Publications by authors named "David O"

408 Publications

Brain tissue classification from stereoelectroencephalographic recordings.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 Oct 7;365:109375. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, GIN, 38000 Grenoble, France; Aix Marseille Univ, Inserm, INS, Institut de Neurosciences des Systémes, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Background: Stereoelectroencephalographic (SEEG) recordings can be performed before final resective surgery in some drug-resistant patients with focal epilepsies. For good SEEG signal interpretation, it is important to correctly identify the brain tissue in which each contact is inserted. Tissue classification is usually done with the coregistration of CT scan (with implanted SEEG electrodes) with preoperative MRI.

New Method: Brain tissue classification is done here directly from SEEG signals obtained at rest by a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier using measured SEEG signals. The classification operates on features extracted from Bode plots obtained via non-parametric frequency domain transfer functions of adjacent contacts pairs. Classification results have been compared with classification from T1 MRI following the labelling procedure described in Deman et al. (2018), together with minor corrections by visual inspection by specialists.

Results: With the data processed from 19 epileptic patients representing 1284 contact pairs, an accuracy of 72 ± 3% was obtained for homogeneous tissue separation. To our knowledge only one previous study conducted brain tissue classification using the power spectra of SEEG signals, and the distance between contacts on a shaft. The features proposed in our article performed better with the LDA classifier. However, the Bayesian classifier proposed in Greene et al. (2020) is more robust and could be used in a future study to enhance the classification performance.

Conclusions And Significance: Our findings suggest that careful analysis of the transfer function between adjacent contacts measuring resting activity via frequency domain identification, could allow improved interpretation of SEEG data and or their co-registration with subject's anatomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2021.109375DOI Listing
October 2021

Pre-combustion gas separation by ZIF-8-polybenzimidazole mixed matrix membranes in the form of hollow fibres-long-term experimental study.

R Soc Open Sci 2021 Sep 1;8(9):210660. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Instituto de Nanociencia y Materiales de Aragón (INMA), CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza 50018, Spain.

Polybenzimidazole (PBI) is a promising and suitable membrane polymer for the separation of the H/CO pre-combustion gas mixture due to its high performance in terms of chemical and thermal stability and intrinsic H/CO selectivity. However, there is a lack of long-term separation studies with this polymer, particularly when it is conformed as hollow fibre membrane. This work reports the continuous measurement of the H/CO separation properties of PBI hollow fibres, prepared as mixed matrix membranes with metal-organic framework (MOF) ZIF-8 as filler. To enhance the scope of the experimental approach, ZIF-8 was synthesized from the transformation of ZIF-L upon up-scaling the MOF synthesis into a 1 kg batch. The effects of membrane healing with poly(dimethylsiloxane), to avoid cracks and non-selective gaps, and operation conditions (use of sweep gas or not) were also examined at 200°C during approximately 51 days. In these conditions, for all the membrane samples studied, the H permeance was in the 22-47 GPU range corresponding to 22-32 H/CO selectivity values. Finally, this work continues our previous report on this type of application (Etxeberria-Benavides . 2020 , 116347 (doi:10.1016/j.seppur.2019.116347)) with important novelties dealing with the use of ZIF-8 for the mixed matrix membrane coming from a green methodology, the long-term gas separation testing for more than 50 days and the study on the membrane operation under more realistic conditions (e.g. without the use of sweep gas).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.210660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8437021PMC
September 2021

The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with lysosomal storage disorders in Israel.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 09 8;16(1):379. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Metabolic Clinic, Soroka University Medical Center, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) is the causative agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) comprise of 70 inherited inborn errors of metabolism. Affected individuals suffer from multi-systemic involvement with variable severity and rate of disease progression between different diseases. Some of the LSDs have established treatments, whether parenteral or oral therapies. The full impact of the COVID-19 pandemic together with the lockdown on the wellbeing and medical management of patients with rare diseases, such as LSDs, is widely unknown. Herein, we describe the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and its associated mandatory home lockdown on patients with LSDs in Israel.

Results: We present a prospective multi-center questionnaire study including 48 LSD patients from four medical centers in Israel. The study objective was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic restrictions on individuals with LSDs in Israel, as reported by their caregivers. Secondary objectives were to assess the morbidity from SARS CoV-2 in LSD patients and the impact of changes in mood and behavior on compliance to treatment and to assess the relationship between changes in mood to changes in cognition and behavior. Thirty one of 38 patients (82%) who received any kind of regular treatment did not miss treatments. Among patients receiving enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in the in-hospital setting, 5 patients (20%) experienced treatment disruptions. Four patients had tested positive for SARS-Cov-2 virus infection by PCR. Seven out of the 48 patients (14%) described mood changes with cognitive and motor deterioration during the home quarantine.

Conclusions: We observed high rates of treatment adherence and low morbidity through the COVID-19 pandemic in patients with LSDs in Israel. LSDs patients can be a model for patients with complex chronic diseases requiring routine treatments and surveillance during a pandemic or other disruption of daily routine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-02007-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8424165PMC
September 2021

Cortical hemodynamic mechanisms of reversal learning using high-resolution functional near-infrared spectroscopy: A pilot study.

Neurophysiol Clin 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

INSERM U1105, Université de Picardie, GRAMFC, CURS, CHU Sud, rue René Laennec, 80036 Amiens Cedex 1, France; INSERM U1105, EFSN Pédiatrique, CHU Amiens sud, Avenue Laennec, 80054 Amiens cedex.

Objectives: Reversal learning is widely used to analyze cognitive flexibility and characterize behavioral abnormalities associated with impulsivity and disinhibition. Recent studies using fMRI have focused on regions involved in reversal learning with negative and positive reinforcers. Although the frontal cortex has been consistently implicated in reversal learning, few studies have focused on whether reward and punishment may have different effects on lateral frontal structures in these tasks.

Methods: During this pilot study on eight healthy subjects, we used functional near infra-red spectroscopy (fNIRS) to characterize brain activity dynamics and differentiate the involvement of frontal structures in learning driven by reward and punishment.

Results: We observed functional hemispheric asymmetries between punishment and reward processing by fNIRS following reversal of a learned rule. Moreover, the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (l-DLPFC) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) were activated under the reward condition only, whereas the orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) was significantly activated under the punishment condition, with a tendency towards activation for the right cortical hemisphere (r-DLPFC and r-IFG). Our results are compatible with the suggestion that the DLPFC is involved in the detection of contingency change. We propose a new representation for reward and punishment, with left lateralization for the reward process.

Conclusions: The results of this pilot study provide insights into the indirect neural mechanisms of reversal learning and behavioral flexibility and confirm the use of fNIRS imaging in reversal-learning tasks as a translational strategy, particularly in subjects who cannot undergo fMRI recordings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neucli.2021.08.001DOI Listing
September 2021

Effectiveness of Outpatient Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Over One Decade.

Am J Psychother 2021 Jul 30:appipsychotherapy20200009. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Babeş-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania (O. A. David, Cîmpean, Costescu, D. David).

Objective: The aim of this article was to explore the effectiveness of rational emotive and cognitive-behavioral therapy (REBT) in a clinical setting.

Methods: This study included 349 patients of the Albert Ellis Institute who sought psychotherapy from 2007 to 2016. Analyses were conducted by using the intent-to-treat principle, and outcomes were measured after three sessions of therapy (to measure early response) and at the end of 20 sessions. Outcome Questionnaire-45 was used to measure patient functioning.

Results: Patients reported significant improvements in their functioning after participating in REBT, with a medium effect size for early response after three sessions of psychotherapy and at the end of the 20 sessions.

Conclusions: The authors' findings documented that REBT can be effectively transported from a research setting to clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.psychotherapy.20200009DOI Listing
July 2021

An unusual presentation of dysarthria in a young patient, a stroke mimic.

Acute Med 2021 ;20(2):140-143

MD (Damascus University), MSc in Clinical Dermatology (King's College London), MRCGP, General Practitioner Cambrian Medical Centre, Oswestry.

Internal carotid artery dissection commonly affects younger patients. We present a case of a previously fit and well 43-year-old gentleman who presented with a sudden onset of slurring of speech, with right-sided tongue deviation and fasciculation on examination. Signs and symptoms began following participation in a home workout class. Magnetic resonance angiography revealed right-sided extracrainal internal carotid artery dissection leading to right-sided unilateral twelfth cranial nerve palsy.
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July 2021

Anatomical dissociation of intracerebral signals for reward and punishment prediction errors in humans.

Nat Commun 2021 06 7;12(1):3344. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inserm, U1216, Grenoble Institut Neurosciences, GIN, Grenoble, France.

Whether maximizing rewards and minimizing punishments rely on distinct brain systems remains debated, given inconsistent results coming from human neuroimaging and animal electrophysiology studies. Bridging the gap across techniques, we recorded intracerebral activity from twenty participants while they performed an instrumental learning task. We found that both reward and punishment prediction errors (PE), estimated from computational modeling of choice behavior, correlate positively with broadband gamma activity (BGA) in several brain regions. In all cases, BGA scaled positively with the outcome (reward or punishment versus nothing) and negatively with the expectation (predictability of reward or punishment). However, reward PE were better signaled in some regions (such as the ventromedial prefrontal and lateral orbitofrontal cortex), and punishment PE in other regions (such as the anterior insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). These regions might therefore belong to brain systems that differentially contribute to the repetition of rewarded choices and the avoidance of punished choices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23704-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184756PMC
June 2021

Improving the Life Chances of NICU Graduates.

Authors:
Olds David

Pediatrics 2021 Jul 3;148(1). Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Prevention Research Center for Family and Child Health, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, Colorado

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-049747DOI Listing
July 2021

Effectiveness of the REThink therapeutic online video game in promoting mental health in children and adolescents.

Internet Interv 2021 Sep 20;25:100391. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Babeş-Bolyai University, Romania.

Although evidence-based interventions exist, estimates suggest that about 60% percent of children and adolescents with mental health disorders do not receive the treatment they need. In this context, one expanding strategy for increasing access to mental health care for children and adolescents is the use therapeutic, or serious, games. REThink is one such therapeutic game, developed to offer a CBT-based prevention that was documented in a controlled trial to develop psychological resilience in children and adolescents, aged between 10 and 16, helping them learn healthy strategies for coping with dysfunctional negative emotions such as anxiety, anger and depression. This study aims to test the effectiveness of the REThink therapeutic online video game in promoting emotional health in children and adolescents in a pilot study. Participants ( = 31), aged between 10 and 16 years, were recruited on a volunteer basis from a school. Emotional problems, irrational beliefs, negative automatic thoughts, rational beliefs, and problem solving abilities were assessed pre- and post-using the therapeutic game. We also measured participants' satisfaction with the game. Results obtained show improvements in terms of emotional problems of the youths, their irrational beliefs, negative automatic thoughts and high levels of intervention satisfaction. of this study are in support of the previous findings suggesting that the REThink online game can be a valuable tool for large-scale mental health efforts aimed at the prevention of emotional disorders in children and adolescents, in accordance with evidence-based prevention protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2021.100391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099491PMC
September 2021

Optimization of sampling designs for pedigrees and association studies.

Biometrics 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Université Paris-Saclay, INRAE, CNRS, AgroParisTech, GQE - Le Moulon, 91190, Gif-sur-Yvette, France.

In many studies, related individuals are phenotyped in order to infer how their genotype contributes to their phenotype, through the estimation of parameters such as breeding values or locus effects. When it is not possible to phenotype all the individuals, it is important to properly sample the population to improve the precision of the statistical analysis. This article studies how to optimize such sampling designs for pedigrees and association studies. Two sampling methods are developed, stratified sampling and D optimality. It is found that it is important to take account of mutation when sampling pedigrees with many generations: as the size of mutation effects increases, optimized designs sample more individuals in late generations. Optimized designs for association studies tend to improve the joint estimation of breeding values and locus effects, all the more as sample size is low and the genetic architecture of the trait is simple. When the trait is determined by few loci, they are reminiscent of classical experimental designs for regression models and tend to select homozygous individuals. When the trait is determined by many loci, locus effects may be difficult to estimate, even if an optimized design is used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/biom.13476DOI Listing
April 2021

Studies on the mitochondrial, immunological and inflammatory effects of solvent fractions of Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

Sci Rep 2021 03 25;11(1):6941. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

School of Chemistry and Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa.

The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of malaria is gaining global attention due to their efficacy and cost effectiveness. This study evaluated the bioactivity-guided antiplasmodial efficacy and immunomodulatory effects of solvent fractions of Diospyros mespiliformis in mice infected with a susceptible strain of Plasmodium berghei (NK 65). The crude methanol extract of the stem of D. mespiliformis (DM) was partitioned between n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Male Swiss mice (20 ± 2 g) infected with P. berghei were grouped and treated with vehicle (10 mL/kg, control), Artemether lumefantrine (10 mg/kg), 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of D. mespiliformis for seven days. Blood was obtained for heme and hemozoin contents while serum was obtained for inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulins G and M assessments. Liver mitochondria were isolated for mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT), mitochondrial FF ATPase (mATPase) and lipid peroxidation (mLPO) assays. The GC-MS was used to identify the compounds present in the most potent fraction. The dichloromethane fraction had the highest parasite clearance and improved hematological indices relative to the drug control. The heme values increased, while the hemozoin content significantly (P < 0.05) decreased compared with the drug control. The highest dose of HF and MF opened the mPT pore while the reversal effects of DF on mPT, mATPase and mLPO were dose-dependent. The levels of IgG, IgM and TNFα in the DF group were significantly higher than the drug control, while the IL-1β and IL-6 values did not vary linearly with the dose. Lupeol and Stigmastan-3,5-diene were the most abundant phytochemicals in the DF. The outcome of this study showed that the DF has immunomodulatory effects in infected mice, reduced proliferation of the malaria parasite and thus protect liver cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85790-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994402PMC
March 2021

Determinants of Antimicrobial Use for Covid-19 Related Symptoms among Nigerians.

West Afr J Med 2021 03;38(3):213-221

Clinical Science Department of the Nigerian Institute of Medical Research, Yaba, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Background: Antimicrobial use plays a key role in development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Following the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and the report of the first confirmed case in Nigeria, several states embarked on either a full or partial lockdown as a measure to prevent or curtail the spread of the virus with its attendant challenges. This survey was designed to provide a snapshot of public antimicrobial use and common perception related to antimicrobial use for COVID-19 related symptoms among Nigerian populace.

Methods: We developed and tested a 29-question electronic questionnaire with Google forms asking respondents about their antimicrobial use and perceptions regarding appropriate antimicrobial use for real or perceived symptoms during the outbreak period. Respondents aged 18 years and above were recruited through crowd sourcing and they received the link to the survey tool through emails and social media including WhatsApp, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn, and Instagram. All data analysis was performed using SPSS version 26.0.

Results: A total of 410 responses were received from the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria comprising 200 (48.8%) females and 210 (51.2%) males. Majority (62.9%) of the respondents had taken antimicrobials in the 3 months period preceding the survey, while less than half (46.8%) received prescription for it. Previous intake of antimicrobial for similar illness was a predictor of antimicrobial intake (OR: 0.55, 95%CI: 0.30-1.01). The most consumed antimicrobial was antimalarial drugs, specifically Artemisinin-based combination therapy (43.4%), followed by antibiotics [Ciprofloxacin (20.2%)].

Conclusion: There was high levels of antimicrobial use for COVID-19 related symptoms by the Nigerian public. This is likely to escalate the already high prevalence of antimicrobial use previously reported and may further fuel the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.
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March 2021

Single-pulse electrical stimulation methodology in freely moving rat.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 04 5;353:109092. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Inserm, GIN, Grenoble Institut des Neurosciences, Grenoble, France; Aix Marseille Univ, Inserm, INS, Institut de Neurosciences des Systèmes, Marseille, France.

Background: Cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEP) are becoming popular to infer brain connectivity and cortical excitability in implanted refractory epilepsy patients. Our goal was to transfer this methodology to the freely moving rodent.

New Method: CCEP were recorded on freely moving Sprague-Dawley rats, from cortical and subcortical areas using depth electrodes. Electrical stimulation was applied using 1 ms biphasic current pulse, cathodic first, at a frequency of 0.5 Hz, with intensities ranging from 0.2 to 0.8 mA. Data were then processed in a similar fashion to human clinical studies, which included epoch selection, artefact correction and smart averaging.

Results: For a large range of tested intensities, we recorded CCEPs with very good signal to noise ratio and reproducibility between animals, without any behavioral modification. The CCEP were composed of different components according to recorded and stimulated sites, similarly to human recordings.

Comparison With Existing Methods: We minimally adapted a clinically-motivated methodology to a freely moving rodent model to achieve high translational relevance of future preclinical studies.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that the CCEP methodology can be applied to freely moving rodents and transferred to preclinical research. This will be of interest to address various neuroscientific questions, in physiological and pathological conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2021.109092DOI Listing
April 2021

Focal polymicrogyria in children: Contribution of invasive explorations and epileptogenicity mapping in the surgical decision.

Seizure 2021 Mar 27;86:19-28. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Hôpital Fondation Rothschild, Neurochirurgie pédiatrique, Paris, France.

Objective: Report of the contribution of invasive EEG (iEEG) and epileptogenicity mappings (EM) in a pediatric cohort of patients with epilepsy associated with focal polymicrogyria (PMG) and candidates for resective surgery.

Method: Retrospective pediatric case series of patients presenting focal PMG-related refractory epilepsy undergoing an invasive exploration (iEEG) at Fondation Rothschild Hospital. We reviewed clinical data, structural MRI, and visual analysis of iEEG recordings. Moreover, time-frequency analysis of SEEG signals with a neuroimaging approach (epileptogenicity maps) was used to support visual analysis.

Results: Between 2012 and 2019, eight patients were selected. Five patients were explored with stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) only, one patient with subdural exploration (SDE) only and two patients first underwent SEEG and then SDE. The mean age at seizure onset was 40.3 months (range 3-120), and the mean age for the iEEG 10.8 years (range 7-15). The epileptogenic zone (EZ) appeared concordant to the PMG lesion in only one case, was larger in three cases, smaller in two cases and different in one case. Four cases were selected for tailored resective surgery and one for total callosotomy. Two patients remained seizure-free at their last follow-up (mean 32.6 months, range 7-98). Epileptogenicity mapping (EM) refined the qualitative analysis, showing in four patients an EZ larger than visually defined.

Conclusion: This study is the first pediatric study to analyze the value of iEEG and EM as well as operability in focal PMG-related refractory epilepsy. The results illustrate the complexity of this pathology with variable concordance between the EZ and the lesion and mixed response to surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seizure.2021.01.010DOI Listing
March 2021

The impact of tantalite mining on the flora diversity in Nasarawa state, Nigeria.

Environ Monit Assess 2021 Jan 7;193(1):46. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Pharmacognosy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

The activities of the artisanals and small-scale miners in Nasarawa state, Nigeria, are increasing daily without considering the loss of biodiversity, which has continuously disrupted ecological functions and environmental balance. The study aimed at investigating the effect of tantalite mining activities on flora diversity. Three study sites were selected for floristic data collection, comprising tantalite mining site A situated in Azara, Awe LGA; tantalite mining site B situated in Tunga, Awe LGA; and referred site C situated along the Makurdi-Obi Road, Lafia LGA. Eight plots of 20 × 20 m were systematically placed along two transect lines of 1000 m with 500 m distance apart. The total numbers of 32 plant species, at the ratio of 11:20:21 individual species, were found in sites A, B, and referred site C, respectively. Tantalite mining site A showed 46% rare herbs dominating the site, with an introduction of new non-native species of Jateorhiza spp. and Hyptis suaveolens, presenting a significantly high number of individuals (p ˂ 0.0069). Tantalite site B, Tunga, had 50% reductions of several indigenous tree species such as Daniellia oliveri and Vitex doniana, while site A had 75% reduction of tree species. Therefore, the floristic diversity in site A endured a higher degradation than in site B. The indigenous species in site A were almost completely replaced with problematic weeds, invasive weed species, and non-native plant species. The tree diversities in sites A and B were seriously threatened, and H. suaveolens has been regarded as a potentially invasive plant species in Nasarawa state, Nigeria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08827-9DOI Listing
January 2021

Glomerular involvement in children with H syndrome.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 03 2;36(3):721-724. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Background: H syndrome is a multisystem inflammatory disease caused by mutations in the SLC29A3 gene (OMIM #602782). The protein product, hENT3, is a nucleoside transporter essential for DNA salvage synthesis. Clinical manifestations are hyperpigmentation, hypertrichosis, hepatosplenomegaly, hearing loss, heart anomalies, hypogonadism, short stature, skeletal deformities, and diabetes mellitus. Laboratory findings are consistent with inflammatory processes. Structural kidney anomalies have been described in 6% of patients.

Case Reports: Three family members with genetically diagnosed H syndrome (c.1279G>A, p.Gly427Ser). Two of them presented with hypoalbuminemia and nephrotic range proteinuria. Kidney ultrasound was normal. Kidney biopsy performed in one patient presenting with generalized peripheral pitting edema revealed membranous nephropathy. Different treatments including ACE inhibitors, corticosteroids, and immunomodulatory agents failed to improve the clinical outcome.

Conclusions: Generalized peripheral pitting edema and glomerulopathy broaden the clinical spectrum of H syndrome. Periodic bloodwork and urinalysis are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-020-04860-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Emotion regulation abilities as a predictor of anxiety, positive emotions, heart rate, and alpha asymmetry during an impromptu speech task.

Anxiety Stress Coping 2021 Nov 31;34(6):719-733. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy.

Background And Objectives: Recent approaches suggest that emotion regulation (ER) abilities represent potential predictors of emotional response among youths navigating stressful situations. To test this, we investigated whether ER abilities predicted the subjective and physiological emotional response experienced by youths during a stressful situation.

Design: A cross-sectional design was employed.

Method: One hundred and thirty-four youths completed measures of ER abilities (emotional awareness, anxiety sensitivity, emotional control) and were asked to deliver a speech while their anxiety, positive emotions, heart rate, and alpha asymmetry were collected at four time points: baseline, anticipation, speech, and post-recovery.

Results: Pearson correlations showed that poor emotional control and awareness, as well as high anxiety sensitivity were related to greater anxiety and lower positive emotions experienced during the speech. Hierarchical multiple regressions also revealed that emotional control and emotional awareness predicted greater speech anxiety and lower positive emotions. Moreover, anxiety sensitivity was related to and predicted an increased heart rate experienced during speech.

Conclusions: Findings suggest that difficulties in emotional awareness, anxiety sensitivity, and emotional control predict the emotional response experienced by youths during a stressful situation. Interventions delivered by clinicians/teachers that target ER difficulties may be effective in improving emotional functioning when navigating stressful situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10615806.2020.1867717DOI Listing
November 2021

Green Preparation of Thin Films of Polybenzimidazole on Flat and Hollow Fiber Supports: Application to Hydrogen Separation.

ChemSusChem 2021 Feb 16;14(3):952-960. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Instituto de Nanociencia y Materiales de Aragón (INMA), Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, 50009, Zaragoza, Spain.

This work shows the preparation of thin films, with thickness from 70 nm to 1 μm, of meta-polybenzimidazole (m-PBI) on polyimide P84 supports. Ethanolic solutions of m-PBI were used to coat flat and hollow fiber supports of asymmetric P84 with m-PBI in a process where the coating and drying was performed at room temperature. A solution of NaOH in EtOH allowed the dissolution of the m-PBI powder, providing the perfect coating solution to build thin films of m-PBI without damaging the polymeric support. It also meant a green alternative, avoiding the use of toxic solvents, such as dimethylacetamide. The resulting membranes have been tested for the separation of H mixtures at high temperature at different setups to allow checking their reproducibility. With 100 nm thickness the membranes showed their best gas separation performance. For flat membranes at 180 °C and 3 bar feed pressure a H permeance of 48.5 GPU was obtained, with respective H /CO and H /N selectivities of 33.3 and 55.8. Besides, the hollow fibers under a feed pressure of 6 bar and tested at the same temperature showed near 90 GPU of H with a H /CO selectivity of 13.5 in the one-fiber module and over 39 GPU of H with a H /CO selectivity of 20.2 in the five-fiber module. Finally, the stability of the membranes was proved for 22 days at 180 °C.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202002700DOI Listing
February 2021

What Emotion Facial Expressions Tell Us About the Health of Others.

Front Psychol 2020 13;11:585242. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

Department of Psychology, Humboldt University of Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

To avoid contagion, we need information about the health status of those whom we engage with. This is especially important when we have cause for concern that the other is indeed sick, such as is the case during the world-wide outbreak of the coronavirus in 2020. In three studies, one conducted several years before the pandemic, and two during the pandemic, we showed that facial expressions of emotions are used as signals of health status. Specifically, happy expressers are perceived as healthier than expressers showing negative emotions or neutrality (Studies 1-3), whereas anger was interpreted as a signal of ill health (Study 3). Importantly, however, facial expressions affected health perception only when there was a prior reason to suspect ill health. This was the case for older expressers before and after the pandemic for whom age-related stereotypes set expectations of ill health and for all ages during a wide-spread pandemic, which extends this suspicion to everyone. In Study 3, we showed that the effect of emotion expressions was also generalized to the physical distance that the observer wishes to keep from the expresser. Overall, this research is the first to show a role of emotion expressions in informing health perception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.585242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7691273PMC
November 2020

Large-scale study validates that regional fungicide applications are major determinants of resistance evolution in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici in France.

New Phytol 2021 03 2;229(6):3508-3521. Epub 2021 Jan 2.

AgroParisTech, UMR BIOGER, INRAE, Université Paris-Saclay, Thiverval-Grignon, 78850, France.

In modern cropping systems, the near-universal use of plant protection products selects for resistance in pest populations. The emergence and evolution of this adaptive trait threaten treatment efficacy. We identified determinants of fungicide resistance evolution and quantified their effects at a large spatiotemporal scale. We focused on Zymoseptoria tritici, which causes leaf blotch in wheat. Phenotypes of qualitative or quantitative resistance to various fungicides were monitored annually, from 2004 to 2017, at about 70 sites throughout 22 regions of France (territorial units of 25 000 km on average). We modelled changes in resistance frequency with regional anti-Septoria fungicide use, yield losses due to the disease and the regional area under organic wheat. The major driver of resistance dynamics was fungicide use at the regional scale. We estimated its effect on the increase in resistance and relative apparent fitness of each resistance phenotype. The predictions of the model replicated the spatiotemporal patterns of resistance observed in field populations (R from 0.56 to 0.82). The evolution of fungicide resistance is mainly determined at the regional scale. This study therefore showed that collective management at the regional scale could effectively complete local actions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.17107DOI Listing
March 2021

Multiple Endocrine Deficiencies are Common in Hypoparathyroidism-Retardation-Dysmorphism Syndrome.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 01;106(2):e907-e916

Pediatric Endocrinology Unit, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel.

Context: The rare hypoparathyroidism-retardation-dysmorphism (HRD) syndrome (OMIM #241410) is caused by the mutated tubulin chaperone E (TBCE) gene. This gene encodes a critical protein in the microtubule assembly pathway.

Objective: To evaluate the endocrine profile of patients with HRD.

Methods: The study used a retrospective analysis of a large cohort of patients in a single university medical center. Sixty-three patients were diagnosed with HRD during 1990 to 2019; 58 of them had an endocrine evaluation.

Main Outcome Measures: We investigated somatic growth parameters, the prevalence of hypoglycemia, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism, hypogonadism, and cortisol deficiency.

Results: All patients were born small for gestational age, and severe growth retardation was found in all patients with mean height standard deviation score (SDS) of -8.8 (range: -5.1 to -15.1) and weight SDS -18 (range: -5.1 to -61.2). Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations were very low among the 21 studied patients: -2.32 SDS (range: -0.6 to -2.7). Four out of 14 (28%) investigated patients had growth hormone deficiency, and 55% of patients were hospitalized due to symptomatic hypoglycemia. Adrenal glucocorticoid insufficiency was diagnosed in 22% of those tested. Hypothyroidism was found in 36% of patients. Both hypogonadotrophic and hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism were observed. The main magnetic resonance imaging findings were small anterior pituitary gland, small hippocampus, brain atrophy, thin corpus callosum, Chiari type I malformation, and septo-optic dysplasia.

Conclusion: Multiple endocrine abnormalities are common in patients with HRD syndrome. Periodic screening of thyroid and adrenal functions is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa807DOI Listing
January 2021

Dopamine-Dependent QR2 Pathway Activation in CA1 Interneurons Enhances Novel Memory Formation.

J Neurosci 2020 11 12;40(45):8698-8714. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Sagol Department of Neuroscience, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa, 3498838, Israel

The formation of memory for a novel experience is a critical cognitive capacity. The ability to form novel memories is sensitive to age-related pathologies and disease, to which prolonged metabolic stress is a major contributing factor. Presently, we describe a dopamine-dependent redox modulation pathway within the hippocampus of male mice that promotes memory consolidation. Namely, following novel information acquisition, quinone reductase 2 (QR2) is suppressed by miRNA-182 (miR-182) in the CA1 region of the hippocampus via dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) activation, a process largely facilitated by locus coeruleus activity. This pathway activation reduces ROS generated by QR2 enzymatic activity, a process that alters the intrinsic properties of CA1 interneurons 3 h following learning, in a form of oxidative eustress. Interestingly, novel experience decreases QR2 expression predominately in inhibitory interneurons. Additionally, we find that in aged animals this newly described QR2 pathway is chronically under activated, resulting in miR-182 underexpression and QR2 overexpression. This leads to accumulative oxidative stress, which can be seen in CA1 via increased levels of oxidized, inactivated potassium channel Kv2.1, which undergoes disulfide bridge oligomerization. This newly described interneuron-specific molecular pathway lies alongside the known mRNA translation-dependent processes necessary for long-term memory formation, entrained by dopamine in CA1. It is a process crucial for the distinguishing features of novel memory, and points to a promising new target for memory enhancement in aging and age-dependent diseases. One way in which evolution dictates which sensory information will stabilize as an internal representation, relies on information novelty. Dopamine is a central neuromodulator involved in this process in the mammalian hippocampus. Here, we describe for the first time a dopamine D1 receptor-dependent quinone reductase 2 pathway in interneurons. This is a targeted redox event necessary to delineate a novel experience to a robust long-term internal representation. Activation of this pathway alone can explain the effect novelty has on "flashbulb" memories, and it can become dysfunctional with age and diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1243-20.2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7643296PMC
November 2020

Molecular Insights into Bacteriophage Evolution toward Its Host.

Viruses 2020 10 6;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Avram and Stella Goldstein-Goren Department of Biotechnology Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O. Box 653, Be'er Sheva 8410501, Israel.

Bacteriophages (phages), viruses that infect bacteria, are considered to be highly host-specific. To add to the knowledge about the evolution and development of bacteriophage speciation toward its host, we conducted a 21-day experiment with the broad host-range bacteriophage phage P14. We incubated the phage, which was previously isolated and enriched with the Alphaproteobacteria H14, with the Betaproteobacteria H5. During the experiment, we observed an increase in the phage's predation efficacy towards H5. Furthermore, genome analysis and the comparison of the bacteriophage's whole genome indicated that rather than being scattered evenly along the genome, mutations occur in specific regions. In total, 67% of the mutations with a frequency higher than 30% were located in genes that encode tail proteins, which are essential for host recognition and attachment. As control, we incubated the phage with the Alphaproteobacteria H8. In both experiments, most of the mutations appeared in the gene encoding the tail fiber protein. However, mutations in the gene encoding the tail tubular protein B were only observed when the phage was incubated with H5. This highlights the phage's tail as a key player in its adaptation to different hosts. We conclude that mutations in the phage's genome were mainly located in tail-related regions. Further investigation is needed to fully characterize the adaptation mechanisms of the phage P14.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12101132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599783PMC
October 2020

Coherence between the hippocampus and anterior thalamic nucleus as a tool to improve the effect of neurostimulation in temporal lobe epilepsy: An experimental study.

Brain Stimul 2020 Nov - Dec;13(6):1678-1686. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Inserm, U1216, Grenoble, F-38000, France; Univ Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble, F-38000, France. Electronic address:

Background: Although the mechanisms by which deep brain stimulation (DBS) modifies the activity of the ictal network are mostly undefined, recent studies have suggested that DBS of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) can be an effective treatment for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) when resective surgery cannot be performed. In a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of MTL seizures, we showed that the ANT was actively involved during interictal and ictal periods through different patterns and that the hippocampus (HPC) and ANT synchronously oscillate in the high beta-band during seizures.

Objective: Based on those findings, we evaluated whether the frequency of stimulation is an important parameter that interferes with seizures and how to adapt stimulation protocols to it.

Methods: We investigated the effects of low-frequency (40 Hz - determined as the ictal frequency of correlation between structures) and high-frequency (130 Hz - as commonly used in clinic) ANT stimulation in three monkeys in which MTLE seizures were initiated.

Results: Low-frequency stimulation had a strong effect on the number of seizures and the total time spent in seizure, whereas high-frequency stimulation had no effect. The coherence of oscillations between the HPC and the ANT was significantly correlated with the success of low-frequency stimulation: the greater the coherence was, the greater the antiepileptic effect of ANT-DBS.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that low-frequency stimulation is efficient in treating seizures in a nonhuman primate model. More importantly, the study of the coherence between the ANT and HPC during seizures can help to predict the anti-epileptic effects of ANT stimulation. Furthermore, the DBS paradigm could be customized in frequency for each patient on the basis of the coherence spectral pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brs.2020.09.026DOI Listing
April 2021

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus in obsessive-compulsives disorders: long-term follow-up of an open, prospective, observational cohort.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2020 12 8;91(12):1349-1356. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Grenoble Institut neurosciences, University Grenoble Alpes-INSERM U1216, 38000 Grenoble, France.

Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a major cause of disability in western country and responsible for severe impairment of quality of life. About 10% of patients present with severe OCD symptoms and require innovative treatment such as deep brain stimulation (DBS). Among possible targets, the non-motor subthalamic nucleus (STN) is a key node of the basal ganglia circuitry, strongly connected to limbic cortical areas known to be involved in OCD.

Method: We analysed, in a prospective, observational, monocentric, open label cohort, the effect of chronic non-motor STN-DBS in 19 patients with treatment-resistant OCD consecutively operated in a single centre. Severity of OCD was evaluated using the Yale and Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YBOCS). YBOCS scores at 6, 12 and 24 months postoperatively were compared with baseline. Responders were defined by >35% improvement of YBOCS scores. Global Assessment Functioning (GAF) scale was used to evaluate the impact of improvement.

Results: At a 24-month follow-up, the mean YBOCS score improved by 53.4% from 33.3±3.5 to 15.8±9.1 (95% CI 11.2-20.4; p<0.0001). Fourteen out of 19 patients were considered as responders, 5 out of 19 being improved over 75% and 10 out of 19 over 50%. GAF scale improved by 92% from 34.1±3.9 to 66.4±18.8 (95% CI 56.7-76.1; p=0.0003). The most frequent adverse events consisted of transient DBS-induced hypomania and anxiety.

Conclusion: Chronic DBS of the non-motor STN is an effective and relatively safe procedure to treat severe OCD resistant to conventional management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp-2020-323421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7677463PMC
December 2020

EGFR/c-Met and mTOR signaling are predictors of survival in non-small cell lung cancer.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2020 14;12:1758835920953731. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Rockford, 1601 Parkview Avenue, Room Number E-632, Rockford, IL 61107, USA.

Background: EGFR/c-Met activation/amplification and co-expression, mTOR upregulation/activation, and Akt/Wnt signaling upregulation have been individually associated with more aggressive disease and characterized as potential prognostic markers for lung cancer patients.

Methods: Tumors obtained from 109 participants with stage I-IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were studied for EGFR/c-Met co-localization as well as for total and active forms of EGFR, c-Met, mTOR, S6K, beta-catenin, and Axin2. Slides were graded by two independent blinded pathologists using a validated scoring system. Protein expression profile correlations were assessed using Pearson correlation and Spearman's rho. Prognosis was assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Results: Protein expression profile analysis revealed significant correlations between EGFR/p-EGFR ( = 0.0412) and p-mTOR/S6K ( = 0.0044). Co-localization of p-EGFR/p-c-Met was associated with increased p-mTOR ( = 0.0006), S6K ( = 0.0018), and p-S6K ( < 0.0001) expression. In contrast, active beta-catenin was not positively correlated with EGFR/c-Met nor any activated proteins. Axin2, a negative regulator of the Wnt pathway, was correlated with EGFR, p-EGFR, p-mTOR, p-S6K, EGFR/c-Met co-localization, and p-EGFR/p-c-Met co-localization (all -values <0.03). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed shorter median survival in participants with high expression of Axin2, total beta-catenin, total/p-S6K, total/p-mTOR, EGFR, and EGFR/c-Met co-localization compared with low expression. After controlling for stage of disease at diagnosis, subjects with late-stage disease demonstrated shorter median survival when exhibiting high co-expression of EGFR/c-Met (8.1 month 22.3 month,  = 0.050), mTOR (6.7 month 22.3 month,  = 0.002), and p-mTOR (8.1 month 25.4 month,  = 0.004) compared with low levels.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that increased EGFR/c-Met signaling is correlated with upregulated mTOR/S6K signaling, which may in turn be associated with shorter median survival in late-stage NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758835920953731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493230PMC
September 2020

The etiologic, microbiologic, clinical and outcome characteristics of immunocompetent young children <2 years of age hospitalized with acute neutropenia.

Pediatr Neonatol 2021 01 12;62(1):26-35. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Division of Pediatrics, Ben-Gurion University, Israel; Soroka University Medical Center, Ben-Gurion University, Israel; Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, Israel. Electronic address:

Background: To describe the etiologic, microbiologic, clinical and outcome characteristics of acute neutropenia (absolute neutrophil count, ANC, <1.5 × 10/L) in hospitalized immunocompetent children.

Methods: Serious bacterial infections (SBI) were defined as culture-positive blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, articular fluid or stool infections, alveolar pneumonia, Brucellosis and Rickettsiosis.

Results: 431/671 (64.2%) healthy infants and children hospitalized with acute neutropenia were <2 years of age; 176 (40.8%), 167 (38.8%) and 88 (20.4%) patients were aged 0-3, 4-12 and 13-24 months, respectively. There were 19 (4.4%), 53 (12.3%), 140 (32.5%) and 209 (50.8%) patients with ANC count <200, 200-500, 501-1000 and 1001-1500 × 10 cells/L, respectively. Severe neutropenia (<500 × 10/L) was recorded in 72 (16.7%) patients. Fever >38 °C was present in 208/431 (48.3%) patients. Blood cultures were positive in 10 (2.3%), with Brucella melitensis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter spp. identified in 4, 3 and 2 patients, respectively; 5/10 patients with positive blood cultures were <3 months of age. Overall, 55/431 (12.7%) and 65/431 (15.1%) patients were diagnosed with SBIs and bacterial infections, respectively. Nasal washings-PCR for respiratory viruses was positive in 139/293 (47.4%) patients tested. An infectious etiology (bacterial and/or viral) was diagnosed in 190/431 (44.1%) patients. Three patients were diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Resolution of neutropenia was achieved in 111/208 (53.4%) evaluable patients (63%, 50.6% and 48% of patients aged 0-3, 4-12 and >12 months, respectively and 56.8%, 53.5% and 52% of patients with severe, moderate and mild neutropenia, respectively).

Conclusion: Acute neutropenia is common in immunocompetent children <2 years of age and is frequently associated with viral infections. We showed a substantial involvement of bacterial infections and particularly SBIs in the etiology of acute neutropenia. After a 1-month follow-up, resolution of neutropenia occurred in half of the patients, without association with age subgroups and with neutropenia severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pedneo.2020.08.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7419265PMC
January 2021

Hollow Fiber Membranes of PCL and PCL/Graphene as Scaffolds with Potential to Develop In Vitro Blood-Brain Barrier Models.

Membranes (Basel) 2020 Jul 22;10(8). Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, ETSIIyT, University of Cantabria, Avda. Los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander, Spain.

There is a huge interest in developing novel hollow fiber (HF) membranes able to modulate neural differentiation to produce in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models for biomedical and pharmaceutical research, due to the low cell-inductive properties of the polymer HFs used in current BBB models. In this work, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and composite PCL/graphene (PCL/G) HF membranes were prepared by phase inversion and were characterized in terms of mechanical, electrical, morphological, chemical, and mass transport properties. The presence of graphene in PCL/G membranes enlarged the pore size and the water flux and presented significantly higher electrical conductivity than PCL HFs. A biocompatibility assay showed that PCL/G HFs significantly increased C6 cells adhesion and differentiation towards astrocytes, which may be attributed to their higher electrical conductivity in comparison to PCL HFs. On the other hand, PCL/G membranes produced a cytotoxic effect on the endothelial cell line HUVEC presumably related with a higher production of intracellular reactive oxygen species induced by the nanomaterial in this particular cell line. These results prove the potential of PCL HF membranes to grow endothelial cells and PCL/G HF membranes to differentiate astrocytes, the two characteristic cell types that could develop in vitro BBB models in future 3D co-culture systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/membranes10080161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464335PMC
July 2020

Probabilistic mapping of language networks from high frequency activity induced by direct electrical stimulation.

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 10 22;41(14):4113-4126. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

University of Grenoble Alpes, Grenoble Institut Neurosciences, GIN, Grenoble, France.

Direct electrical stimulation (DES) at 50 Hz is used as a gold standard to map cognitive functions but little is known about its ability to map large-scale networks and specific subnetwork. In the present study, we aim to propose a new methodological approach to evaluate the specific hypothesis suggesting that language errors/dysfunction induced by DES are the result of large-scale network modification rather than of a single cortical region, which explains that similar language symptoms may be observed after stimulation of different cortical regions belonging to this network. We retrospectively examined 29 patients suffering from focal drug-resistant epilepsy who benefitted from stereo-electroencephalographic (SEEG) exploration and exhibited language symptoms during a naming task following 50 Hz DES. We assessed the large-scale language network correlated with behavioral DES-induced responses (naming errors) by quantifying DES-induced changes in high frequency activity (HFA, 70-150 Hz) outside the stimulated cortical region. We developed a probabilistic approach to report the spatial pattern of HFA modulations during DES-induced language errors. Similarly, we mapped the pattern of after-discharges (3-35 Hz) occurring after DES. HFA modulations concurrent to language symptoms revealed a brain network similar to our current knowledge of language gathered from standard brain mapping. In addition, specific subnetworks could be identified within the global language network, related to different language processes, generally described in relation to the classical language regions. Spatial patterns of after-discharges were similar to HFA induced during DES. Our results suggest that this new methodological DES-HFA mapping is a relevant approach to map functional networks during SEEG explorations, which would allow to shift from "local" to "network" perspectives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7469846PMC
October 2020

Outcomes and mechanisms of change in cognitive-behavioral interventions for weight loss: A meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.

Behav Res Ther 2020 Jun 2;132:103654. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

International Institute for the Advanced Studies of Psychotherapy and Applied Mental Health, Babeș-Bolyai University, Republicii Street 37, 400015, Cluj-Napoca, Romania; Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj- Napoca, Romania; Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, USA.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of CBT in relation to weight loss and related psychological components and to analyze the relationship between alleged cognitive mechanisms of change and weight loss.

Methods: The studies we considered eligible were the randomized clinical trials which included and reported a quantitative assessment of change in weight and of potential cognitive mechanisms of successful change in weight and comparing at least one active CBT intervention with a control for adults.

Results: We included 16 studies (18 contrasts) with a total of 1.663 participants. The pooled ESs in which a CBT-intervention was compared to a control condition for weight loss, was Hedges' g= 0.31 (95% CI 0.04 to 0.58) favoring CBT and for cognitive factors was g = 0.37 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.45). Results indicated a significant association between motivation outcomes ESs (slope= 0.992, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.85, p =0.02) and selfefficacy ESs (slope= 1.59, 95% CI 0.24 to 2.94, p =0.02) and weight outcomes.

Discussion: Current evidence suggests that CBT is effective in weight loss. Clinicians will be more effective if they add to their weight loss interventions components for increasing the motivation and self-efficacy of their patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2020.103654DOI Listing
June 2020
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