Publications by authors named "David N Baldwin"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reproducibility of multiple breath washout indices in the unsedated preterm neonate.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2010 Jan;45(1):62-70

Neonatal Services, The Royal Women's Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Multiple breath inert gas washout (MBW) is gaining popularity for measurements of resting lung volume and ventilation inhomogeneity. Test reproducibility is an important determinant of the clinical applicability of diagnostic tests. The between-test reproducibility of variables derived from MBW tests in newborn infants is unknown. We aimed to determine the within-test repeatability and short-term between-test reproducibility of MBW variables in unsedated preterm infants. We hypothesized that measurements obtained within a 3-day interval in clinically stable preterm infants would be reproducible and suitable for use as an objective clinical outcome measurement. In this cross-sectional observational study, clinically stable hospitalized preterm infants whose parents had given informed consent for MBW studies were tested twice within 72 hr during quiet, unsedated sleep. Functional residual capacity (FRC), lung clearance index (LCI), and the first and second to zeroeth moment ratios (M(1):M(0); M(2):M(0)) were computed from MBW traces obtained using a mainstream ultrasonic flowmeter and 4% sulphur hexafluoride (MBW(SF6)). Within-test repeatability and between-test reproducibility were determined. Within-test repeatability (expressed as a coefficient of variability (C(v))) for differences between two and four replicate measurements on the same test occasion, were 9.3% (FRC), 9.0% (LCI), 7.6% (M(1):M(0)), and 15.6% (M(2):M(0)), respectively. The within-test C(v)'s were not statistically different to the between-tests C(v)'s, which were 7.7% (FRC), 10.3% (LCI), 6.1% (M(1):M(0)), and 13.0% (M(2):M(0)), respectively. Among unsedated preterm infants, between-test reproducibility over a 3-day interval was similar to within-test repeatability. The wide limits of agreement may limit the application of these measures to detect a clinically significant change in condition in small preterm infants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.21113DOI Listing
January 2010

Using genomic microarrays to study insertional/transposon mutant libraries.

Methods Enzymol 2007 ;421:90-110

Human Biology Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

The rapid expanse of microbial genome databases provides incentive and opportunity to study organismal behavior at the whole-genome level. While many newly sequenced genes are assigned names based on homology to previously characterized genes, many putative open reading frames remain to be annotated. The use of microarrays enables functional characterization of the entire genome with respect to genes important for different growth conditions including nutrient deprivation, stress responses, and virulence. The methods described here combine advancements in the identification of genomic sequences flanking insertional mutants with microarray methodology. The combination of these methods facilitates tracking large numbers of mutants for phenotypic studies. This improves both the efficiency of genome-saturating library screens and contributes to the functional annotation of unknown genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(06)21010-3DOI Listing
April 2007

Progression of pulmonary hyperinflation and trapped gas associated with genetic and environmental factors in children with cystic fibrosis.

Respir Res 2006 Nov 30;7:138. Epub 2006 Nov 30.

Department of Paediatrics, University of Berne, Inselspital CH-3010 Berne, Switzerland.

Background: Functional deterioration in cystic fibrosis (CF) may be reflected by increasing bronchial obstruction and, as recently shown, by ventilation inhomogeneities. This study investigated which physiological factors (airway obstruction, ventilation inhomogeneities, pulmonary hyperinflation, development of trapped gas) best express the decline in lung function, and what role specific CFTR genotypes and different types of bronchial infection may have upon this process.

Methods: Serial annual lung function tests, performed in 152 children (77 males; 75 females) with CF (age range: 6-18 y) provided data pertaining to functional residual capacity (FRCpleth, FRCMBNW), volume of trapped gas (VTG), effective specific airway resistance (sReff), lung clearance index (LCI), and forced expiratory indices (FVC, FEV1, FEF50).

Results: All lung function parameters showed progression with age. Pulmonary hyperinflation (FRCpleth > 2SDS) was already present in 39% of patients at age 6-8 yrs, increasing to 67% at age 18 yrs. The proportion of patients with VTG > 2SDS increased from 15% to 54% during this period. Children with severe pulmonary hyperinflation and trapped gas at age 6-8 yrs showed the most pronounced disease progression over time. Age related tracking of lung function parameters commences early in life, and is significantly influenced by specific CFTR genotypes. The group with chronic P. aeruginosa infection demonstrated most rapid progression in all lung function parameters, whilst those with chronic S. aureus infection had the slowest rate of progression. LCI, measured as an index of ventilation inhomogeneities was the most sensitive discriminator between the 3 types of infection examined (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: The relationships between lung function indices, CFTR genotypes and infective organisms observed in this study suggest that measurement of other lung function parameters, in addition to spirometry alone, may provide important information about disease progression in CF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1465-9921-7-138DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1698484PMC
November 2006

Identification of Helicobacter pylori genes that contribute to stomach colonization.

Infect Immun 2007 Feb 13;75(2):1005-16. Epub 2006 Nov 13.

Division of Human Biology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA 98109, USA.

Chronic infection of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori leads to a variety of pathological sequelae, including peptic ulcer and gastric cancer, resulting in significant human morbidity and mortality. Several genes have been implicated in disease related to H. pylori infection, including the vacuolating cytotoxin and the cag pathogenicity island. Other factors important for the establishment and maintenance of infection include urease enzyme production, motility, iron uptake, and stress response. We utilized a C57BL/6 mouse infection model to query a collection of 2,400 transposon mutants in two different bacterial strain backgrounds for H. pylori genetic loci contributing to colonization of the stomach. Microarray-based tracking of transposon mutants allowed us to monitor the behavior of transposon insertions in 758 different gene loci. Of the loci measured, 223 (29%) had a predicted colonization defect. These included previously described H. pylori virulence genes, genes implicated in virulence in other pathogenic bacteria, and 81 hypothetical proteins. We have retested 10 previously uncharacterized candidate colonization gene loci by making independent null alleles and have confirmed their colonization phenotypes by using competition experiments and by determining the dose required for 50% infection. Of the genetic loci retested, 60% have strain-specific colonization defects, while 40% have phenotypes in both strain backgrounds for infection, highlighting the profound effect of H. pylori strain variation on the pathogenic potential of this organism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01176-06DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1828534PMC
February 2007

Elevated exhaled nitric oxide in newborns of atopic mothers precedes respiratory symptoms.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2006 Dec 14;174(12):1292-8. Epub 2006 Sep 14.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Berne Inselspital, 3010 Bern, Switzerland.

Rationale: Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known marker of established airway inflammation in asthma. Its role in the disease process before the onset of respiratory symptoms remains unclear.

Objectives: To examine whether elevated NO in newborns with clinically naive airways is associated with subsequent respiratory symptoms in infancy.

Methods: We measured exhaled NO concentration and output after birth and prospectively assessed respiratory symptoms during infancy in a birth cohort of 164 unselected healthy neonates. We examined a possible association between NO and respiratory symptoms using Poisson regression analysis.

Results: In infants of atopic mothers, elevated NO levels after birth were associated with increased risk of subsequent respiratory symptoms (risk ratio [RR], 7.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-32.4 for each nl/s increase in NO output; p = 0.007). Similarly, a positive association between NO and symptoms was seen in infants of smoking mothers (RR, 6.6; 95% CI, 2.3-19.3; p = 0.001), with the strongest association in infants whose mothers had both risk factors (RR, 21.8; 95% CI, 5.8-81.3; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The interaction of NO with maternal atopy and smoking on subsequent respiratory symptoms is present early in life. Clinically, noninvasive NO measurements in newborns may prove useful as a new means to identify high-risk infants. Future confirmation of a role for NO metabolism in the evolution of respiratory disease may provide an avenue for preventative strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1164/rccm.200606-782OCDOI Listing
December 2006

Noninvasive monitoring of chest wall movement in infants using laser.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2006 Oct;41(10):985-92

Pediatric Respiratory Medicine, University Children's Hospital of Berne, Berne, Switzerland.

Traditionally, non-invasive monitoring of tidal volume in infants has been performed using impedance plethysmography analyzed using a one or two compartment model. We developed a new laser system for use in infants, which measures antero-posterior movement of the chest wall during quiet sleep. In 24 unsedated or sedated infants (11 healthy, 13 with respiratory disease), we examined whether the analysis of thoracoabdominal movement based on a three compartment model could more accurately estimate tidal volume in comparison to V(T) measured at the mouth. Using five laser signals, chest wall movements were measured at the right and left, upper and lower ribcage and the abdomen. Within the tidal volume range from 4.6 to 135.7 ml, a three compartment model showed good short term repeatability and the best agreement with tidal volume measured at mouth (r(2) = 0.86) compared to that of a single compartment model (r(2) = 0.62, P < 0.0001) and a two compartment model (r(2) = 0.82, P < 0.01), particularly in the presence of respiratory disease. Three compartment modeling of a 5 laser thoracoabdominal monitoring permits more accurate estimates of tidal volume in infants and potentially of regional differences of chest wall displacement in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.20482DOI Listing
October 2006

Lung-function tests in neonates and infants with chronic lung disease: tidal breathing and respiratory control.

Pediatr Pulmonol 2006 May;41(5):391-419

Centre for Child Health Research and Telethon Institute for Child Health Research, University of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.

This paper is the fourth in a series of reviews that will summarize available data and critically discuss the potential role of lung-function testing in infants with acute neonatal respiratory disorders and chronic lung disease of infancy. The current paper addresses information derived from tidal breathing measurements within the framework outlined in the introductory paper of this series, with particular reference to how these measurements inform on control of breathing. Infants with acute and chronic respiratory illness demonstrate differences in tidal breathing and its control that are of clinical consequence and can be measured objectively. The increased incidence of significant apnea in preterm infants and infants with chronic lung disease, together with the reportedly increased risk of sudden unexplained death within the latter group, suggests that control of breathing is affected by both maturation and disease. Clinical observations are supported by formal comparison of tidal breathing parameters and control of breathing indices in the research setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ppul.20400DOI Listing
May 2006

A gene-expression program reflecting the innate immune response of cultured intestinal epithelial cells to infection by Listeria monocytogenes.

Genome Biol 2003 23;4(1):R2. Epub 2002 Dec 23.

Department of Biochemistry, Stanford University School of Medicine, Beckman Center, 279 West Campus Drive, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Background: Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, facultative, intracellular bacterial pathogen found in soil, which occasionally causes serious food-borne disease in humans. The outcome of an infection is dependent on the state of the infected individual's immune system, neutrophils being key players in clearing the microorganism from the body. The first line of host defense, however, is the intestinal epithelium.

Results: We have examined the transcriptional response of cultured human intestinal epithelial cells to infection by L. monocytogenes, which replicates in the host cell cytoplasm and spreads from cell to cell using a form of actin-based motility. We found that the predominant host response to infection was mediated by NFkappaB. To determine whether any host responses were due to recognition of specific virulence factors during infection, we also examined the transcriptional response to two bacterial mutants; actA which is defective in actin-based motility, and prfA, which is defective in the expression of all L. monocytogenes virulence genes. Remarkably, we found no detectable difference in the host transcriptional response to the wild-type and mutant bacteria.

Conclusions: These results suggest that cultured intestinal epithelial cells are capable of mounting and recruiting a powerful innate immune response to L. monocytogenes infection. Our results imply that L. monocytogenes is not specifically detected in the host cytoplasm of Caco-2 cells by intracellular signals. This suggests that entry of bacteria is mediated in the host cell post-translationally, and that these bacteria seek the cytosol not only for the nutrient-rich environment, but also for protection from detection by the immune system.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC151283PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/gb-2002-4-1-r2DOI Listing
March 2003