Publications by authors named "David M Wood"

167 Publications

Clinical effect of ethanol co-use in patients with acute drug toxicity involving the use of central nervous system depressant recreational drugs.

Eur J Emerg Med 2022 Apr 8. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

Division of Clinical Toxicology and Poison Control Centre Munich, Department of Internal Medicine II, TUM School of Medicine, Technical University of Munich, Germany.

Background And Importance: Patients who use recreational drugs frequently co-ingest ethanol, which is considered a central nervous system (CNS) depressant. The clinical relevance of this in acute toxicity involving other CNS depressants is not well described.

Objective: To assess the clinical impact of ethanol co-use in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with acute toxicity involving the use of CNS depressant drugs.

Design, Settings And Participants: A retrospective multicentre study using data from the Euro-DEN Plus database from January 2014 to December 2019.

Outcomes Measure And Analysis: Comparison of epidemiologic and clinical characteristics, ED and hospital management of patients with CNS depressant intoxication with or without ethanol co-use.

Main Results: Although 7644 (17.5%) of the 43 633 presentations were included, ethanol was co-ingested in 3811 (49.9%). In total 53.3% required medical treatment, 14 patients died. Patients with ethanol co-use more frequently presented with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤8 (34.1% vs. 22.4%; P  < 0.001), vomiting (8.1% vs. 4.6%; P  < 0.001), anxiety (12 % vs. 6.4%; P  < 0.001), agitation/aggression (22% vs. 14.7%; P  < 0.001), seizures (3.8% vs. 2.4%; P  < 0.001) and hypotension (7.5% vs. 4.6%; P  < 0.001). They more often required ambulance transport (85.5% vs. 76.5%; P  < 0.001), medical treatment (57.3% vs. 48.0%; P  < 0.001), hospitalization (27.7% vs. 18.9%; P  < 0.001), and admission to intensive care (12.2% vs. 4.0%; P  < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that GCS ≤8 was particularly common in patients who combined ethanol with opioids or gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB)/gamma-butyrolactone (GBL).

Conclusion: Co-use of ethanol with CNS-depressant drugs appears to increase the risk of adverse effects and is associated with a higher need for medical treatment, especially when ethanol is combined with opioids or GHB/GBL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000932DOI Listing
April 2022

Differences in clinical features associated with cannabis intoxication in presentations to European emergency departments according to patient age and sex.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2022 Apr 11:1-8. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Emergency Department, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Objective: To investigate if clinical features associated with acute cannabis intoxication in patients presenting to Emergency Departments for medical assistance differ according to patient age and sex.

Methods: We analysed presentations in the Euro-DEN Plus dataset from 2014 to 2019 in which cannabis was the only drug involved (except for alcohol), and age, sex and alcohol co-ingestion had been recorded. Age was considered as categorical (five groups; <20, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and ≥50 years), and sex as binary variable (male/female). We evaluated 12 key clinical features recorded during emergency department (ED) care. Risks of presenting with each of these clinical features according to patient age and sex were calculated by logistic regression models, and adjusted for sex, age and alcohol co-ingestion.

Results: 4,268 of 43,633 Euro-DEN presentations (9.8%) fulfilled the inclusion criteria (median age: 26 years (IQR = 20-34), 70% male, 52% co-ingested alcohol). The frequency of clinical features was: anxiety 28%, vomiting 24%, agitation 23%, palpitations 14%, reduced consciousness 13%, acute psychosis 9%, hallucinations 9%, chest pain 7%, headache 6%, hypotension 4%, hypertension 3% and seizures 2%. Patients younger than 20 years more frequently had vomiting (34.7% of cases), reduced consciousness (21.5%), and headache (10.8%); and less frequently acute psychosis (5.5%). Patients older than 49 years more often had hypotension (6.5%) and less frequently vomiting (20%), anxiety (14%), agitation (14%) and reduced consciousness (10%). Males more frequently presented with hypertension (3.7 vs. 1.5%; OR = 2.311, 95%CI = 1.299-3.816), psychosis (10.4 vs 6.3%; 1.948, 1.432-2.430), chest pain (8.1 vs 4.5%; 1.838, 1.390-2.430) and seizures (2.5 vs 1.4%; 1.805, 1.065-3.060), and less frequently with vomiting (21.8 vs 28.2%; 0.793, 0.677-0.930), anxiety (25.4 vs 32.3%; 0.655, 0.561-0.766) and hypotension (2.9 vs 5.8%; 0.485, 0.350-0.671).

Conclusions: The prevalence of some clinical features typically associated with acute cannabis intoxication differed according to age and sex. The causes for these differences should be further investigated in order to better understand the pathophysiology of cannabis-related acute toxicity, and they may be relevant particularly for developing prevention campaigns and for treatment in specific sex and/or age groups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2022.2060116DOI Listing
April 2022

Machine learning to assist in large-scale, activity-based synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist screening of serum samples.

Clin Chem 2022 Mar 10. Epub 2022 Mar 10.

Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

Background: Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) are amongst the largest groups of new psychoactive substances (NPS). Their often-high activity at the CB1 cannabinoid receptor frequently results in intoxications, imposing serious health risks. Hence, continuous monitoring of these compounds is important, but is challenged by the rapid emergence of novel analogues that are missed by traditional targeted detection strategies. We addressed this need by performing an activity-based, universal screening on a large set (n = 968) of serum samples from patients presenting to the emergency department with acute recreational drug or NPS toxicity.

Methods: We assessed the performance of an activity-based method in detecting newly circulating SCRAs compared with liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Additionally, we developed and evaluated machine learning models to reduce the screening workload by automating interpretation of the activity-based screening output.

Results: Activity-based screening delivered outstanding performance, with a sensitivity of 94.6% and a specificity of 98.5%. Furthermore, the developed machine learning models allowed accurate distinction between positive and negative patient samples in an automatic manner, closely matching the manual scoring of samples. The performance of the model depended on the predefined threshold, e.g., at a threshold of 0.055, sensitivity and specificity were both 94.0%.

Conclusion: The activity-based bioassay is an ideal candidate for untargeted screening of novel SCRAs. The combination of this universal screening assay and a machine learning approach for automated sample scoring is a promising complement to conventional analytical methods in clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/hvac027DOI Listing
March 2022

The association between the availability of over the counter codeine and the prevalence of non-medical use.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2022 Jun 4;78(6):1011-1018. Epub 2022 Mar 4.

Clinical Toxicology Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of non-medical use (NMU) of codeine in Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK and whether availability of OTC codeine has any association with NMU of the drug.

Methods: Data collected in the online Survey of Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs, in surveys launched in the second half of 2018 from (Germany (n = 14,969), Italy, (n = 9974), Spain (n = 9912) and the UK (n = 9819) were analysed. For each survey, the estimated prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI) of respondents reporting NMU of prescription and/or OTC codeine within the last 12 months were calculated and compared.

Results: The prevalence of last 12-month NMU in Spain was 12.6% (95% CI 11.7-13.6) for prescription codeine, 6.3% (5.6-7.0) for OTC codeine and 16.1% (15.1-17.3) for any codeine (prescription and/or OTC). The prevalence of last 12-month NMU in the UK was 5.4% (4.9-5.8) for prescription codeine, 4.5% (4.1-5.0) for OTC codeine and 8.3% (7.8-8.9) for any codeine (prescription and/or OTC). The prevalence of last 12-month NMU for prescription codeine was 2.1% (1.9-2.4) in Germany and 1.9% (1.7-2.2) in Italy.

Conclusion: The prevalence of last 12-month NMU of any codeine product is approximately eight times greater in Spain and four times greater in the UK compared to Germany and Italy where the drug is only available by prescription. While other factors may contribute, these findings suggest that availability of codeine OTC is associated with greater NMU.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-021-03158-1DOI Listing
June 2022

Extracorporeal Treatment for Methotrexate Poisoning: Systematic Review and Recommendations from the EXTRIP Workgroup.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2022 04 2;17(4):602-622. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Pharmacy Department, Verdun Hospital, CIUSSS du Sud-Ouest-de-l'ïle-de-Montréal, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Methotrexate is used in the treatment of many malignancies, rheumatological diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. Toxicity from use is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Rescue treatments include intravenous hydration, folinic acid, and, in some centers, glucarpidase. We conducted systematic reviews of the literature following published EXtracorporeal TReatments In Poisoning (EXTRIP) methods to determine the utility of extracorporeal treatments in the management of methotrexate toxicity. The quality of the evidence and the strength of recommendations (either "strong" or "weak/conditional") were graded according to the GRADE approach. A formal voting process using a modified Delphi method assessed the level of agreement between panelists on the final recommendations. A total of 92 articles met inclusion criteria. Toxicokinetic data were available on 90 patients (89 with impaired kidney function). Methotrexate was considered to be moderately dialyzable by intermittent hemodialysis. Data were available for clinical analysis on 109 patients (high-dose methotrexate [>0.5 g/m]: 91 patients; low-dose [≤0.5 g/m]: 18). Overall mortality in these publications was 19.5% and 26.7% in those with high-dose and low-dose methotrexate-related toxicity, respectively. Although one observational study reported lower mortality in patients treated with glucarpidase compared with those treated with hemodialysis, there were important limitations in the study. For patients with severe methotrexate toxicity receiving standard care, the EXTRIP workgroup: () suggested against extracorporeal treatments when glucarpidase is not administered; () recommended against extracorporeal treatments when glucarpidase is administered; and () recommended against extracorporeal treatments instead of administering glucarpidase. The quality of evidence for these recommendations was very low. Rationales for these recommendations included: () extracorporeal treatments mainly remove drugs in the intravascular compartment, whereas methotrexate rapidly distributes into cells; () extracorporeal treatments remove folinic acid; () in rare cases where fast removal of methotrexate is required, glucarpidase will outperform any extracorporeal treatment; and () extracorporeal treatments do not appear to reduce the incidence and magnitude of methotrexate toxicity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2215/CJN.08030621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8993465PMC
April 2022

Isotonitazene, a novel psychoactive substance opioid, detected in two cases following a local surge in opioid overdoses.

QJM 2022 Feb 16. Epub 2022 Feb 16.

Clinical Toxicology.

Background: Isotonitazene is a novel opioid that was first reported in Europe in 2019. There have been no reports of the detection of isotonitazene in patients presenting to the emergency department with acute drug toxicity.

Aim: There was an increase in presentations to our emergency department with acute opioid toxicity in August 2021. We aim to describe this outbreak and provide detail on two cases in which isotonitazene was quantified in serum samples.

Methods: Serum samples were available for comprehensive toxicological analysis for two presentations. Written consent was obtained and the samples were analysed through a Thermo XRS ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography system, interfaced to a Thermo Q Exactive high-resolution accurate mass spectrometer, operating in heated positive ion electrospray mode. Acquired data were processed using Toxfinder software (Thermo) against a regularly updated in-house database.

Results: There was an increase in acute opioid presentations to our emergency department from a median of 10 per month to 36 in August 2021. Twenty were treated with naloxone and 23 admitted to hospital for observation and treatment. Serum sample analysis from two patients with acute opioid toxicity responsive to naloxone detected presence of isotonitazene (0.18 and 0.81 ng/mL).

Conclusion: We report a cluster of acute opioid toxicity presentations to our Emergency Department with detection of isotonitazene in two cases. Analytical screening is important in determining the presence of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) and to help inform the public health of the implications of NPS use, particularly during clusters of acute recreational drug toxicity presentations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcac039DOI Listing
February 2022

Using cryo-EM to uncover mechanisms of bacterial transcriptional regulation.

Biochem Soc Trans 2021 12;49(6):2711-2726

Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, 1G Royal Parade, Parkville, VIC 3052, Australia.

Transcription is the principal control point for bacterial gene expression, and it enables a global cellular response to an intracellular or environmental trigger. Transcriptional regulation is orchestrated by transcription factors, which activate or repress transcription of target genes by modulating the activity of RNA polymerase. Dissecting the nature and precise choreography of these interactions is essential for developing a molecular understanding of transcriptional regulation. While the contribution of X-ray crystallography has been invaluable, the 'resolution revolution' of cryo-electron microscopy has transformed our structural investigations, enabling large, dynamic and often transient transcription complexes to be resolved that in many cases had resisted crystallisation. In this review, we highlight the impact cryo-electron microscopy has had in gaining a deeper understanding of transcriptional regulation in bacteria. We also provide readers working within the field with an overview of the recent innovations available for cryo-electron microscopy sample preparation and image reconstruction of transcription complexes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BST20210674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8786299PMC
December 2021

Introduction to a series of Pro/Con papers in Clinical Toxicology.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2022 01 16;88(1):56-57. Epub 2021 Nov 16.

Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.15128DOI Listing
January 2022

Increasing emergency department attendances in central London with methamphetamine toxicity and associated harms.

Emerg Med J 2022 Jun 14;39(6):463-466. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Background: Methamphetamine is a stimulant drug of abuse with increasing prevalence of use worldwide leading to public health concern. While previous research by our group a decade ago found no evidence of increasing harms associated with methamphetamine use in the UK, there are conflicting data on whether or not this is still the case. This paper aims to identify trends in methamphetamine-related harms and characterise the clinical features of ED presentations involving methamphetamine with gamma-hydroxybutyrate/gamma-butyrolactone (GHB/GBL).

Methods: We retrospectively interrogated a database of all toxicology-related presentations to two central London EDs, extracting data on drugs involved for presentations relating to methamphetamine between 2005 and 2018 to enable analysis of trends. Further clinical data were extracted for presentations between 2014 and 2018 to give a 4-year case series.

Results: A total of 1244 presentations involving the use of methamphetamine were identified. The number of presentations rose from 4 in 2005 (1.9% of all recreational drug presentations) to 294 (16.2%) in 2018. A total of 850 cases were identified for the 2014-2018 case series, 94.9% were male with a median (range) age of 35.1 (16-67) years. The most common clinical features in the methamphetamine presentations were neuropsychiatric: agitation (41.5%), anxiety (35.2%), hallucinations (16.5%) and psychosis (14.8%). GHB/GBL was co-used in 54.2% of presentations and appeared to attenuate the neuropsychiatric features seen. Use of GHB/GBL was associated with a higher Poisoning Severity Score and requirement for level 2/3 (high dependency unit/intensive care unit (ICU)) care.

Conclusion: ED attendances in central London relating to methamphetamine use have risen over the last decade. Combining methamphetamine with GHB/GBL is common and is associated with a higher Poisoning Severity Score and need for ICU level care. Further work is required to establish whether further resources need to be directed at this clinical and public health problem.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2020-209550DOI Listing
June 2022

Paracetamol toxicity in mild overdose in combination with opioids: A retrospective observational study.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2022 03 12;88(3):1258-1267. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's Health Partners, London, UK.

Aims: Toxicity in paracetamol overdose with opioid co-ingestion is poorly understood. We compared outcomes in both paracetamol-only and paracetamol-opioid overdoses to determine whether toxicity differed significantly between the groups, and to assess the utility of the ratio of measured plasma paracetamol concentration relative to the 4-hour nomogram-adjusted level (APAP /APAP ).

Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of all patients (n = 1159) presenting to 2 large UK hospitals between 2005 and 2013 with acute single-dose ingestion paracetamol overdose, with (n = 221) or without (n = 938) opioid co-ingestion. Adverse outcomes included biomarkers of hepatotoxicity and the need for extended treatment. Several outcomes were assessed in relation to the APAP /APAP ratio.

Results: Median ingested dose of paracetamol was low in both groups (10 g). Statistical comparison of the median APAP /APAP ratios showed a significant difference (0.65 vs. 0.56 for the paracetamol-only and paracetamol-opioid groups respectively, P = .0329). Although there was a trend towards a lower risk of predefined toxic outcomes with opioid co-ingestion, statistical analysis did not show a significant difference, with outcomes for the paracetamol-only and paracetamol-opioid groups including the following: alanine transaminase >2× upper limit of normal, 7.7 vs. 5.7% (P = .6480); alanine transaminase >1000 IU/L, 2.4 vs. 0% (P = .2145); international normalised ratio > 1.3, 8.6 vs. 4.4% (P = .2774); and transfer to tertiary liver unit, 0.2 vs. 0% (P nonsignificant).

Conclusion: Our study does not support a change in current clinical practise beyond standard testing at 4 hours or longer post ingestion for mixed low dose paracetamol-opioid overdose.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.15070DOI Listing
March 2022

Systematic review on the use of activated charcoal for gastrointestinal decontamination following acute oral overdose.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Dec 23;59(12):1196-1227. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Emergency Department CISSS Montérégie Centre, Greenfield Park, Canada.

Introduction: The use of activated charcoal in poisoning remains both a pillar of modern toxicology and a source of debate. Following the publication of the joint position statements on the use of single-dose and multiple-dose activated charcoal by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists, the routine use of activated charcoal declined. Over subsequent years, many new pharmaceuticals became available in modified or alternative-release formulations and additional data on gastric emptying time in poisoning was published, challenging previous assumptions about absorption kinetics. The American Academy of Clinical Toxicology, the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists and the Asia Pacific Association of Medical Toxicology founded the Clinical Toxicology Recommendations Collaborative to create a framework for evidence-based recommendations for the management of poisoned patients. The activated charcoal workgroup of the Clinical Toxicology Recommendations Collaborative was tasked with reviewing systematically the evidence pertaining to the use of activated charcoal in poisoning in order to update the previous recommendations.

Objectives: The main objective was: Does oral activated charcoal given to adults or children prevent toxicity or improve clinical outcome and survival of poisoned patients compared to those who do not receive charcoal?  Secondary objectives were to evaluate pharmacokinetic outcomes, the role of cathartics, and adverse events to charcoal administration. This systematic review summarizes the available evidence on the efficacy of activated charcoal.

Methods: A medical librarian created a systematic search strategy for Medline (Ovid), subsequently translated for Embase ( Ovid), CINAHL ( EBSCO), BIOSIS Previews ( Ovid), Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library/DARE. All databases were searched from inception to December 31, 2019. There were no language limitations.  One author screened all citations identified in the search based on predefined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Excluded citations were confirmed by an additional author and remaining articles were obtained in full text and evaluated by at least two authors for inclusion. All authors cross-referenced full-text articles to identify articles missed in the searches. Data from included articles were extracted by the authors on a standardized spreadsheet and two authors used the GRADE methodology to independently assess the quality and risk of bias of each included study.

Results: From 22,950 titles originally identified, the final data set consisted of 296 human studies, 118 animal studies, and 145 studies. Also included were 71 human and two animal studies that reported adverse events. The quality was judged to have a Low or Very Low GRADE in 469 (83%) of the studies. Ninety studies were judged to be of Moderate or High GRADE. The higher GRADE studies reported on the following drugs: paracetamol (acetaminophen), phenobarbital, carbamazepine, cardiac glycosides (digoxin and oleander), ethanol, iron, salicylates, theophylline, tricyclic antidepressants, and valproate. Data on newer pharmaceuticals not reviewed in the previous American Academy of Clinical Toxicology/European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists statements such as quetiapine, olanzapine, citalopram, and Factor Xa inhibitors were included. No studies on the optimal dosing for either single-dose or multiple-dose activated charcoal were found. In the reviewed clinical data, the time of administration of the first dose of charcoal was beyond one hour in 97% ( = 1006 individuals), beyond two hours in 36% ( = 491 individuals), and beyond 12 h in 4% ( = 43 individuals) whereas the timing of the first dose in controlled studies was within one hour of ingestion in 48% ( = 2359 individuals) and beyond two hours in 36% ( = 484) of individuals.

Conclusions: This systematic review found heterogenous data. The higher GRADE data was focused on a few select poisonings, while studies that addressed patients with unknown and or mixed ingestions were hampered by low rates of clinically meaningful toxicity or death.  Despite these limitations, they reported a benefit of activated charcoal beyond one hour in many clinical scenarios.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2021.1961144DOI Listing
December 2021

Gadolinium Concentrations in Biological Matrices From Patients Exposed to Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents.

Invest Radiol 2021 07;56(7):458-464

Viapath Analytics, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.

Objectives: There is increasing evidence that Gd may be retained within the skin, bones, and solid organs in patients with normal renal function after exposure to Gd-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Here we present clinical data from 19 patients who requested referral to our clinical toxicology service for assessment of potential "Gd toxicity."

Materials And Methods: Patients had undergone a median of 2 (interquartile range [IQR], 1-5) exposures to GBCAs and were reviewed at a median of 5 months (IQR, 2-8 months) after the last GBCA exposure. Patients had a clinical assessment by a clinical toxicologist, and biological samples were taken in 17 patients (89.5%). Gd concentrations were measured in these samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

Results: All patients had significant comorbidities, and after an extensive clinical review, none of the reported symptoms were considered likely to be related to "Gd toxicity." Whole blood, plasma, and urine samples had detectable Gd concentrations in 69.2%, 78.6%, and 95.2% of samples, respectively. Median (IQR) concentrations of Gd were as follows: whole blood, 0.013 ng/mL (IQR, limit of detection [LOD]-0.884 ng/mL); plasma, 0.012 ng/mL (IQR, LOD-0.046 ng/mL); and spot urine, 0.304 μg/g creatinine (IQR, 0.070-3.702 μg/g creatinine). There were positive correlations between whole blood and plasma (P = 0.0024, r = 0.84), whole blood and urine (P = 0.0018, r = 0.82), and plasma and urine (P = 0.0001, r = 0.89) Gd concentrations. There was a negative correlation between Gd concentrations and the period after exposure for whole blood (P = 0.0028, r = -0.80), plasma (P = 0.0004, r = -0.86), and urine (P < 0.0001, r = -0.91).

Conclusions: We identified detectable Gd concentrations in biological matrices from all patients reporting exposure to GBCAs who were reviewed in our clinical toxicology outpatient clinic with concerns regarding potential "Gd toxicity"; however, there were no clinical features of toxicity present in this cohort. Further research is required to explore the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of GBCAs in patients with normal renal function and to determine the clinical significance of these detectable Gd concentrations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000762DOI Listing
July 2021

Non-medical Use of Prescription Gabapentinoids (Gabapentin and Pregabalin) in Five European Countries.

Front Psychiatry 2021 28;12:676224. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Hospital del Mar, Institut de Neuropsiquiatria i Addiccions (INAD), Barcelona, Spain.

Non-medical use (NMU) of prescription GABA analogs (pregabalin and gabapentin) has been reported especially in opiate dependent persons. However, by now the prevalence of NMU of gabapentinoids in the general population has not been sufficiently evaluated. The aim of this research paper is to determine the prevalence of prescription GABA analog NMU and associated demographics in five European countries with special detail of Spain. The RADARS Survey of Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs Program (NMURx) is a harmonized series of contemporaneous cross-sectional surveys of adults conducted in multiple countries. NMURx collects data from the general population in each participating country about NMU of prescription drugs, illicit drugs, and associated demographics. NMU was defined as "using a medication without a doctor's prescription or for any reason other than what was recommended by their doctor." Responses from Spain (4Q2017, =10,062) were analyzed in detail. Comparative data were available from France, Germany, Italy, and UK. Responses were collected using non-probability quota sampling and post-stratification population weighting was applied to reflect the national distributions of adults, based on age, gender, and census region. Rates of NMU and associated demographics were reported as rate of past 90-day NMU per 100,000 adult population with 95% confidence intervals. Germany (1,197 per 100,000 adult population [95% CI: 1,004.3-1,379.1]) and United Kingdom (1,067 per 100,000 adult population [95% CI: 851.3-1,283.2]) presented the highest prevalence of gabapentinoids NMU. In Spain the prevalence of past 90 days GABA analog NMU was: 344.4, 95% (CI 204.8-484.0), with male predominance. Those who non-medically use GABA analogs had a higher prevalence of lifetime chronic pain, lifetime illicit drug use, and previous substance abuse treatment. In Spain, 20% of respondents who ever have used gabapentinoids, reported a lifetime NMU; the prevalence was higher for pregabalin 624 (6.2%) than for gabapentin 444 (4.4%). The main reasons for use were to self-treat pain and other medical conditions. The risk of NMU of gabapentinoids should not be neglected. Subjects with a history of chronic pain and lifetime substance use disorders had an increased risk of NMU of gabapentinoids.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2021.676224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113698PMC
April 2021

Acute toxicity from the synthetic cathinone -ethylpentylone (ephylone) in the United Kingdom.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Dec 15;59(12):1270-1273. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

NIHR Health Protection Research Unit for Chemical Threats and Hazards, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK.

Introduction: Acute toxicity caused by New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) has created a significant burden for Emergency Departments (EDs). Here we report characteristics of people presenting with toxicity after exposure to the synthetic cathinone -ethylpentylone (NEP).

Methods: Adults presenting to hospital with severe acute toxicity after suspected NPS use were recruited between March 2015 and October 2020. Clinical features were recorded using consistent methodology and biological samples analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass-spectrometry.

Results: NEP was detected in at least one sample from 9 of 893 patients recruited during the period of study, all presenting between 2016 and 2019 and 8 presenting in southern England. Commonly reported clinical features included tachycardia (6), agitation (6), confusion (6), mydriasis (5), hallucinations (4), acidosis (3) and elevated creatine kinase (3). Co-used drugs, detected in 6 patients, may have contributed to these features, but agitation and hallucinations were also reported in all 3 patients without analytical evidence of co-use.

Conclusions: NEP was detected infrequently in episodes of drug toxicity in the UK between 2016 and 2019, especially in southern England. Clinical characteristics of toxicity are similar to those of other cathinones, although co-use of other drugs is common and may contribute to the features observed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2021.1909730DOI Listing
December 2021

Mechanism of NanR gene repression and allosteric induction of bacterial sialic acid metabolism.

Nat Commun 2021 03 31;12(1):1988. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Biomolecular Interaction Centre and School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand.

Bacteria respond to environmental changes by inducing transcription of some genes and repressing others. Sialic acids, which coat human cell surfaces, are a nutrient source for pathogenic and commensal bacteria. The Escherichia coli GntR-type transcriptional repressor, NanR, regulates sialic acid metabolism, but the mechanism is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that three NanR dimers bind a (GGTATA)-repeat operator cooperatively and with high affinity. Single-particle cryo-electron microscopy structures reveal the DNA-binding domain is reorganized to engage DNA, while three dimers assemble in close proximity across the (GGTATA)-repeat operator. Such an interaction allows cooperative protein-protein interactions between NanR dimers via their N-terminal extensions. The effector, N-acetylneuraminate, binds NanR and attenuates the NanR-DNA interaction. The crystal structure of NanR in complex with N-acetylneuraminate reveals a domain rearrangement upon N-acetylneuraminate binding to lock NanR in a conformation that weakens DNA binding. Our data provide a molecular basis for the regulation of bacterial sialic acid metabolism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22253-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8012715PMC
March 2021

Variation of drugs involved in acute drug toxicity presentations based on age and sex: an epidemiological approach based on European emergency departments.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Oct 16;59(10):896-904. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Emergency Department, Hospital Clínic, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: To analyse the relative percentage of acute recreational drug toxicity emergency department (ED) presentations involving the main drug groups according to age and sex and investigate different patterns based on sex and age strata.

Methods: We analysed all patients with acute recreational drug toxicity included by the Euro-DEN Plus dataset (22 EDs in 14 European countries) between October 2013 and December 2016 (39 months). Drugs were grouped as: opioids, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines, gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), hallucinogens, new psychoactive substances (NPS), benzodiazepines and ketamine. Descriptive data by age and sex are presented and compared among age/sex categories and among drug families.

Results: Of 17,371 patients were included during the 39-month period, 17,198 (99.0%) had taken at least one of the investigated drugs (median age: 31 years; 23.9% female; ethanol co-ingestion recorded in 41.5%, unknown in 31.2%; multiple drug use in 37.9%). Opioids (in 31.4% of patients) and amphetamines (23.3%) were the most frequently involved and hallucinogens (1.9%) and ketamine (1.7%) the least. Overall, female patients were younger than males, both in the whole cohort (median age 29 vs. 32 years;  < 0.001) and in all drug groups except benzodiazepines (median age 36 vs. 36 years;  = 0.83). The relative proportion of each drug group was different at every age strata and some patterns could be clearly described: cannabis, NPS and hallucinogens were the most common in patients <20 years; amphetamines, ketamine and cocaine in the 20- to 39-year group; GHB/GBL in the 30- to 39-year group; and opioids and benzodiazepines in patients ≥40 years. Ethanol and other drug co-ingestion was more frequent at middle-ages, and multidrug co-ingestion was more common in females than males.

Conclusion: Differences in the drugs involved in acute drug toxicity presentations according to age and sex may be relevant for developing drug-prevention and education programs for some particular subgroups of the population based on the increased risk of adverse events in specific sex and/or age strata.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2021.1884693DOI Listing
October 2021

Rhabdomyolysis related to acute recreational drug toxicity-A Euro-DEN study.

PLoS One 2021 11;16(3):e0246297. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Clinical Toxicology, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland.

Background: This study was conducted to retrospectively assess the relationships between: rhabdomyolysis (quantified by creatine kinase (CK) activity) and kidney injury (quantified by serum creatinine concentration), sex, age, body temperature on admission, presence of seizures, and agitation or aggression in patients presenting to the Emergency Department with acute recreational drug toxicity. We also investigated the association with the substances ingested.

Methods: All presentations to the 16 sentinel Euro-DEN centres in 10 European countries with acute recreational drug toxicity during the first year of the Euro-DEN study (October 2013 to September 2014) were considered. Cases that had abnormal CK activity recorded as part of routine clinical care were divided into 3 cohorts depending on peak CK activity. Cases with normal CK activity were included as a control group (4th cohort).

Results: Only 1,015 (18.4%) of the 5,529 Euro-DEN presentations had CK activity concentration recorded. Of this group 353 (34.8%) had also creatinine concentration measured. There were 375 (36.9%) with minor rhabdomyolysis, 69 (6.8%) with moderate rhabdomyolysis, and 24 (2.4%) with severe rhabdomyolysis; 547 (53.9%) were included in the control group. There was a positive correlation between CK activity and creatinine concentration (correlation coefficient r = 0.71, p<0.0001). There was no correlation between CK activity and body temperature at the time of presentation to the ED (correlation coefficient r = 0.07, p = 0.03). There was a positive correlation between CK activity and length of stay in the hospital (r = 0.31, p<0.001). There was no association between CK activity and the presence of seizures (p = 0.33) or agitation/aggression (p = 0.45), patients age (p = 0.4) or sex (p = 0.25). The 5 most common agents amongst patients presenting with rhabdomyolysis were: cocaine (n = 107; 22.9% presentations), amphetamine (76; 16.2%), cannabis (74; 15.8%), GHB/GBL (72; 15.4%) and heroin (67; 14.3%). The distribution of rhabdomyolysis in 5 most common drugs was (drug; patients with rhabdomyolysis, patients without rhabdomyolysis): cocaine (107, 122), cannabis (74, 117), GHB/GBL (72, 81), amphetamine (76, 66), heroin (67, 70).

Conclusions: Abnormal values of CK activity occurred in almost half (46.1%) of presentations to the Emergency Department with acute recreational drug toxicity in whom CK activity was measured; however, severe rhabdomyolysis is seen in only a small minority (2.4%). Those with rhabdomyolysis are at significantly higher risk of kidney injury and have a longer length of hospital stay.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246297PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7951866PMC
August 2021

An evaluation of online discussion relating to nonmedical use of prescription opioids within the UK.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 04 2;87(4):1637-1646. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Aim: To identify and describe the nature of online discussion relating to prescription opioids within the UK.

Methods: We performed analysis of posts originating in the UK related to buprenorphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone and tramadol using Social Studio, a web-monitoring platform. The study included posts published between January 2014 and December 2016. The data were cleaned to produce a final dataset consisting only of substantive mentions, which were then categorised by defined themes.

Results: The final dataset included a total of 17 361 substantive mentions (2936 buprenorphine, 2894 hydrocodone, 3826 oxycodone and 7705 tramadol). The most common theme for all 4 drugs was sharing experience or opinion comprising over 90% of mentions for each drug, while discussion related to polysubstance use was present in >1/4 of mentions across drug substances. Mentions related to diversion were more common for hydrocodone and oxycodone (8.1% [6.3-10.1 95% confidence interval] and 7.8% [6.5-9.2], respectively) than buprenorphine or tramadol (4.1 and 3.9% [3.5-4.3], respectively).

Conclusion: This investigation shows that there is substantial online discussion relating to a variety of nonmedical use (NMU) behaviours of prescription opioids within the UK, including for hydrocodone, which is not medically available. Web monitoring provides useful data and merits future investigation; this could include expansion to other categories of drugs and a more in-depth analysis of motivations behind NMU, both of which could add timely evidence regarding the current situation in the UK and help inform public health interventions for NMU of prescription drugs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14603DOI Listing
April 2021

New psychoactive substances: a review and updates.

Ther Adv Psychopharmacol 2020 17;10:2045125320967197. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Consultant Psychiatrist, Oxleas NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

New psychoactive substances (NPS) are a heterogeneous group of substances. They are associated with a number of health and social harms on an individual and societal level. NPS toxicity and dependence syndromes are recognised in primary care, emergency departments, psychiatric inpatient and community care settings. One pragmatic classification system is to divide NPS into one of four groups: synthetic stimulants, synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic hallucinogens and synthetic depressants (which include synthetic opioids and benzodiazepines). We review these four classes of NPS, including their chemical structures, mechanism of action, modes of use, intended intoxicant effects, and their associated physical and mental health harms. The current challenges faced by laboratory testing for NPS are also explored, in the context of the diverse range of NPS currently available, rate of production and emergence of new substances, the different formulations, and methods of acquisition and distribution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2045125320967197DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7750892PMC
December 2020

Prescription medicine misuse in the Asia-Pacific region: An evolving issue?

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 04 22;87(4):1660-1667. Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's Health Partners, London, UK.

Prescription medicine misuse, especially misuse of opioids has become a major public healthcare issue in many developed countries such as the USA and Australia where this is associated with significant morbidity (Emergency Department visits due to acute toxicity) and mortality. In this review, we looked at the available data obtained from peer-reviewed articles and population surveys to gain an insight into the current situation in the Asia-Pacific region. There is currently limited information available, but data from subpopulation surveys in a number of countries suggests that prescription medicine misuse is likely to be an issue of concern from a public health perspective in the Asia-Pacific region. The available data suggest that misuse prevalence rates and the medicines that are commonly misused are similar to countries such as the USA and UK. Further studies are required to determine the overall prevalence of misuse, the harms associated with this and the sources of drugs being misused so that appropriate interventions can be implemented to tackle issues related to prescription medicine misuse in this region.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14638DOI Listing
April 2021

Regional, national and international datasets: How they improve our understanding of the acute harms associated with prescription medicine misuse.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 04 5;87(4):1654-1659. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's Health Partners, London, UK.

Prescription medicine misuse is a significant problem in many areas of the world. Understanding the acute and chronic harms related to misuse of prescription medicines allows healthcare professionals, drug addiction treatment services and legislative authorities to determine what interventions may be beneficial to reduce these harms and protect individuals and society. However, it is difficult to obtain systematic data on the harms associated with prescription medicine misuse because of how patient visits to clinics and hospitals are recorded and coded in regional or national databases. In this review, we discuss how regional, national and international sources of information can help develop a greater understanding of the prevalence and pattern of acute harms related to prescription medicine misuse using data from ambulance attendances, emergency department presentations and poisons information services.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14592DOI Listing
April 2021

Non-medical use of benzodiazepines and GABA analogues in Europe.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 04 15;87(4):1684-1694. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Aims: We investigated the prevalence of non-medical use (NMU) of benzodiazepines and GABA analogues in Europe.

Methods: Data were collected using the online Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs (NMURx) survey from France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the UK.

Results: The study included 55 223 eligible surveys which, after post-stratification weights were applied, represented approximately 260 million European adults. Lifetime NMU of benzodiazepines was highest in Spain (6.5%, 95% CI: 6.0-7.0) and lowest in Germany (1.7%, 1.5-2.0). Lifetime NMU of GABA analogues was highest in Germany (5.4%, 5.0-5.7) and lowest in France (2.2%, 1.9-2.5) and the UK (2.2%, 1.9-2.6) While no notable difference was observed for France or the UK, there was a higher prevalence of last 12-month NMU of benzodiazepines compared to GABA analogues in Italy (2.4 times higher) and Spain (3.0 times higher) and a higher prevalence of NMU of GABA analogues compared to benzodiazepines in Germany (2.6 times higher).

Conclusion: This study shows that there is variation in NMU of benzodiazepines and GABA analogues among countries. Of particular interest is the high incidence of GABA analogue NMU in Germany and benzodiazepine NMU in Spain. Further research to identify factors and motivations responsible for the higher prevalence observed are essential to inform public health policies in those countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14537DOI Listing
April 2021

MDMA-related presentations to the emergency departments of the European Drug Emergencies Network plus (Euro-DEN Plus) over the four-year period 2014-2017.

Clin Toxicol (Phila) 2021 Feb 17;59(2):131-137. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, Institute of Pharmacological Sciences of Southern Switzerland, Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale, Lugano, Switzerland.

Context: 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) remains one of the most commonly used recreational drugs in Europe. Monitoring of Emergency Department (ED) presentations with acute toxicity associated with MDMA is important to determine trends in MDMA use and harms.

Methods: Data were extracted from the European Drug Emergencies Network (Euro-DEN) Plus database for all ED presentations with acute toxicity involving MDMA use, alone or in combination with other substances, between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2017. Geographical distribution, time trends, patient demographics, clinical features, management and outcome were analysed.

Results: Out of 23,947 presentations, 2013 (8.4%) involved MDMA, used alone (88, 4.4%) or with other substances (1925, 95.6%). The proportion of MDMA presentations varied by country, from over 15% in France to less than 5% in Norway. For the 15 sentinel centres where data were available for all four years, MDMA-related presentations peaked in 2016 (10.4% 8.1% in 2015,  < 0.0001), thereafter decreasing in 2017 (8.2%,  = 0.0002). 1436 (71.3%) presentations involved males. Females were significantly younger than males (median 23 years, interquartile range, IQR, 20-27 years, median 25 years, IQR 21-30 years,  < 0.0001). Compared to presentations of acute toxicity with lone-use cocaine, presentations with lone-use MDMA occurred more frequently during the weekend (58.0% 43.9%,  = 0.02), were more frequently medically discharged directly from the ED (74.7% 62.4%,  = 0.03), and less frequently received sedation (43.5% 66.5%,  = 0.003).

Conclusions: This large multicentre series of MDMA presentations to EDs showed geographical variation and changes in time trends and in patient demographics. Triangulation with data from complementary sources including seizures, prevalence of use and wastewater analysis, will enable a greater understanding of the public health implications of MDMA use in Europe.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15563650.2020.1784914DOI Listing
February 2021

Acute toxicity related to misuse (nonmedical use) of tramadol: Experience of the European Drug Emergencies Network Plus.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 04 15;87(4):1668-1675. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's Health Partners, London, UK.

Following the development of the tramadol crisis currently affecting countries in the Middle East, and Africa, there has been increasing international interest in the regulation of tramadol. This study investigates the misuse of tramadol in patients presenting to emergency departments across Europe. Data from 32 emergency departments in 21 countries were extracted from the Euro-DEN Plus database for the 4-year period from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017. Of the reported 24,957 emergency department presentations, tramadol misuse was reported in 105 (0.4% presentations). Tramadol misuse was most common in Bratislava (Slovakia; n = 11, 7.5% of all presentations to this centre), Riga (Latvia; n = 4, 4.9%) and Munich (Germany; n = 17, 2.9%). On arrival, 14 (13.3%) of presentations were in coma/Glasgow coma score ≤ 8 and 9 of these had a respiratory rate <12 breaths/min. These presentations potentially pose a significant burden on emergency departments with a large proportion requiring admission to hospital for ongoing care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14408DOI Listing
April 2021

Nonmedical use of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs in the UK.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2021 04 21;87(4):1676-1683. Epub 2020 Jun 21.

Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Aims: To estimate prevalence of last 12-month nonmedical use (NMU) of benzodiazepines and Z-drugs (the nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics zaleplon, zolpidem and zopiclone) in the UK.

Methods: Data were collected using the Non-Medical Use of Prescription Drugs survey with poststratification weighting applied to be representative of the UK population (≥16 years). Participants were questioned about whether they had nonmedically used benzodiazepines and/or Z-drugs in the last 12-months and from where they had obtained the drug (including via a prescription, or illicitly from a friend/family member, a dealer or via the internet). Additional questions were asked about last 12-month use of illicit drugs (cannabis, cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine [MDMA], non-pharmaceutical amphetamine, crack cocaine and/or heroin).

Results: The study included 10 006 eligible participants representing approximately 52 927 000 UK adults. The estimated prevalence of past 12-month NMU of any benzodiazepine and/or Z-drug was 1.2% (95% confidence interval: 1.0-1.5) corresponding to approximately 635 000 adults; amongst this group only an estimated 4.6% (1.2-8.0) had NMU of both a benzodiazepine and a Z-drug. The highest prevalence of NMU for only Z-drugs was among those who had used heroin in the last 12-months (5.4%, 2.7-10.5), whilst the highest prevalence of NMU for only benzodiazepines was among those who had used illicit stimulants in the last 12-months: cocaine (5.9%, 3.8-8.9), amphetamine (5.6%, 3.1-10.0) and MDMA (5.2%, 3.1-8.8). The drug non-medically used was more commonly acquired without than with a prescription for both only benzodiazepines (70.2%, 59.4-81.1 compared to 51.3%, 41.5-64.6) and only Z-drugs (75.6%, 61.6-89.7 compared to 33.9%, 16.9-51.0).

Conclusion: There is little overlap between benzodiazepine and Z-drug NMU suggesting distinct nonmedical use of the drugs; future studies need to explore whether this relates to personal preference, drug availability or other factors. A significant proportion are acquiring these drugs for NMU without a prescription, so without guidance and monitoring from a medical practitioner. While the dangers of mixing benzodiazepines and heroin/other opioids are well documented, there is a paucity of data regarding concomitant NMU of benzodiazepines and stimulant drugs, or NMU of Z-drugs and opioids, and, given the prevalence of these combinations, this requires further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14397DOI Listing
April 2021

Medical Toxicology and COVID-19: Our Role in a Pandemic.

J Med Toxicol 2020 07 30;16(3):245-247. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Cook County Health, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13181-020-00778-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7192321PMC
July 2020

The challenge of the novel psychoactive substances: How have we responded and what are the implications of this response?

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020 03 6;86(3):407-409. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's Health Partners, London, UK.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080627PMC
March 2020

Establishing Reference Intervals for Gadolinium Concentrations in Blood, Plasma, and Urine in Individuals Not Previously Exposed to Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents.

Invest Radiol 2020 07;55(7):405-411

Viapath Analytics, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Objectives: Over the recent years, there have been increasing concerns that exposure to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) may be associated with retention of Gd within the skin, bones, and solid organs in patients with normal renal function, although the clinical implications of this deposition remain to be established. There are no published data available to guide the development of reference intervals for Gd concentrations in biological samples from healthy people. The aims of this study were to (1) determine whether healthy individuals who have not received GBCAs have detectable concentrations of Gd in their blood and urine, and (2) to develop a reference range for Gd concentrations in blood and spot urine samples for healthy individuals.

Materials And Methods: Whole blood, plasma, and spot urine samples were taken from 120 healthy volunteers with estimated glomerular filtration rate 70 mL/min per 1.73 m or greater. Gd concentrations were measured in these samples using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. The reference intervals for Gd concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and urine were estimated as the 2.5th percentile and the upper reference limit as the 97.5th percentile.

Results: Ten (8.33%) of the 120 subjects had detectable concentrations of Gd in their whole blood (n = 5) or spot urine (n = 5) samples; no subjects had detectable concentrations of Gd in their plasma samples. Our proposed reference intervals for Gd are as follows: whole blood, <0.008 ng/mL or <0.050 nmol/L; plasma, <0.009 ng/mL or <0.057 nmol/L; spot urine, <0.036 μg/g or <0.0250 nmol/mmol.

Conclusions: The results of this study provide reference intervals for whole blood, plasma, and urine Gd concentrations in healthy subjects who have not previously received GBCAs and will assist clinicians in assessing patients who have concerns regarding potential Gd retention postexposure and help guide further clinical studies to explore the pharmacokinetics of GBCAs in patients with normal renal function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RLI.0000000000000657DOI Listing
July 2020

Evaluation of long-term detection trends of new psychoactive substances in pooled urine from city street portable urinals (London, UK).

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2020 03 4;86(3):517-527. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Clinical Toxicology, Guy's and St Thomas' NHS Foundation Trust and King's Health Partners, London, UK.

Aims: To evaluate the long-term trends of new psychoactive substance (NPS) detection in pooled urine samples collected across a city centre.

Methods: Pooled urine samples from portable stand-alone urinals were collected on a monthly basis over 5.5 years (July 2013-December 2018) across a city centre. These were analysed using a high-performance liquid chromatography system, interfaced to a high-resolution accurate mass spectrometer. Data were processed against a database containing over 2000 drugs/metabolites including over 800 NPS.

Results: In total, 44 NPS were detected with variation over time including cathinones (15, 34.1%), synthetic cannabinoids (8, 18.2%) and 21 (47.7%) other NPS. Since the introduction of the UK Psychoactive Substances Act (May 2016) cathinone detection has decreased with minimal detection over the last 4 months of the study. Synthetic cannabinoids were not detected on a regular basis until July 2016 with a subsequent variable detection frequency. There was a consistent, low level detection frequency of all other NPS throughout the study, but which appears to have increased alongside the decrease in cathinone detection.

Conclusion: Pooled urine analysis of samples taken from portable urinals in a city centre can be used as an effective monitoring tool to determine long-term trends in the use of NPS. The results of this study demonstrate the impact of the Psychoactive Substances Act and reflect the findings of population surveys and clinical studies. Triangulation of these data with other data sources will enable greater insight into the NPS phenomenon.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7080623PMC
March 2020
-->