Since 2012, numerous new records of the vector in several European countries have been published. We ourselves have acquired a large amount of data from sampling in France and other European countries. We have also carried out a thorough systematic literature review to find additional records, including all the original sources mentioning (or its synonyms) since the first description by Scopoli in 1763. Our aim was to create an exhaustive georeferenced occurrence catalogue, in particular in countries that are occasionally mentioned in literature with little detail. Finally, for countries that seem suitable for the proliferation of (USA, Canada, Japan, China etc.), we dug deeper into literature and reliable sources (e.g. published checklists) to better substantiate its current absence from those regions.Information on the distribution ranges of these vector psyllids is of crucial interest in order to best predict the vulnerability of stone fruit producing countries to the ESFY threat in the foreseeable future.

New Information: We give free access to a unique file of 1975 records of all occurrence data in our possession concerning , that we have gathered through more than twenty years of sampling efforts in Europe or through intensive text mining.We have made every effort to retrieve the source information for the records extracted from literature (1201 records). Thus, we always give the title of the original reference, together with the page(s) citing and, if possible, the year of sampling. To make the results of this survey publicly available, we give a URL to access the literature sources. In most cases, this link allows free downloads of a PDF file.We also give access to information extracted from GBIF (162 exploitable data points on 245 occurrences found in the database), which we thoroughly checked and often supplemented to make the information more easily exploitable.We give access to our own unpublished georeferenced and genotyped records from 612 samples taken over the last 20 years in several European countries (Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Spain etc.). These include two countries (Portugal and North Macedonia), for which the presence of had not been reported before. As our specimens have been genotyped (74 sites with species A solely, 202 with species B solely and 310 with species A+B), our new data enable a better overview of the geographical distribution of the two cryptic species at the Palaearctic scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.9.e68860DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8266796PMC
July 2021

Portiera Gets Wild: Genome Instability Provides Insights into the Evolution of Both Whiteflies and Their Endosymbionts.

Genome Biol Evol 2020 11;12(11):2107-2124

Department of Entomology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot, Israel.

Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodidae) are a superfamily of small phloem-feeding insects. They rely on their primary endosymbionts "Candidatus Portiera aleyrodidarum" to produce essential amino acids not present in their diet. Portiera has been codiverging with whiteflies since their origin and therefore reflects its host's evolutionary history. Like in most primary endosymbionts, the genome of Portiera stays stable across the Aleyrodidae superfamily after millions of years of codivergence. However, Portiera of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci has lost the ancestral genome order, reflecting a rare event in the endosymbiont evolution: the appearance of genome instability. To gain a better understanding of Portiera genome evolution, identify the time point in which genome instability appeared and contribute to the reconstruction of whitefly phylogeny, we developed a new phylogenetic framework. It targeted five Portiera genes and determined the presence of the DNA polymerase proofreading subunit (dnaQ) gene, previously associated with genome instability, and two alternative gene rearrangements. Our results indicated that Portiera gene sequences provide a robust tool for studying intergenera phylogenetic relationships in whiteflies. Using these new framework, we found that whitefly species from the Singhiella, Aleurolobus, and Bemisia genera form a monophyletic tribe, the Aleurolobini, and that their Portiera exhibit genome instability. This instability likely arose once in the common ancestor of the Aleurolobini tribe (at least 70 Ma), drawing a link between the appearance of genome instability in Portiera and the switch from multibacteriocyte to a single-bacteriocyte mode of inheritance in this tribe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evaa216DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7821994PMC
November 2020

Seasonal Abundance of Psyllid Species on Carrots and Potato Crops in Spain.

Insects 2019 Sep 6;10(9). Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Instituto de Ciencias Agrarias (ICA, CSIC), Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), C/Serrano 115 Dpdo, 28006 Madrid, Spain.

Psyllids (Hemiptera: Psylloidea) can transmit the phloem restricted bacterium ' Liberibacter solanacearum' (Lso). In Europe, Lso causes severe losses to carrot and represents a threat to the potato industry. A rising concern is Lso transmission from carrot to potato and within potato, and this has driven the need for monitoring populations of psyllid species which could serve as vectors on both crops. This would provide a fundamental understanding of the epidemiology of Lso. Different sampling methods were used to survey populations of psyllid species in commercial carrot and potato fields in central and eastern mainland Spain from 2015 to 2017. Two psyllid species, and were found on carrot and potato crops. In carrot fields the most abundant species was (occurring from crop emergence to harvest); whereas in potato crops the most abundant psyllid species was . Depending on field location, the maximum psyllid populations occurred between June and October. Since was found on both carrot and potato and is the only psyllid species able to feed and reproduce on both these crops in Europe, there is the potential risk of Lso transmission from carrot to potato.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/insects10090287DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6780054PMC
September 2019

PESI - a taxonomic backbone for Europe.

Biodivers Data J 2015 28(3):e5848. Epub 2015 Sep 28.

Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Département Systématique & Evolution, UMR 7205 MNHN-CNRS-UPMC-EPHE, (ISyEB), Paris, France.

Background: Reliable taxonomy underpins communication in all of biology, not least nature conservation and sustainable use of ecosystem resources. The flexibility of taxonomic interpretations, however, presents a serious challenge for end-users of taxonomic concepts. Users need standardised and continuously harmonised taxonomic reference systems, as well as high-quality and complete taxonomic data sets, but these are generally lacking for non-specialists. The solution is in dynamic, expertly curated web-based taxonomic tools. The Pan-European Species-directories Infrastructure (PESI) worked to solve this key issue by providing a taxonomic e-infrastructure for Europe. It strengthened the relevant social (expertise) and information (standards, data and technical) capacities of five major community networks on taxonomic indexing in Europe, which is essential for proper biodiversity assessment and monitoring activities. The key objectives of PESI were: 1) standardisation in taxonomic reference systems, 2) enhancement of the quality and completeness of taxonomic data sets and 3) creation of integrated access to taxonomic information.

New Information: This paper describes the results of PESI and its future prospects, including the involvement in major European biodiversity informatics initiatives and programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.3.e5848DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4609752PMC
October 2015

Comparative morphological assessment of the psyllid pleuron (Insecta, Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha).

J Morphol 2002 Jun;252(3):276-90

Laboratoire d'Entomologie & ESA 8043 du CNRS, Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, F-75005 Paris, France.

A unique set of morphological characters based on the hemipteran (sensu lato) thorax are used to define the pleuron of Psylloidea. New external and internal topographical descriptions of pleurites of all three thoracic segments are provided based on observations of specimens from various genera representing the current taxonomic arrangement of Psylloidea. Variations in propleurite morphology and the anteroventral angle of the episternum among taxa are clarified. The mesothoracic pleural sulcus is found to be a distinct groove formed by the deep fossa of the pleural apophysis and is not a secondary structure, as assigned by previous authors. A newly discovered internal apodeme of the metathoracic trochantin and a serially homologous structure in the mesothorax isolate the trochantinal territory of the second segment. The metathoracic pleural sulcus appears to be pressed against the ventral edge of the metepimeron, as previously described for the mesothorax of certain species of other insects having a strongly developed meron. Use of morphological interpretations and newly discovered apodemes to assess primary homology of structures for phylogenetic and taxonomic studies is discussed. A glossary of standardized morphological terms for thoracic structures of non-heteropteran Hemiptera based on this study and other recent and former dissertations on the insect thorax is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmor.1105DOI Listing
June 2002
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